Kirsten Gillibrand

"Gillibrand" redirects here. For the surname, see Gillibrand (surname).

Kirsten Gillibrand
A portrait shot of a smiling, middle-aged female looking straight ahead. She has chin-length blonde hair, and is wearing a dark blazer with a light top. She is placed in front of a nondescript background.
United States Senator
from New York
Assumed office
January 26, 2009
Serving with Chuck Schumer
Preceded by Hillary Clinton
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 20th district
In office
January 3, 2007  January 26, 2009
Preceded by John Sweeney
Succeeded by Scott Murphy
Personal details
Born Kirsten Elizabeth Rutnik
(1966-12-09) December 9, 1966
Albany, New York, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Jonathan Gillibrand (m. 2001–present)
Children Theodore
Alma mater Dartmouth College
University of California, Los Angeles
Religion Roman Catholicism
Website Senate website
Campaign website

Kirsten Elizabeth Gillibrand (nèe Rutnik) (/ˈkɪərstən ˈɪlbrænd/ KEER-stən JIL-ə-brand; born December 9, 1966) is an American politician and the junior United States Senator from New York, in office since 2009. Previously, she served in the United States House of Representatives, representing New York's 20th congressional district (2007–09). She is a member of the Democratic Party.

In December 2008, President-elect Barack Obama nominated Hillary Clinton as Secretary of State, leaving an empty seat in the New York senate delegation. After two months and many potential names considered, Governor David Paterson appointed Gillibrand to fill the seat. Gillibrand was required to run in a special election in 2010, which she won with 63% of the vote. She was re-elected to a full six-year term in 2012 with 72% of the vote, the highest margin for any statewide candidate in New York.

A member of the Democratic Party's relatively conservative Blue Dog faction while in the House, Gillibrand has been seen as a progressive since her appointment to the Senate. In both cases, her views were significantly defined by the respective constituency she served at the time[1]—a conservative congressional district versus the generally liberal state of New York. For example, while quiet on the U.S. military's "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy when she was in the House, during her first 18 months in the Senate, Gillibrand was an important part of the successful campaign to repeal it.[2]

Early life and education

Kirsten Gillibrand was born in Albany, New York, on December 9, 1966, the daughter of Polly Edwina (née Noonan) and Douglas Paul Rutnik. Both parents are attorneys, and her father has worked as a lobbyist.[3] The couple divorced in the late 1980s.[4] Gillibrand has an older brother, Douglas Rutnik, and a younger sister, Erin Rutnik Tschantret.[5][6] Her maternal grandmother is Dorothea "Polly" Noonan, a founder of the Albany Democratic Women's Club, as well as a leader in Albany Mayor Erastus Corning's powerful political machine, which lasted for more than 40 years.[3][5][Note 1] She has English, Austrian, Scottish, German, and Irish ancestry.[7]

During her childhood and college years, Gillibrand used the nickname "Tina." She began to use her birth name of Kirsten a few years after law school.[4][5] In 1984 she graduated from Emma Willard School, an all-women's high school in Troy, New York,[8] and then enrolled at Dartmouth College.[5] Gillibrand majored in Asian Studies, studying in both Beijing and Taiwan. While in Beijing, she studied and lived with Connie Britton.[9][10] Gillibrand graduated magna cum laude in 1988.[11] While at Dartmouth, she was a member of the Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority.[11] During college, Gillibrand interned at Republican U.S. Senator Alfonse D'Amato's Albany office.[12] Gillibrand went on to receive her J.D. from UCLA School of Law and pass the bar exam in 1991.[13]

Law career

In 1991, Gillibrand joined the Manhattan-based law firm of Davis Polk & Wardwell as an associate.[4] In 1992, she took a leave from Davis Polk to serve as a law clerk to Judge Roger Miner on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in Albany.[6][14]

Gillibrand's tenure at Davis Polk is best known for her work as a defense attorney for Tobacco company Philip Morris during major litigation, including both civil lawsuits and U.S. Justice Department criminal and civil racketeering probes.[15] She became a senior associate while working on Philip Morris litigation.[16] While this time in her career has proven controversial, Gillibrand indicates her work for Philip Morris allowed her to take on multiple pro bono cases defending abused women and their children, as well as other cases defending tenants seeking safe housing after lead paint and unsafe conditions were found in their homes.[6]

I was just a young lawyer thinking, What am I doing with my life? What am I doing with my career? As I watched her on that stage I thought, Why aren't I there? It was so poignant for me. And that's what made me figure out how to get involved in politics.
 Gillibrand describing Hillary Clinton's influence on her entering politics[6]

While working at Davis Polk, Gillibrand became involved in—and later the leader of—the Women's Leadership Forum, a program of the Democratic National Committee. Gillibrand states that a speech to the group by First Lady Hillary Clinton inspired her: "[Clinton] was trying to encourage us to become more active in politics and she said, 'If you leave all the decision-making to others, you might not like what they do, and you will have no one but yourself to blame.' It was such a challenge to the women in the room. And it really hit me: She's talking to me."[4]

Following her time at Davis Polk, Gillibrand served as Special Counsel to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Andrew Cuomo during the last year of the Clinton administration.[8] Gillibrand worked on HUD's Labor Initiative and its New Markets Initiative, as well as on TAP's Young Leaders of the American Democracy, and strengthening Davis–Bacon Act enforcement.[17]

In 1999, Gillibrand began working on Hillary Clinton's 2000 U.S. Senate campaign, focusing on campaigning to young women and encouraging them to join the effort. Many of those women later worked on Gillibrand's campaigns.[3] Gillibrand and Clinton became close during the election, with Clinton becoming something of a mentor to the young attorney.[6] Gillibrand donated more than $12,000 to Clinton's senate campaigns.[18]

In 2001, Gillibrand became a partner in the Manhattan office of Boies, Schiller & Flexner, where a client was the Philip Morris parent company Altria Group. In 2002 she informed Boies of interest in running for office and was allowed to transfer to the firm's Albany office. She left Boies in 2005 to begin her 2006 campaign for Congress.[6][15]

U.S. House of Representatives



Gillibrand considered running for office in 2004, in New York's 20th congressional district, against the three-term Republican incumbent John E. Sweeney. However, Hillary Clinton believed circumstances would be more favorable in 2006 and advised her to wait until then.[6] Traditionally conservative, the district and its electoral offices had been in Republican hands for all but four years since 1913, and as of November 2006, 197,473 voters in the district were registered Republicans while 82,737 were registered Democrats.[19] Sweeney said in 2006 that no Republican could ever lose [the district].[20] Using New York's electoral fusion election laws, Gillibrand ran on both the Democratic and Working Families lines; in addition to having the Republican nomination, Sweeney was endorsed by the Conservative and Independence parties.[21]

During the campaign, Gillibrand got support from other Democratic Party politicians. Mike McNulty, a Democratic Congressman from the neighboring 21st congressional district, campaigned for her, as did both Hillary and Bill Clinton; the former president appeared twice at campaign events.[22] Both parties poured millions of dollars into the respective campaigns.[23]

Many saw Gillibrand as moderate or conservative. The American Conservative stated after her eventual victory, "Gillibrand won her upstate New York district by running to the right: she campaigned against amnesty for illegal immigrants, promised to restore fiscal responsibility to Washington, and pledged to protect gun rights."[24]

Gillibrand's legal representation of Philip Morris was an issue during the campaign. Her campaign finance records showed that she received $23,200 in contributions from the company's employees during her 2006 campaign for Congress.[25]

The probable turning point in the election was the November 1 release of a December 2005 police report detailing a 9-1-1 call by Sweeney's wife, in which she claimed Sweeney was "knocking her around the house." The Sweeney campaign claimed the police report was false and promised to have the official report released by State Police, but did not do so.[22] The Sweeney campaign did release an ad in which Sweeney's wife described Gillibrand's campaign as "a disgrace."[26]

By November 5, a Siena poll showed Gillibrand ahead of Sweeney 46% to 43%.[27] She won with 53% of the vote.[21]


Following Gillibrand's win, Republicans quickly began speculating about possible 2008 candidates. Len Cutler, director of the Center for the Study of Government and Politics at Siena College, said that the seat would be difficult for Gillibrand to hold in 2008, noting Republicans substantially outnumbered Democrats in the district.[22]

Gillibrand won her bid for re-election in 2008 over former New York Secretary of State Sandy Treadwell, by a 62% to 38% margin.[28] Treadwell lost by that margin despite significantly outspending Gillibrand and promising never to vote to raise taxes, not to accept a federal salary, and to limit himself to three terms in office.[29] Campaign expenditures were the second highest in the nation for a House race.[30] Democrats generally saw major successes during the 2008 congressional election, credited in part to a coattail effect from Barack Obama's presidential campaign.[31]

Gillibrand's legal representation of Philip Morris was again an issue. Her campaign finance records showed that she received $18,200 from Philip Morris employees for her 2008 campaign, putting her among the top dozen Democrats in such contributions.[32] Questioned during the campaign about her work on behalf of Philip Morris, Gillibrand stated that she had voted in favor of all three anti-tobacco bills in that session of Congress. She said that she never hid her work for Philip Morris, and she added that as an associate at her law firm, she had had no control over which clients she worked for.[25] The New York Times, reporting on this issue, said that Davis Polk's official policy was that associates were allowed to withdraw from representing clients about whom they had moral qualms.[32]

House tenure

Upon taking office, Gillibrand joined the Blue Dog Coalition, a group of moderate to conservative Democrats. She was noted for voting against the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008,[24] citing concerns about insufficient oversight and excessive earmarks.[33] Gillibrand opposed New York plans to issue driver's licenses to illegal immigrants, and voted in favor of legislation withholding federal funds from immigrant sanctuary cities.[34][35]

After taking office, Gillibrand became the first member of Congress to publish her official schedule, listing everyone she met with on a given day. She also published earmark requests she received and her personal financial statement. This "Sunlight Report", as her office termed it, was praised by a New York Times editorial in December 2006 as being a "quiet touch of revolution" in a non-transparent system.[36][37] Regarding the earmarking process, Gillibrand stated she wanted what was best for her district and would require every project to pass a "greatest-need, greatest-good" test.[38]

Committee assignments

While in the House of Representatives, Gillibrand served on the following committees:[39]

U.S. Senate

Gillibrand is sworn in by Vice President Biden in January 2011.

On December 1, 2008, President-elect Barack Obama announced his choice of Hillary Clinton, the junior U.S. Senator from New York, as Secretary of State. This began a two-month search process to fill her vacant Senate seat.[40] Under New York law, the Governor appoints a replacement. A special election would then be held in November 2010 for the remainder of the full term, which ended in January 2013.[41]

Governor David Paterson's selection process began with a number of prominent names and high-ranking New York Democrats, including Andrew Cuomo and Caroline Kennedy, vying for the spot. Gillibrand quietly campaigned for the position, meeting secretly with Paterson on at least one occasion. She said that she made an effort to underscore her successful House elections in a largely conservative district, adding that she could be a good complement to Chuck Schumer.[5] Gillibrand was presumed a likely choice in the days before the official announcement.[42] On January 23, 2009, Paterson held a press conference to announce Gillibrand as his choice.[43]

The response within New York to the appointment was mixed. The upstate New York media was generally optimistic about appointment of an upstate Senator,[44] as one had not been elected since Charles Goodell left office in 1971.[45] Many downstaters were disappointed with the selection, with some media outlets stating that Paterson had ignored the electoral influence of New York City and downstate on state politics, influence due to the downstate population. One questioned whether Paterson's administration was aware of "[where] statewide elections are won and lost".[44] Gillibrand was relatively unknown statewide, with many voters finding the choice surprising.[8] One source stated, "With every Democrat in New York ... angling for the appointment, there was a sense of bafflement, belittlement, and bruised egos when Paterson tapped the junior legislator unknown outside of Albany."[5]

Gillibrand was sworn in on January 26, 2009; at 42, she entered the chamber as the youngest senator in the 111th Congress.[5]


External video
Gillibrand–DioGuardi Debate, WABC, October 17, 2010
Gillibrand–Long Debate, YNN, October 18, 2012


Gillibrand had numerous potential challengers in the September 14, 2010, Democratic primary election. Some were obvious at the time of her appointment. Most notably, Long Island Congresswoman Carolyn McCarthy was unhappy with Gillibrand's stance on gun control,[46][Note 2] but McCarthy ultimately decided not to run.[47] Harold Ford, Jr., a former Congressman from Tennessee, considered a run but ultimately decided against it in March 2009.[48] Congressman Steve Israel was also a potential contender but was talked out of it by President Obama.

Concerned about a possible schism in the party that could lead to a heated primary, split electorate, and weakened stance, high-ranking members of the party backed Gillibrand and requested major opponents not to run.[48] In the end, Gillibrand faced Gail Goode, a lawyer from New York City,[49] and won the primary with 76% of the vote.[50]

Despite what was initially expected to be a heated race, Gillibrand easily prevailed against former Republican congressman Joseph DioGuardi in her first statewide election.[51] By the end of October, a Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll showed Gillibrand winning 57-34%.[52] Gillibrand won the November election 63–35%, carrying 54 of New York's 62 counties; the counties that supported DioGuardi did so by a margin no greater than 10%.[51]


Gillibrand's special election victory in 2010 gave her the right to serve the rest of Clinton's second term, which ended in January 2013. Gillibrand ran for a full six-year term in November 2012. In the general election, Gillibrand faced challenger Wendy E. Long, an attorney running on both the Republican Party and Conservative Party lines.[53][54] Gillibrand was endorsed by The New York Times[55] and the Democrat and Chronicle.[56] She won the election with 72.2% of the vote,[57] the largest victory margin for a statewide candidate in New York history, better than Schumer's 71.2% victory in 2004. She carried all but two mostly rural counties in western New York.[58]

Senate tenure

On April 9, 2009, a combined Schumer–Gillibrand press release said that the two strongly supported a Latino being nominated to the Supreme Court at the time of the next vacancy. Their first choice was Sonia Sotomayor.[59] The two introduced her at Sotomayor's Senate confirmation hearing in July 2009.[60]

During the lame duck session of the 111th Congress, Gillibrand scored two substantial legislative victories: the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell and the passage of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act. Both were issues she had advocated for during that session. In the aftermath of these victories, many commentators opined that these victories marked her emergence on the national stage.[61][62][63]

In March 2011, Gillibrand co-sponsored the PROTECT IP Act, which would restrict access to web sites judged to be infringing copyrights,[64] but ultimately announced she would not support the bill as-is due to wide critical public response.[65]

In 2012, Gillibrand authored a portion of the STOCK Act, which extended limitations on insider trading by members of Congress. A version of the bill, merged by Senator Joe Lieberman with content from another bill authored by Senator Scott Brown,[66] was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Obama in April.[67]

In 2013, Gillibrand proposed legislation that would remove sexual assault cases from the military chain of command; the bill was cosponsored by Republican senators Rand Paul and Ted Cruz.[68] Gillibrand's bill failed to gain enough votes to break a filibuster in March 2014; however, her efforts likely improved her standing as a lawmaker in the Senate.[69]

In 2014, Gillibrand was included in the annual Time 100, Time magazine's list of the 100 most influential people.[70]

In 2015, Gillibrand invited campus activist Emma Sulkowicz to attend the State of the Union Address. Her invitation was intended to promote the Campus Accountability and Safety Act, a bill Gillibrand co-sponsored.[71] However, Families Advocating for Campus Equality and others have criticized this decision, and Gillibrand's public description of Sulkowicz's accused assailant as "her rapist," pointing out that both a university hearing and a police investigation had cleared the man of the allegations; critics of Gillibrand's decision have accused her of disregarding due process and maligning a man's reputation in order to gain support for a political objective.[72][73]

Gillibrand has been less deferential to Senate seniority protocols and more uncompromising in her positions – such as repeal of "don't ask, don't tell" and combating sexual assault in the military – than most freshman senators, traits which have sometimes caused friction with her Democratic colleagues. Republican Charles Grassley of Iowa has contrasted her approach with other New Yorkers of both parties, saying she is distinguished by "her determination and knowledge and willingness to sit down one on one with senators and explain what she is up to". Her fund-raising ability – almost $30 million from 2009 through 2013 – helped her become a mentor for female candidates nationwide during that period.[74]

Committee assignments

While in the Senate, Gillibrand served on the following committees:[75][76][77]

Caucus memberships

Political positions

Gillibrand's views on many issues can be defined as an evolution based on constituent needs; some have characterized this progression as flip-flopping. In the House, she was known as a conservative liberal[1] or centrist,[78] serving at the will of a highly conservative electorate.[1] She was a member of the Blue Dog Coalition, a caucus of fiscally conservative Democrats.[79] In the Senate, she is known more as a populist-leaning liberal, representing a heavily Democratic state. At the time of her appointment to the Senate, a editorial said that Gillibrand's reputation in the House was as "a hybrid politician who has remained conservative enough to keep her seat while appearing progressive enough to raise money downstate."[1]

On social issues, Gillibrand is generally liberal, supporting an abortion rights agenda,[80] legalization of same-sex marriage,[81] and health care reform with a public option.[82] She is a strong advocate for government transparency, being one of a few members of Congress who releases much personal and scheduling information.[83] She is also a strong supporter of female equality and involvement, having begun the website in 2011. Although a supporter of gun rights while in the House, Gillibrand has since moved in the direction of gun control.[84] On economic issues, Gillibrand has been more fiscally conservative.[79]

Gillibrand received an 8% rating from the American Conservative Union in 2007,[85] a 70% rating from Americans for Democratic Action in 2008,[86] and 90% from the American Civil Liberties Union.[87] rated Gillibrand as a "hard-core liberal" in 2009.[88]

Personal life

Gillibrand with her husband and sons on Halloween, 2009

Gillibrand met her husband Jonathan, a venture capitalist and British national, on a blind date. Jonathan planned to be in the United States for only a year while studying for his Master of Business Administration at Columbia University, but he stayed in the country because of his relationship with her. The two were married in a Catholic church in Manhattan in 2001.[4][5]

The Gillibrands had their first child, Theodore, in 2003,[6] and their second son, Henry, in 2008. She continued to work until the day of Henry's delivery, for which she received a standing ovation from her colleagues in the House the next day.[6]

Gillibrand lives in the town of Brunswick with her husband and their two sons. Because of the requirements of her office, the family spends most of its time in Washington.[6] In 2011, the Gillibrands sold their house in Hudson and purchased their home in Brunswick to be closer to Kirsten's family in Albany.[89]

Published works

In 2014, Gillibrand published her first book, Off the Sidelines: Raise Your Voice, Change the World.[90] The candid memoir was notable in the media upon release due to whisperings of a future presidential run[91] as well as revealing a culture of sexism in the Senate,[92] including specific comments made to her by other members of Congress about her weight and appearance.[93] Off the Sidelines debuted at number 8 on the New York Times Best Seller list for hardcover nonfiction.[94]

Electoral history

New York's 20th Congressional district election, 2006
Party Candidate Votes % +%
Democratic* Kirsten Gillibrand 125,168 53.10%
Republican* John Sweeney (inc.) 110,554 46.90%

*Gillibrand was also nominated on the Working Families line and Sweeney was also nominated on the Independence and Conservative lines.

New York's 20th Congressional district election, 2008
Party Candidate Votes % +%
Democratic* Kirsten Gillibrand (inc.) 193,651 62.13%
Republican* Sandy Treadwell 118,031 37.87%

*Gillibrand was also nominated on the Working Families line and Treadwell was also nominated on the Independence and Conservative lines.

U.S. Senate special Democratic primary election in New York, 2010
Party Candidate Votes % +%
Democratic Kirsten Gillibrand (inc.) 464,512 76.15%
Democratic Gail Goode 145,491 23.85%
U.S. Senate special election in New York, 2010
Party Candidate Votes % +%
Democratic* Kirsten Gillibrand (inc.) 2,837,589 62.95%
Republican* Joseph DioGuardi 1,582,603 35.11%
Green Cecile Lawrence 35,487 0.79%
Libertarian John Clifton 18,414 0.41%
Rent is Too Damn High Joseph Huff 17,018 0.38%
Anti-Prohibition Vivia Morgan 11,785 0.26%
Tax Revolt Bruce Blakeman 4,516 0.10%

*Gillibrand was also nominated on the Working Families and Independence lines and DioGuardi was also nominated on the Conservative line.

U.S. Senate election in New York, 2012
Party Candidate Votes % +%
Democratic* Kirsten Gillibrand (inc.) 4,822,330 72.22%
Republican* Wendy Long 1,758,702 26.34%
Green Colia Clark 42,591 0.64%
Libertarian Chris Edes 32,002 0.48%
Independent John Mangelli 22,041 0.33%

*Gillibrand was also nominated on the Working Families and Independence lines and Long was also nominated on the Conservative line.

See also


  1. For more information on the Corning-Noonan relationship, see: Grondahl, Paul. Mayor Erastus Corning: Albany Icon, Albany Enigma. Albany: State University of New York Press; 2007. ISBN 978-0-7914-7294-1.
  2. McCarthy has been a supporter of strict gun control since her husband was murdered in a 1993 commuter train shooting spree.[46]


  1. 1 2 3 4 Conason, Joe (January 23, 2009). "Kirsten Gillibrand. Really?". Salon Media Group. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
  2. "What 'Don't Ask Don't Tell' did for Kirsten Gillibrand", Capital New York, Steve Kornacki, December 20, 2010
  3. 1 2 3 Tumulty, Karen (January 23, 2009). "Kirsten Gillibrand". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Van Meter, Jonathan (November 2010). "In Hillary's Footsteps: Kirsten Gillibrand". Vogue. Condé Nast Publications. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Shapiro, Walter (July 8, 2009). "Who's Wearing the Pantsuit Now?: The story of Kirsten Gillibrand's polite meteor ride to the top". Elle. Hachette Filipacchi Médias. Archived from the original on 2011-03-07. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rodrick, Stephen (June 7, 2009). "The Reintroduction of Kirsten Gillibrand". New York. New York Media Holdings. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  7. "kirsten gillibrand". Retrieved 2016-11-10.
  8. 1 2 3 Powell, Michael; Raymond Hernandez (January 23, 2009). "Senate Choice: Folksy Centrist Born to Politics". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
  9. Ayers, Sydney (October 11, 2012). "'Nashville' star Connie Britton '89 sits down to discuss her new show". Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  10. Caitlin, McDevitt (October 8, 2013). "Connie Britton on roomie Kirsten Gillibrand". Politico. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
  11. 1 2 Perret, Anya (January 23, 2009). "Gillibrand '88 picked for N.Y. Senate seat". The Dartmouth. The Dartmouth, Inc. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
  12. No author given (February 9, 2009). "Gillibrand Says D'Amato Isn't in the Picture". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
  13. No author given (January 26, 2009). "UCLA law alumna appointed U.S. senator from New York". UCLA Today. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
  14. McShane, Larry; Kenneth Lovett; Elizabeth Benjamin (January 23, 2009). "Who is Kirsten Gillibrand? New York congresswoman to take Clinton's Senate seat". Daily News (New York). Mortimer Zuckerman. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  15. 1 2 Hernandez, Raymond; David Kocieniewski (March 26, 2009). "As New Lawyer, Senator Was Active in Tobacco's Defense". New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  16. Odato, James (October 16, 2008). "Gillibrand's tobacco past includes Philip Morris". Times Union. Albany: Hearst Newspapers. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  17. "Biography of Kirsten Gillibrand". Dartmouth College Office of Alumni Relations. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
  18. "Campaign Contributions: Kirsten Gillibrand". January 31, 2011. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  19. "NYSVoter Enrollment Statistics by District" (PDF). New York State Board of Elections. November 1, 2006. p. 5. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  20. Romano, Andrew (November 3, 2010). "Murphy's Law: One Democrat's defeat explains how the party lost the House". Newsweek. The Newsweek Daily Beast Company. Retrieved November 14, 2010.
  21. 1 2 "2006 Election Results". New York State Board of Elections. December 14, 2006. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
  22. 1 2 3 O'Brien, Tim (November 9, 2006). "Gillibrand Brings Clout to House". Times Union. Albany: Hearst Newspapers. p. B1. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  23. "Congressional Elections: New York's 20th Congressional District 2006 Election, Total Raised and Spent". Center for Responsive Politics ( August 20, 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  24. 1 2 Dougherty, Michael Brendan (April 6, 2009). "Rebranding Gillibrand". The American Conservative. Ron Unz. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  25. 1 2 Odato, James (October 16, 2008). "Gillibrand's tobacco past includes Philip Morris". Albany Times-Union. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved January 23, 2009.
  26. "John & Gayle Sweeney Stand Side-By-Side, Firing Back". WTEN. November 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  27. Benjamin, Elizabeth (November 5, 2006). "Siena: Gillibrand 46, Sweeney: 43". Times Union. Albany: Hearst Newspapers. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  28. "2008 Election Results". New York State Board of Elections. December 4, 2008. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
  29. Hornbeck, Leigh (November 5, 2008). "Gillibrand is Repeat Winner". Times Union. Albany: Hearst Newspapers. p. A13. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  30. Gillibrand, Treadwell spending millions, The Daily Gazette (Schenectady, NY) October 28, 2006. Quote: "The amount Kirsten Gillibrand and Sandy Treadwell are spending on their campaign for the 20th Congressional District seat so far this year is the second highest in the nation for a House race, according to both the Federal Election Commission and a campaign watchdog Web site."
  31. No author listed (November 5, 2008). "Democrats Ride Obama's Coat-tails to Victory in Congressional Elections". Daily Mail. London: Associated Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  32. 1 2 Raymond Hernandez and David Kocieniewski, "As New Lawyer, Senator Was Active in Tobacco’s Defense", New York Times, 26 March 2009
  33. Thompson, Maury (October 3, 2008). "Gillibrand votes no to bailout bill". The Post-Star. Glens Falls, NY. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
  34. Powell, Michael (February 1, 2009). "Gillibrand Hints at a Change of Mind on Immigration". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved February 20, 2011.
  35. Semple, Kirk (January 27, 2009). "Gillibrand's Immigration Views Draw Fire". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved February 20, 2011.
  36. No author listed (editorial) (December 14, 2006). "Congress and the Benefits of Sunshine". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  37. Hernandez, Raymond (May 15, 2007). "Barely in Office, but G.O.P. Rivals Are Circling". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  38. Hernandez, Raymond (March 21, 2007). "Earmarked for Success?". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  39. Joint Committee on Printing (August 9, 2007). "Standing Committees of the House" (PDF). Official Congressional Directory (110th Congress). United States Government Printing Office. Retrieved February 20, 2011.
  40. Hernandez, Javier C.; Danny Hakim; Nicholas Confessore (January 23, 2009). "Paterson Announces Choice of Gillibrand for Senate Seat". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
  41. Seiler, Casey; with wire reports (December 2, 2008). "From Foe to Secretary of State". Times Union. Albany: Hearst Newspapers. p. A1. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
  42. Hornbeck, Leigh (January 23, 2009). "Paterson Poised for Senate Pick". Times Union. Albany: Hearst Newspapers. p. A1. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
  43. Silverleib, Alan (January 23, 2009). "N.Y. Governor Names Clinton Successor". Cable New Network (CNN). Retrieved January 29, 2011.
  44. 1 2 Germano, Sara (January 28, 2009). "Upstate/Downstate Divide in Gillibrand Coverage". Columbia Journalism Review. Columbia University. Retrieved January 30, 2011.
  45. Editorial (no author attributed) (January 25, 2009). "Week in Review: Some of the Top Stories in the Capital Region". Times Union. Albany: Hearst Newspapers. p. B2. Retrieved January 30, 2011.
  46. 1 2 Hakim, Danny (January 22, 2009). "With Kennedy Out, N.R.A. Becomes Issue". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  47. Brune, Tom (June 4, 2009). "McCarthy Won't Seek Gillibrand's Senate Seat". News Day. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  48. 1 2 "Ford: Dems 'Bullied Me Out' of N.Y. Senate Race". Fox News. Associated Press. March 2, 2009. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
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Further reading

External links

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United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
John Sweeney
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 20th congressional district

Succeeded by
Scott Murphy
United States Senate
Preceded by
Hillary Clinton
United States Senator (Class 1) from New York
Served alongside: Chuck Schumer
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Michael Bennet
Baby of the Senate
Succeeded by
George LeMieux
New office Honorary Chairperson of the College Democrats of America
Party political offices
Preceded by
Hillary Clinton
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from New York
(Class 1)

2010, 2012
Most recent
United States order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Michael Bennet
United States Senators by seniority
Succeeded by
Al Franken
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