For other uses, see Khabarovsk (disambiguation).
Khabarovsk (English)
Хабаровск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -

A neighborhood in Khabarovsk

Location of Khabarovsk Krai in Russia
Location of Khabarovsk in Khabarovsk Krai
Coordinates: 48°29′N 135°05′E / 48.483°N 135.083°E / 48.483; 135.083Coordinates: 48°29′N 135°05′E / 48.483°N 135.083°E / 48.483; 135.083
Coat of arms
Anthem Anthem of Khabarovsk[2]
City Day Last Sunday of May[3]
Administrative status (as of August 2015)
Country Russia
Federal subject Khabarovsk Krai[4]
Administratively subordinated to city of krai significance of Khabarovsk[1]
Administrative center of Khabarovsk Krai,[4] city of krai significance of Khabarovsk,[5] Khabarovsky District[6]
Municipal status (as of April 2004)
Urban okrug Khabarovsk Urban Okrug[7]
Administrative center of Khabarovsk Urban Okrug,[7] Khabarovsky Municipal District[8]
Mayor[9] Alexander Sokolov[10]
Representative body City Duma[9]
Area 400 km2 (150 sq mi)[11]
Population (2010 Census) 577,441 inhabitants[12]
- Rank in 2010 26th
Population (January 2015 est.) 607,216 inhabitants[13]
Density 1,444/km2 (3,740/sq mi)[14]
Time zone VLAT (UTC+10:00)[15]
Founded May 31, 1858[3]
City status since 1880[16]
Previous names Khabarovka (until 1893)[16]
Postal code(s)[17] 680000–680003, 680006, 680007, 680009, 680011–680015, 680017, 680018, 680020–680023, 680025, 680026, 680028–680033, 680035, 680038, 680040–680043, 680045, 680047, 680051, 680052, 680054, 680055, 680700, 680880, 680890, 680899, 680921, 680950, 680960–680967, 680970, 680999, 901183, 901185
Dialing code(s) +7 4212
Official website
Khabarovsk on Wikimedia Commons
Khabarovsk population
2010 Census 577,441[12]
2002 Census 583,072[18]
1989 Census 600,623[19]
1979 Census 527,848[20]
Native villages near the site of the future Khabarovsk according to an English map of 1773. The village closest to today's Khabarovsk is labeled "Hitcha". Maack's "Cape Kyrma" site (thought by B.P. Polyakov to be the site of Stepanov's Kosogorsky Ostrog) is "Heremo"

Khabarovsk (Russian: Хаба́ровск; IPA: [xɐˈbarəfsk]; Chinese: 伯力, Bó Lì) is the largest city and the administrative center of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia,[4] located 30 kilometers (19 mi) from the Chinese border, at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers, about 800 kilometers (500 mi) north of Vladivostok. The city also became the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia in 2002. It is the second largest city in the Russian Far East, after Vladivostok. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 577,441.[12]


Earliest history of the region

The lands near the confluence of the Ussuri River and the Amur River, where today's Khabarovsk stands, have been populated for many centuries by Tungusic people, probably related to the Jurchens of the past and/or the Nanais of the present day. Chinese expeditions reached this area as early as the first half of the 15th century, when the fleets of the Ming eunuch Yishiha sailed several times from Jilin City all the way to Tyr on the lower Amur.

17th-century Russian explorers

In the mid-17th century, the Amur Valley became the scene of hostilities between the Russian Cossacks, trying to expand into the region and to collect tribute from the natives, and the rising Manchu Qing Dynasty, intent on securing the region for itself.

Khabarov's Achansk

Monument to Yerofey Khabarov in Khabarovsk

The Russian explorers and raiders of the 1650s set up a number of more or less fortified camps (ostrogs) on the Amur; most of them were in use for only a few months, and later destroyed. It is usually thought that the first such camp in the general area of today's Khabarovsk was the fortified winter camp named Achansk (Ачанск) or Achansky gorodok (Ачанский городок), built by the Cossacks of Yerofey Khabarov in September 1651 after they had sailed to the area from the upper Amur. The fort was named after the local tribe whom Khabarov's people called "Achans".[21][22] Already on October 8 the fort was unsuccessfully attacked by joint forces of Achans and Duchers (who had good reasons to hate the Cossacks, due to their rather heavy-handed tribute-extraction tactics[23]), while many Russians were away fishing.[22] In late November, Khabarov's people undertook a three-day campaign against the local chief Zhakshur (Жакшур) (whose name is also known in a more Russian version, Zaksor (Заксор)), collecting a large amount of tribute and announcing that the locals were now subjects of the Russian Czar. Similar campaign was waged later in winter against the Ducher chief Nechiga (Нечига), farther away from Achansk.[22]

On March 24 (or 26), 1652, Fort Achansk was attacked by Manchu cavalry, led by Ninguta's commander Haise, reinforced by Ducher auxiliaries, but the Cossacks stood their ground in a day-long battle and even managed to seize the attackers' supply train.[22] Once the ice on the Amur broke in the spring of 1652, Khabarov's people destroyed their fort and sailed away.[22]

The exact location of Khabarov's Achansk has long been a subject for the debate among Russian historians and geographers.[23][24] A number of locations, both upstream and downstream of today's Khabarovsk, have been proposed since Richard Maack, one of the first Russian scholars to visit the region, identified Achansk in 1859 with the ruins on Cape Kyrma, which is located on the southern (Chinese) shore of the Amur, upstream of Khabarovsk.[23] The most widely accepted point of view is probably that of B.P. Polevoy, who believed that Khabarov's Achansk was located in the Nanai village later known as Odzhal-Bolon (Russian: Оджал-Болонь), located on the left bank of the Amur, closer to Amursk than to Khabarovsk. One of his arguments was that both Khabarov's Achan (sometimes also spelled by the explorer as Otshchan, Отщан), and Wuzhala (乌扎拉) of the Chinese records of the 1652 engagement are based on the name of the Nanai clan "Odzhal" (Оджал), corresponding to the 20th-century name of the village as well. (The name of the clan was also written as "Uzala", as in the name of its best known member, Dersu Uzala).[23]

B.P. Polevoy's view appeared to gain wide support among the Russian geographer community; petitioned by the Amur Branch of the Russian Geographical Society, the Russian Government renamed the village of Odzhal to Achan in 1977, to celebrate its connection with Khabarov's raid.[23]

As to the Cape Kyrma ruins, thought by Maack to be the remains of Achansk, B.P. Polevoy identified them as the remains of another ostrog - namely, Kosogorsky Ostrog, where Onufriy Stepanov stayed a few years later.[24]

Qing Empire

After the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), the area became an uncontested part of the Qing Empire for the next century and a half. Modern historical maps of the Qing period published in China mark the site of future Khabarovsk as Bólì (Chinese: 伯力). All of the middle and lower Amur region was nominally part of the Jilin Province, run first out of Ninguta and later out of Jilin City.

French Jesuits who sailed along the Ussury and the Amur in 1709 prepared the first more or less precise map of the region. According to them, the indigenous Nanai people were living on the Ussury and on the Amur down to the mouth of the Dondon River (i.e., in the region including the site of the future Khabarovsk). These people were known to the Chinese as Yupi Dazi ("Fish skin Tartars").[25]

From Khabarovka to Khabarovsk

Khabarovsk - residence of the governor-general of Eastern Siberia 1895

In 1858, the area was ceded to Russia under the Treaty of Aigun. The Russians founded the military outpost of Khabarovka (Хаба́ровка), named after a Russian explorer Yerofey Khabarov. The post later became an important industrial center for the region. Town status was granted in 1880; in 1893, it was given its present name.[16]

In 1894, a department of Russian Geographical Society was formed in Khabarovsk and to found libraries, theaters, and museums in the city. Since then, Khabarovsk's cultural life has flourished. Much of the local indigenous history has been well preserved in the Regional Lore Museum and Natural History Museum and in places like near the Nanai settlement of Sikhachi-Alyan, where cliff drawings from more than 13,000 years ago can be found. The Khabarovsk Art Museum exhibits a rare collection of old Russian icons.

In 1916, Khabarovsk Bridge across the Amur was completed, allowing Trans-Siberian trains to cross the river without using ferries (or temporary rail tracks over the frozen river in winter).

The Soviet years

After the defeat of Japan in World War II, Khabarovsk was the site of the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials, in which twelve former members of the Japanese Kwantung Army and Unit 731 were put on trial for the manufacture and use of biological weapons during World War II.

Chinese Emperor Puyi, captured by Soviet troops in Manchuria, was relocated to Khabarovsk and lived there from 1945 up to 1950, when he was returned to China.[26]

On November 5, 1956, the first phase of the city tram was commissioned. The Khabarovsk television studio began broadcasting in 1960. On 1 September 1967, the Khabarovsk Institute of Physical Education, now the Far Eastern State Academy of Physical Culture, opened. On January 14, 1971 Khabarovsk was awarded the Order of October Revolution. 1975 saw the opening of the first stage of the urban trolley. In 1976 the city hosted an international ice hockey tournament with the ball for the prize of the newspaper "Sovietskaya Rossia". In 1981 the Bandy World Championship was played in the city.

Russian Federation

In 1996, Khabarovsk held its first mayoral elections. Paul D. Filippov, whose candidacy was supported by Governor Viktor Ishayev, was defeated. In 1998, reconstruction of the central square of Khabarovsk was completed. In May 2000, President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, decreed that new federal districts be formed, and Khabarovsk became the center of the Far Eastern Federal District.

In 2006, the Center for Cardiovascular Surgery, a high-tech medical center, was constructed according to a Russian national health project. In 2008, the train station was completely renovated, and the adjacent square was reconstructed to include fountains and an underground passage. In 2009, Khabarovsk hosted the EU-Russia summit. In 2010, the city hosted a meeting of the Great Circle of Ussuri Cossacks. On November 3, 2012, Khabarovsk was awarded the honorary title of "City of Military Glory".

Administrative and municipal status

Khabarovsk is the administrative center of the krai[4] and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Khabarovsky District,[6] even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of krai significance of Khabarovsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Khabarovsk is incorporated as Khabarovsk Urban Okrug.[7]


Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Погода и Климат (Weather and Climate)[27]

Khabarovsk experiences a monsoonal dry-winter humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb).

The average annual precipitation is 682 millimeters (26.9 in), mainly concentrated in the summer. In a few years, November to March hardly receive any precipitation. The driest year was 2001 with only 381 millimeters (15.0 in) of precipitation and the wettest was 1981 when 1,105 millimeters (43.5 in) of precipitation fell. The wettest month was August 1981 with a total precipitation of 434 millimeters (17.1 in). Snowfall is common, though light, with an average maximum snow height of 16 centimeters (6.3 in).

The city's extreme climate sees average highs and lows vary by around 50 °C (90 °F) per year. The average temperature in January is −19.8 °C (−3.6 °F) and the average for July is +21.3 °C (70.3 °F). Extremes have ranged from −40 °C (−40 °F) in January 2011 to +36.4 °C (97.5 °F) in June 2010. [27]

Climate data for Khabarovsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.6
Average high °C (°F) −15.7
Daily mean °C (°F) −19.8
Average low °C (°F) −23.5
Record low °C (°F) −40.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14
Average rainy days 0 0 1 10 16 15 15 17 15 11 2 0 102
Average snowy days 14 11 11 6 1 0 0 0 0.1 4 12 14 73
Average relative humidity (%) 75 72 68 63 65 74 79 83 78 67 69 73 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 147 181 231 213 242 262 248 217 212 189 159 145 2,446
Source #1:[27]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[28]


Khabarovsk monument to Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky (obverse) and Khabarovsk Bridge over the Amur River (reverse) are prominently featured on the 5000 ruble banknote

Primary industries include iron processing, steel milling, petroleum refining, flour milling, pharmaceutical industry, meat packing and manufacturing of various types of heavy and light machinery.

A high-speed international fiber-optic cable connects the city of Khabarovsk (Russia) and the city of Fuyuan (China).


Trolleybus near Lenina Square
Amur waterfront

The city is located along the Trans-Siberian Railway. Rail distance from Moscow is 8,523 kilometers (5,296 mi); it is a principal railway center.

Khabarovsk is served by the Khabarovsk Novy Airport with international flights to East Asia, Southeast Asia, European Russia, and Central Asia. It is also served by the Trans-Siberian Railway, the Trans-Siberian Highway (M58 and M60 Highways) and the Amur River and Ussuri River waterways.

Public transport includes: tram - 8 routes; trolleybus - 4 routes; bus and fixed-route taxi (marshrutka - approximately 100 routes).


There are the following institutions of higher education in Khabarovsk:[29][30]


Visitors to the picturesque city of Khabarovsk are likely to enjoy walking the broad Amursky Boulevard with its many vibrant shops and perhaps visit the local market. The city's five districts stretch for 45 kilometers (28 mi) along the Amur River.

Recently, there have been many renovations in the city's central part, rebuilding with historical perspective. A popular attraction for visitors is a walking tour from the Lenin Square to Utyos on Amur via Muravyov-Amursky Street, where visitors can find traditional Russian cuisine restaurants and shops with souvenirs. There are many night clubs and pubs in this area. In Wintertime ice sculptures are on display on the cities squares and parks. Artists come from as far as Harbin in China.

Unlike Vladivostok, the city has never been closed to foreigners, despite it being the headquarters of the Far East Military District, and retains its historically international flavour. Once the capital of the Soviet Far East (from 1926 to 1938), since the demise of the Soviet Union, it has experienced an increased Asian presence. It is estimated that over one million Chinese travel to and through Khabarovsk yearly, and foreign investment by Japanese and Korean corporations has grown in recent years. The city has a multi-story shopping mall and about a dozen hotels.


The headquarters of the Russian Eastern Military District is located at 15 Serysheva Street. There is also an air base located 3 km (1.9 mi) to the east of the city.


SKA Khabarovsk (which would later merge with Neftyanik to SKA-Neftyanik) in 1982, playing at home against Yenisey, national vice-champions that year

International events

Stamp depicting 1981 Bandy World Championship in Khabarovsk
A corner during the final of the 2015 Bandy World Championship

The city was a host to the 1981 Bandy World Championship. It also hosted the 2015 Bandy World Championship, which was visited by Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. 21 teams were expected, which would have been 4 more than the record-making 17 from the 2014 tournament. In the end, China was the only newcomer, while Canada and Ukraine withdrew, the latter for political reasons. Khabarovsk might organise the 2018 tournament as well.

Notable people

Twin towns and sister cities

Khabarovsk is twinned with:[31]


See also



  1. 1 2 3 4 Resolution #143-pr
  2. Decision #856
  3. 1 2 Charter of Khabarovsk, Article 2
  4. 1 2 3 4 Law #109
  5. Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 08 401», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 08 401, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  6. 1 2 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 08 255», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 08 255, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  7. 1 2 3 Law #177
  8. Law #264
  9. 1 2 Charter of Khabarovsk, Article 19
  10. Official website of Khabarovsk. Alexander Nikolayevich Sokolov, Mayor of Khabarovsk (Russian)
  11. Official website of Khabarovsk. Brief Reference (Russian)
  12. 1 2 3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  13. Khabarovsk Krai Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность населения Хабаровского края по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2015 года (Russian)
  14. The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  15. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  16. 1 2 3 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 503. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  17. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  18. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  19. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  20. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России. (All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia.)". Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года (All-Union Population Census of 1979) (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1979. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  21. Археологи обнаружили на Амуре таинственный городок. Возможно, это первое русское поселение в данном регионе (Mysterious fort found by archaeologists on the Amur. Possibly, this is the first Russian settlement in this region) (Russian)
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 Оксана Гайнутдинова (Oksana Gaynutdinova) Загадка Ачанского городка (The mystery of Fort Achansk)
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 B.P. Polevoy (Б.П. Полевой), Изветная челобитная С. В. Полякова 1653 г. и ее значение для археологов Приамурья (S.V. Polyakov's denouncing letter (1653), and its significance for the archaeologists of the Amur Valley), in: Русские первопроходцы на Дальнем Востоке в XVII-XIX вв. (Историко-археологические исследования) (First Russian explorers in the Far East in the 17th-19th centuries: Historical and archaeological research - B.P.Polevoy's preface to the document), vol. 2, Vladisvostok, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1995. (This article also contains references to Polevoy's earlier publications) (Russian)
  24. 1 2 Б.П. Полевой (B.P. Polevoy) О подлинном местоположении Косогорского острога 50-х гг. XVII века (About the true location of the Kosogorsky Ostrog of the 1650s) (Russian)
  25. Du Halde, Jean-Baptiste (1735). Description géographique, historique, chronologique, politique et physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise. Volume IV. Paris: P.G. Lemercier. p. 7. Numerous later editions are available as well, including one on Google Books
  27. 1 2 3 "" (in Russian). Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  28. "Habarovsk/Novy (Khabarovsk) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  29. The Institutions of Higher Education in Khabarovsk Krai
  30. The Universities in Khabarovsk
  31. Khabarovsk city administration
  32. "В Москве наградили призеров Всероссийского конкурса "Самый благоустроенный город России" — Российская газета — Сегодня в Москве на ВВЦ прошла церемония награждения призеров Всероссийского конкурса на звание "Самый благоустроенный город России" за 2006 год". Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  33. "Хабаровск вновь признан самым благоустроенным городом России — Нина Доронина — Российская газета — Хабаровск вновь признан самым благоустроенным городом России". 2012-06-21. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  34. "Хабаровск занял II место в рейтинге Forbes - Новости". Retrieved 2013-03-26.


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