Justiciar of Scotia
The Justiciar of Scotia (in Norman-Latin, Justiciarus Scotie) was the most senior legal office in the High Medieval Kingdom of Scotland. Scotia (meaning Scotland) in this context refers to Scotland to the north of the River Forth and River Clyde.
The institution has some Anglo-Norman origins, but in Scotland north of the Forth it represented some form of continuity with an older office, a senior version of a Judex, a native Scottish lawman often with province-wide responsibilities. Mormaer Causantín of Fife was styled judex magnus (i.e. "great Brehon") in Scotia, and it is probable that the Justiciarship of Scotia was just a further Latinisation/Normanisation of that position. By the middle of the thirteenth century, the responsibilities of the Justiciar became fully formalised. He supervised the activity and behaviour of royal sheriffs and sergeants, held courts and reported on these things to the king personally.
List of Justiciars of Scotia, to 1328
The following list, going up to 1328, consists of names who appears as Justiciar of Scotia in sources. The sources, especially in the twelfth century, are far from exhaustive, and so many names are doubtless missing. Note also that, in the earliest period, there could be more than one Justiciar in operation at the same point in time.
- Causantín, Mormaer of Fife, judex magnus in Scotia, 1128x30
- Donnchad II, Mormaer of Fife, 1154x1164-1203
- Matthew, Bishop of Aberdeen, 1172x1199
- Gille Brigte, Mormaer of Strathearn, 1172x1199
- William Comyn, Earl of Buchan, 1205–32
- Walter fitz Alan, High Steward, 1232–41
- Philip de Melville and Robert de Monte Alto, 1241–44
- Alan Durward, Royal Hostarius, 1244–51
- Philip de Meldrum or Ferdarg (Feradach) and Michael de Monte Alto, 1251–53
- Alan Durward, Royal Hostarius, 1255–57
- Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, 1258–89
- Andrew Moray (father of the famous Andrew Moray), 1289x93-96x
- John Comyn, Earl of Buchan, 1300-x1305
- English Tetrarchy, 2 North and 2 South of the Mounth, 1305-6:
- Reginald Cheyne and John de Vaux (north)
- Robert Keith and William Inge (south)
- Sir Robert Lauder of Quarrelwood, appointed 1328.
- Barow, G.W.S., "The Judex", in Barrow (ed.) The Kingdom of the Scots, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 57–67
- Barow, G.W.S. "The Justiciar", in Barrow (ed.) The Kingdom of the Scots, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 68–111
- Scotland in the High Middle Ages
- Legal institutions of Scotland in the High Middle Ages
- Justiciar of Lothian
- Justiciar of Galloway