For the village in Poland, see Kozielsk.
Kozelsk (English)
Козельск (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -

Location of Kaluga Oblast in Russia
Location of Kozelsk in Kaluga Oblast
Coordinates: 54°02′N 35°48′E / 54.033°N 35.800°E / 54.033; 35.800Coordinates: 54°02′N 35°48′E / 54.033°N 35.800°E / 54.033; 35.800
Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Kaluga Oblast[1]
Administrative district Kozelsky District[1]
Administrative center of Kozelsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2013)
Municipal district Kozelsky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Kozelsk Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Kozelsky Municipal District,[2] Kozelsk Urban Settlement[2]
Population (2010 Census) 18,245 inhabitants[3]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[4]
First mentioned 1146
Postal code(s)[5] 249720, 249722, 249723, 249725, 249739
Dialing code(s) +7 48442
Kozelsk on Wikimedia Commons

Kozelsk (Russian: Козе́льск) is a town and the administrative center of Kozelsky District in Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Zhizdra River (Oka's tributary), 72 kilometers (45 mi) southwest of Kaluga, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 18,245(2010 Census);[3] 19,907(2002 Census);[6] 19,735(1989 Census).[7]


It was first mentioned in an 1146 chronicle as a part of Principality of Chernigov. Kozelsk became famous in the spring of 1238, when its seven-year-old prince Vasily, son of Titus, had to defend the town against the army of Batu Khan. The latter dubbed it an "evil town" because its citizens had been fighting the attackers for seven weeks in a row, killing around four thousand enemy soldiers during the siege. The citizens of Kozelsk were greatly outnumbered and almost all of them died in battle.

Kozelsk siege in 1239 by Batu Khan

In 1446, Kozelsk was temporarily under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1494, the town was finally annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1607, one of Ivan Bolotnikov's units was located in Kozelsk and showed resistance to the Tsar's army.

The much-venerated monastery, Optina Pustyn, is close by. In the 19th century, this hermitage gained wide renown for its "startsy". After the outbreak of World War II, a POW camp was established in the monastery for Polish officers taken captive by the Red Army during the Polish Defensive War of 1939. Between April and May 1940, the NKVD transferred approximately 5,000 of them to a forest near Katyn, where they were executed in what became known as the Katyn massacre. The remaining two hundred officers were sent to a camp in Pavlishchev Bor and then to Gryazovets. The town was occupied by the German army from October 8, 1941 until December 27, 1941 and was totally destroyed. It was rebuilt after the war.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kozelsk serves as the administrative center of Kozelsky District, to which it is directly subordinated.[1] As a municipal division, the town of Kozelsk is incorporated within Kozelsky Municipal District as Kozelsk Urban Settlement.[2]


After World War II, Kozelsky District became the home for the 28th Guards Rocket Division of the Strategic Missile Troops. Up to a third of the population of Kozelsk was connected in one way or another with the missile division.

See also



  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 29 216», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 29 216, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Law #7-OZ
  3. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  4. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  6. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  7. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.


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