Voet was the son of Paulus Voet, who was the son of famous theologian Gisbertus Voetius. He probably studied in Utrecht, after which he became a professor in Herborn. In 1673 he was made professor of law at the University of Utrecht. From 1680 to his death he was a professor at Leiden. He was a deacon in the Dutch Reformed Church and later worked for the Church as an accountant.
Voet's most famous work is his Commentarius ad Pandectas. While it shows signs of legal humanism, it may also be considered a Dutch form of Usus modernus Pandectarum. In the 19th century, it was translated into German. It is still an important source of South African law.