José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral

Macao Street sign of Estrada de Coelho Do Amaral.

José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral (Chinese: 阿穆恩) (b. 1808 - d. 14 December 1873, Portuguese Mozambique) was a Portuguese noble who served as a colonial administrator and soldier in the Portuguese Empire. He is best known for his roles as the two time Governor of Angola and the Governor of Macau and Governor of Mozambique.[1] Coelho do Amaral further served Portugal as the plenipotentiary minister to China.


José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral was born to a Portuguese noble family in 1808.

At an early age he joined the military. He became a military engineer, rapidly climbing the ranks to notably become the Colonel of the Corps of Engineers and then a General.

His first major posting came in 1854 when he was made the Governor of Angola, a post he held until 1860.

Three years later on 22 June 1863, he was nominated as Governor of Macau, a posting that lasted until 1866. He was instrumental in shaping the modern day city through his many works. One of his first major acts as governor was the demolition of the Convento de São Francisco, building in its place a barracks for the 1st Battalion of the Line, a project completed on 30 December 1866. He later expanded the project that would later become the Forte de São Francisco. After its destruction, the barracks was rebuilt in 1937. Near the convent there was a wooded area called Campo de S. Francisco. Coelho do Amaral turned this field into garden, closing it with a balustrade, which has long since disappeared. Ordered the construction of a road between the harbor and the Mong Ha Siege. He resumed construction of the fort at Mong Ha, built Macau's first garden promenade, and ordered the construction of the lighthouse Guide there in 1865, the first ever built in Asia. He was further instrumental in resolving health problems throughout the territory.[2][3]

He was again named governor in Portuguese Angola where he was in office from 1869 - 1870.[4][5][6]

His last governorship was as the Governor of Mozambique, a post he was in from August 1870 to his death in December 1873.

Death and Legacy

José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral died in Mozambique on 14 December 1873.[7] He was sepulchered at the Capela de Nossa Senhora do Baluarte. After his death he received various honors and awards from both the Portuguese monarchy and the Qing ruling dynasty.

In Macau, there are various streets named after Coelho do Amaral, including one of the main roads in Taipa, the Estrada Coelho do Amaral. The Taipa Museum of History contains a portrait of the governor.[8]

See also


  1. "José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral: 1863-66". Macau Antigo (in Portuguese). 31 July 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  2. "José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral: 1863-66". Macau Antigo (in Portuguese). 31 July 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  3. 中国社会科学院近代史研究所翻译室 (1981). 《近代来华外国人名辞典》 (in Chinese). 中国社会科学出版社.
  4. - Angola
  5. - Angolal
  6. African States and Rulers, John Stewart, McFarland
  7. "José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral" (in Portuguese). Geneall.
  8. "José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral: 1863-66". Macau Antigo (in Portuguese). 31 July 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.

Preceded by
Miguel Ximenez Rodrigues Sandoval de Castro e Vargas

Governor of Angola

Succeeded by
Carlos Augusto Franco
Preceded by
Isidoro Francisco Guimarães

Governor of Macau

Succeeded by
José Maria da Ponte e Horta
Preceded by
Francisco António Gonçalves Cardoso (Provisional)

Governor of Angola

Succeeded by
Joaquim José da Graça (Provisional)
José Maria da Ponte e Horta
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