Kalkoti language

Pronunciation [kʰælkoːʈ]
Native to Pakistan
Region Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Native speakers
6,000 (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 xka
Glottolog kalk1245[2]

Kalkoti is a Dardic language of the Shina group spoken in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.[1] It is surrounded by languages predominantly in the Kohistani group.It is only spoken in a few villages of Kalkot


The following tables outline the phonology of Kalkoti.[3]


Close ɪ~i(ː)ʊ~u(ː)
Open ə~æ(ː)~aːɑ(ː)~ɒ(ː)

Short vowels are slightly centralized; nasalization of vowels may be phonemic.[3]


Labial Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ (?) ŋ (?)
Plosive voiceless p t ʈ k q ʔ (?)
aspirated ʈʰ (?)
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Affricate voiceless ts
aspirated tʂʰ (?) tʃʰ
Fricative voiceless (f) s ʂ ʃ x
voiced z ɣ
Lateral l
Flap ɾ ɽ (?)
Approximant ʋ j

The phonemes /q, ʦ, x, z, ɣ, ɽ/ have likely been introduced by loanwords. The voiceless aspirate series is secure, and, unlike the neighboring Palula language, Kalkoti does not have a breathy voiced series. The phonemic status of /ʔ/ is unclear and is likely tied to tone in Kalkoti.


Kalkoti's system of tone likely was similar to Shina's two tone system; however, under pressure from its Kohistani neighbors it may now have a more complex tone inventory.[3]


  1. 1 2 Kalkoti at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Kalkoti". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. 1 2 3 Henrik, Liljegren (2013), "Notes on Kalkoti: A Shina Language with Strong Kohistani Influences", Linguistic Discovery Vol. 11, Issue 1, Dartmoth University: 134–144

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