King of Hanover

King of Hanover

Coat of arms

George V
Style His Majesty
First monarch George III
Last monarch George V
Formation 12 October 1814
Abolition 20 September 1866
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Prince Ernest Augustus

The King of Hanover (German: König von Hannover) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover, beginning with the proclamation of the King of the United Kingdom George III, as "King of Hanover" during the Congress of Vienna, on 12 October 1814 at Vienna, and ending with the kingdom's annexation by Prussia on 20 September 1866.


In 1813, George III of the United Kingdom was restored to his Hanoverian territories, and in October 1814 they were constituted as the independent Kingdom of Hanover at the Congress of Vienna. The personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837 on the accession of Queen Victoria because the succession laws in Hanover, based on Salic law, prevented a female inheriting the title if there was any surviving male heir (in the United Kingdom, a male took precedence only over his own sisters).

List of Electors of Hanover

Electors of Hanover
Image Name Date Succession Notes
George I Louis 1708–1727 Son of Ernest Augustus. Became King of Great Britain in 1714. Acquired Bremen-Verden in 1719.
George II Augustus 1727–1760 Son of George I. Acquired the Land of Hadeln in 1731.
George III William Frederick 1760–1806 Grandson of George II. Became King of the United Kingdom (by way of the act of union with Ireland) in 1801. Acquired the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück in 1803. He lost (early 1801), regained (April 1801), lost again (May 1803), regained again (Autumn 1805), lost for a third time (early 1806), and regained for a third time (October 1813) de facto power in Hanover by various occupations and annexations during the Great French War (1801–1813). After the electoral title became defunct, with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, nonetheless between 1806 and 1814, the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was not recognised and George III retained the electoral title until early 1814 when George was proclaimed King of Hanover, a title which was universally recognised during the Congress of Vienna (1814–15).

List of Kings of Hanover

Monarch Consort Reign Royal House
# Portrait Name Portrait Name Reign start Reign end
1 King George III
König Georg III
Queen Charlotte
Königin Charlotte
12 October 1814
29 January 1820 Hanover
2 King George IV
König Georg IV
Queen Caroline
Königin Caroline
29 January 1820 26 June 1830 Hanover
3 King William
König Wilhelm
Queen Adelaide
Königin Adelaide
26 June 1830 20 June 1837 Hanover
4 King Ernest Augustus
König Ernst August
Queen Frederica
20 June 1837 18 November 1851 Hanover
5 King George V
König Georg V
Queen Marie
18 November 1851 20 September 1866 Hanover

List of Pretenders of Hanover

Standard & Coat of arms

After the personal union with Great Britain ended in 1837, the monarchs of Hanover kept the British royal arms and standard, only introducing a new Crown (after the British model).

See also


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