USCG seagoing buoy tender
The USCG seagoing buoy tender is a type of United States Coast Guard cutter originally designed to service aids to navigation throughout the waters of the United States, and wherever American shipping interests require. The U.S. Coast Guard has maintained a fleet of seagoing buoy tenders dating back to its origins in the U.S. Light House Service (USLHS). These ships originally were designated with the hull classification symbol WAGL, but in 1965 the designation was changed to WLB, which is still used today.
Two classes of the WLB cutters have been produced. The older class, the 180 ft-class cutters, were 180 feet (55 m) long. Thirty-nine of these vessels were built from 1942–1944. All but one were constructed in the shipyards of Duluth, Minnesota. The 180 fleet, many of which served for more than 50 years, all went through different mid-life modifications that essentially resulted in three different classes of ship. All of the 180s are now retired and have been replaced with the new 225-foot (69 m) Juniper-class cutters. The last 180-foot cutter, USCGC Acacia, was decommissioned on 7 June 2006.
The Jonquil class of 189-foot (58 m) buoy tenders were U.S Army built mine planters acquired by the Coast Guard after World War II. Built around 1942, these vessels were designed for diesel engines but low pressure steam plants were installed instead.
The new Juniper buoy tenders are designed and operated as multi-mission platforms. While the 180s also performed other Coast Guard missions, they lacked the speed, communications, navigation and maneuverability of the new Junipers. Today, the Junipers conduct almost as much law enforcement as aid to navigation work; they are also outfitted to handle oil spill recovery, search and rescue, homeland security, and some ice breaking operations.
Ex U.S. Army mine planters
Six U.S. Army Mine Planters built 1917—1919 were transferred to the U.S. Light House Service during a reduction in Army in the early 1920s. These, after absorption into the U.S. Coast Guard, became that service's "Speedwell class":
- Acacia (WAGL-200), ex USAMP Gen. John P. Story (shelled & sunk 15 March 1942)
- Ilex, (WAGL-222), ex USAMP Brig. Gen. Edmund Kirby
- Lotus (WAGL-229), ex USAMP Col. Albert Todd
- Lupine (WAGL-230), ex USAMP Gen. Wallace F. Randolph
- Speedwell (WAGL-245), ex USAMP Col. John V. White
- Spruce (WAGL-246), ex USAMP Col. Garland N. Whistler
The ships were 172 feet (52.4 m) in length, 32 feet (9.8 m) beam with 11 feet 6 inches (3.5 m) draft displacing 1,130 tons. Early mine planters, at first termed "torpedo planters," had been modeled after USLHS vessels which had similar requirements for handling heavy loads alongside the vessels so that mine planters were easily converted to buoy work.
Ex U.S. Army Chimo-class 188' mine planters 1942 - 1943
Six U.S. Army built Chimo-class mine planters were transferred to the U.S. Navy. These vessels were further transferred to the U.S. Coast Guard and refitted as buoy tenders. All of these vessels were built 1942 to 1943 by Marietta Manufacturing Company, Point Pleasant, West Virginia.
- USAMP General Henry Knox (MP-1) (USS Picket (ACM-8) then USCGC Willow (WAGL / WLB-332))
- USAMP Colonel Henry J. Hunt (MP-2) (USS Bastion (ACM 6) then USCGC Jonquil (WAGL / WLB-330))
- USAMP Colonel George Armistead (MP-3) (USS Barbican (ACM-5) then USCGC Ivy (WLB-329/WAGL-329))
- USAMP 1st Lt. William G. Sylvester (MP-5) (USS Obstructor (ACM 7) then USCGC Heather (WABL / WLB-331))
- USAMP Colonel John Storey (MP-8) (USS Barricade (ACM 3) then USCGC Magnolia (WAGL / WLB-328))
- USAMP Maj. Gen. Arthur P.Murray (MP-9) (USS Trapper (ACM 9) then USS Yamacraw (ARC 5))USCGC Yamacraw (WARC-333)
180' - class ships
Class A (Cactus)
Class B (Mesquite)
Class C (Iris)
225' - Juniper-class ships
The Juniper class uses Dynamic Positioning which allows maintenance of the vessel's position within a 10 metres (33 ft) circle in winds of up to 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph) and waves of up to 8 feet (2.4 m).
- Juniper (WLB-201)
- Willow (WLB-202)
- Kukui (WLB-203)
- Elm (WLB-204)
- Walnut (WLB-205)
- Spar (WLB-206)
- Maple (WLB-207)
- Aspen (WLB-208)
- Sycamore (WLB-209)
- Cypress (WLB-210)
- Oak (WLB-211)
- Hickory (WLB-212)
- Fir (WLB-213)
- Hollyhock (WLB-214)
- Sequoia (WLB-215)
- Alder (WLB-216)
- Grover, David (1987). U.S. Army Ships and Watercraft of World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-766-6. LCCN 87015514.
- Jackson, Ramon (20 November 2013). "Army Ships -- The Ghost Fleet - Coast Artillery Corps - Army Mine Planter Service". Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "225-foot Seagoing Buoy Tender (WLB)". Aircraft, Boats, and Cutters: Cutters. United States Coast Guard.
- "US Coast Guard 180-Foot Buoy Tenders" (PDF). Historic American Engineering Record. National Park Service. 2003.
- USCG Historian's Office. "Spruce, 1923". United States Coast Guard. Retrieved January 14, 2015.