A person's job is their role in society. A job is an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment. Many people have multiple jobs, such as those of parent, homemaker, and employee. A person can begin a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business, or becoming a parent. The duration of a job may range from an hour (in the case of odd jobs) to a lifetime (in the case of some judges).
An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work (as in "a day's work"). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. The series of jobs a person holds in their life is their career.
Jobs for people
Most people spend up to forty, or more hours each week in paid employment. Some exceptions are children, those who are retired, and people with certain types of disability, but within these groups many will work part-time or occasionally, will work in one or more volunteer positions, or will work as a homemaker. From the age of 5 or so, many children's primary role in society—and therefore their 'job'—is to learn and study as a student.
Types of jobs
Jobs can be categorized as paid or unpaid. Examples of unpaid jobs include volunteer, homemaker, mentor, student, and sometimes intern.
Moonlighting is the practice of holding an additional job or jobs, often at night, in addition to one's main job, usually to earn extra income. A person who moonlights may have little time left for sleep or leisure activities.
The expression day job is often used for a job one works in to make ends meet while performing low-paying (or non-paying) work in their preferred vocation. Archetypal examples of this are the woman who works as a waitress (her day job) while she tries to become an actress, and the professional athlete who works as a laborer in the off season because he is currently only able to make the roster of a semi-professional team.
While many people do hold a full-time occupation, "day job" specifically refers to those who hold the position solely to pay living expenses so they can pursue, through low paying entry work, the job they really want (which may also be during the day). The phrase strongly implies that the day job would be quit, if only the real vocation paid a living wage.
The phrase "don't quit your day job" is a humorous response to a poor or mediocre performance not up to professional caliber. The phrase implies that the performer is not talented enough in that activity to be able to make a career out of it.
Getting a job
Getting a first job is an important rite of passage in many cultures. The youth may start by doing household work, odd jobs, or working for a family business. In many countries, school children get summer jobs during the longer summer vacation. Students enrolled in higher education can apply for internships or coops to further enhance the probability of securing an entry level job upon graduation.
Use of the word
Workers often talk of "getting a job", or "having a job". This conceptual metaphor of a "job" as a possession has led to its use in slogans such as "money for jobs, not bombs". Similar conceptions are that of "land" as a possession (real estate) or intellectual rights as a possession (intellectual property).
In economics, a vacancy or job opening refers to a job offered by a firm that wishes to hire a worker. Ideally, the right person is hired at the right time in the right place to work for the organization. The planning, or lead time, necessary to fill the job opening is worked out in advance to allow sufficient time for recruitment, offer, acceptance, notice period and start date.
Occupation and life expectancy
Manual work seems to shorten the lifespan. High rank (a higher position at the pecking order) has a positive effect. Professions that cause anxiety have a direct negative impact on health and lifespan. Some data are more complex to interpret due to the various reasons of long life expectancy; thus skilled professionals, employees with secure jobs and low anxiety occupants may live a long life for variant reasons. The more positive characteristics a job has, the more it attributes on a longer lifespan. Gender, country and actual (what statistics reveal, not what people believe) danger are also notable parameters.
- Office for National Statistics - FOI Request: List of all the occupations noted in the UK published by The Crown 2015 [Retrieved 2015-12-06]
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