First Jewish–Roman War

First Jewish–Roman War
Part of the Jewish–Roman wars

Judaea and Galilee in the first century
Date66–73 CE
LocationJudaea (Roman province)
Result Roman victory, destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple
Roman Empire

Judean rebels:

Supported by:

Radical factions:

Commanders and leaders

Gessius Florus (66 CE)
Cestius Gallus (66 CE)

Vespasian (67-69 CE)
Titus (67-73 CE)
Lucilius Bassus
Agrippa II  (WIA)
Ananus ben Ananus 
Eliezar ben Hanania 
Yosef ben Matityahu (POW)
Yosef ben Gurion
Simon Bar-Giora 

Yohanan of Gush Halav (POW)
Eleazar ben Simon 

Menahem ben Yehuda 

Eleazar ben Ya'ir 
Roman guard (3,000) in early stage
Syrian Legion (30,000) in Beth Horon;
5 Legions (60,000–80,000) at Jerusalem siege
10,000 under Ananus
15,000 under Bar-Giora
500 Adiabene warriors

6,000 under Yohanan of Gush Halav
2,400 under Eleazar ben Simon
20,000 Idumeans

Several hundred Sicarii

Casualties and losses
10,000 soldiers killed estimate 25,000–30,000 killed 10,000–20,000 killed
According to Josephus, 1.1 million non-combatants died in Jerusalem, mainly as a result of the violence and famine. Many of the casualties were actually foreigners who had wanted to experience the festivities around Passover but instead got trapped in the chaotic siege.[1]
He also tells us that 97,000 were enslaved.[1]
Matthew White, The Great Big Book of Horrible Things (Norton, 2012) p.52,[2] estimates the combined death toll for the First and Third Roman Jewish Wars as being approximately 350,000

First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called The Great Revolt (Hebrew: המרד הגדול ha-Mered Ha-Gadol), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews of Judea Province (Iudaea) against the Roman Empire. The second was the Kitos War in 115–117, which took place mainly in the diaspora, and the third was Bar Kokhba's revolt of 132–136 CE.

The Great Revolt began in the year 66 CE, originating in Roman and Jewish ethnic tensions. The crisis escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens.[3] The Roman governor, Gessius Florus, responded by plundering the Jewish Temple, claiming the money was for the Emperor, and the next day launching a raid on the city, arresting numerous senior Jewish figures. This prompted a wider, large-scale rebellion and the Roman military garrison of Judaea was quickly overrun by the rebels, while the pro-Roman king Agrippa II, together with Roman officials, fled Jerusalem. As it became clear the rebellion was getting out of control, Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought in the Syrian army, based on Legion XII Fulminata and reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order and quell the revolt. Despite initial advances and conquest of Jaffa, the Syrian Legion was ambushed and defeated by Jewish rebels at the Battle of Beth Horon with 6,000 Romans massacred and the Legion's aquila lost – a result that shocked the Roman leadership.

Later, in Jerusalem, an attempt by Menahem ben Yehuda, leader of the Sicarii, to take control of the city failed. He was executed and the remaining Sicarii were ejected from the city. Simon bar Giora, a charismatic, but radical peasant leader, was also expelled by the new Judean government and Ananus ben Ananus began reinforcing the city. Yosef ben Matityahu was appointed the rebel commander in Galilee and Elazar ben Hananiya as the commander in Edom.

The experienced and unassuming general Vespasian was given the task of crushing the rebellion in Judaea province. His son Titus was appointed as second-in-command. Given four legions and assisted by forces of King Agrippa II, Vespasian invaded Galilee in 67. Avoiding a direct attack on the reinforced city of Jerusalem, which was defended by the main rebel force, the Romans launched a persistent campaign to eradicate rebel strongholds and punish the population. Within several months Vespasian and Titus took over the major Jewish strongholds of Galilee and finally overran Jodapatha, which was under the command of Yosef ben Matitiyahu, after a 47-day siege. Driven from Galilee, Zealot rebels and thousands of refugees arrived in Judea, creating political turmoil in Jerusalem. Confrontation between the mainly Sadducee Jerusalemites and the mainly Zealot factions of the Northern Revolt under the command of John of Giscala and Eleazar ben Simon, erupted into bloody violence. With Idumeans entering the city and fighting by the side of the Zealots, the former high priest, Ananus ben Ananus, was killed and his faction suffered severe casualties. Simon Bar Giora, commanding 15,000 troops, was then invited into Jerusalem by the Sadducee leaders to stand against the Zealots, and quickly took control over much of the city. Bitter infighting between factions of Bar-Giora, John and Eleazar followed through the year 69.

After a lull in the military operations, owing to civil war and political turmoil in Rome, Vespasian was called to Rome and appointed as Emperor in 69. With Vespasian's departure, Titus moved to besiege the center of rebel resistance in Jerusalem in early 70. The first two walls of Jerusalem were breached within three weeks, but a stubborn rebel standoff prevented the Roman Army from breaking the third and thickest wall. Following a brutal seven-month siege, during which Zealot infighting resulted in burning of the entire food supplies of the city, the Romans finally succeeded in breaching the defenses of the weakened Jewish forces in the summer of 70. The Second Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed, one of the events commemorated on Tisha B'Av. Following the fall of Jerusalem, Titus left for Rome, leaving Legion X Fretensis to defeat the remaining Jewish strongholds, finalizing the Roman campaign in Masada in 73–74.


King Herod ruled Jerusalem from 37–4 BCE as a vassal king for the Roman Empire, having been appointed "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate. Herod the Great was known as a tyrant, mostly because of his campaign to kill anyone who could claim the throne. Herod had all relatives of the previous dynasty, the Hasmonean dynasty, executed. This included his wife, the daughter of a Hasmonean King, and all of her family members.[4] Herod also created a new line of nobility that would have loyalties to only him, known as the Herodians. He appointed new high priests from families that were not connected to the past dynasty. After Herod's death, several relatives made claims to the region, beginning with the Herodian Tetrarchy.

Another aspect of Herod's legacy was economic hardship. Labor workers, which had been employed at Herod's large-scale construction sites, became impoverished.[5] After Herod's death, the poor economy led to riots, and due to the lack of leadership in the region, the violence was not controlled. Herod's void of leadership made the region vulnerable to riots and can be considered an anticipatory cause of the Great Revolt.[5]

After King Herod died, and after the deposition of Herod Archelaus, the Romans instituted procurators (technically Prefects before 41) to rule the Judeans.[6] In the beginning, the Roman procurators respected the laws and customs of the Jewish people, allowing them to rest on the Sabbath, granting them exemption from pagan rituals, and even minting coins free of images despite the fact that elsewhere the coins bore images.[6] When confronted with a procurator who disrespected their laws, and customs, the Jews petitioned the governor of Syria to get the official removed,[6] Roman Judea being essentially a "satellite of Syria".[7] However, this changed with the institution of Gessius Florus as a procurator (64-66 CE).[6] Florus helped set the revolt in motion after stealing from the temple treasury, and murdering Jews who opposed the destruction.[6] Faced with Florus as a procurator, the Jews attempted to garner support from the governor of Syria at the time Cestius Gallius.[6] This plea for help however failed to garner any support. The consequent riot which erupted was the first in a series of revolts, and led to the formation of several revolutionary factions.[6] The revolt was further intensified when Florus attempted to stop the riots, which actually incited more revolutionary zeal.[6]

Following increasing Roman domination of the Eastern Mediterranean, the initially semi-independent Herodian dynasty was officially merged into the Roman Empire in the year 6 CE. The transition of the client kingdom into a Roman province brought a great deal of tension and a Jewish uprising by Judas of Galilee erupted as a response to the Census of Quirinius. This revolt was quickly put down by the Romans.

The years 7–26 were relatively calm, but after 37 the province again began to be a source of trouble for Emperor Caligula. The cause of tensions in the east of the Empire was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture, Roman Law and the rights of Jews in the empire. Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists.[8] In 38, Caligula sent Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus.[9] According to Philo, the visit was met with jeers from the Greek population, who saw Agrippa as the king of the Jews.[10] Flaccus tried to placate both the Greek population and Caligula by having statues of the emperor placed in Jewish synagogues.[11]

As a result, extensive religious riots broke out in the city.[12] Caligula responded by removing Flaccus from his position and executing him.[13] In 39, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories.[14]

Riots again erupted in Alexandria in 40 between Jews and Greeks.[15] Jews were accused of not honoring the emperor.[15] Disputes occurred also in the city of Jamnia.[16] Jews were angered by the erection of a clay altar and destroyed it.[16] In response, Caligula ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem,[17] The governor of Syria, Publius Petronius, fearing civil war if the order were carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year.[18] Agrippa finally convinced Caligula to reverse the order.[15]

In 46 an insurrection by the Jews broke out in Judea province. The Jacob and Simon uprising was instigated by two brothers Jacob and Simon and lasted between 46–48. The revolt, which concentrated in the Galilee, began as sporadic insurgency and in 48 was put down by Roman authorities and both brothers executed.


Outbreak of the rebellion

Main article: Jerusalem riots of 66
See also: Zealots (Judea)

According to Josephus, the violence which began at Caesarea in 66 was provoked by Greeks of a certain merchant house sacrificing birds in front of a local synagogue.[19] The Roman garrison did not intervene and the long-standing Hellenistic and Jewish religious tensions took a downward spiral. In reaction, one of the Jewish Temple clerks Eliezar ben Hanania ceased prayers and sacrifices for the Roman Emperor at the Temple. Protests over taxation joined the list of grievances and random attacks on Roman citizens and perceived 'traitors' occurred in Jerusalem. The Jewish Temple was then breached by Roman troops at the order of Roman governor Gessius Florus, having seventeen talents removed from the treasury of the Temple, claiming the money was for the Emperor. In response to this action, the city fell into unrest and some of the Jewish population began to openly mock Florus by passing a basket around to collect money as if Florus was poor.[20] Florus reacted to the unrest by sending soldiers into Jerusalem the next day to raid the city and arrest a number of the city leaders, who were later whipped and crucified, despite many of them being Roman citizens.[21] Shortly, outraged Judean nationalist factions took up arms and the Roman military garrison of Jerusalem was quickly overrun by rebels. Fearing the worst, the pro-Roman king Agrippa II and his sister Berenice fled Jerusalem to Galilee. Judean militias later moved upon Roman citizens of Judaea and pro-Roman officials, cleansing the country of any Roman symbols. According to fourth-century church fathers Eusebius and Epiphanius, the Jerusalem Jewish Christians were able to flee to Pella before the beginning of the war.[22] (see: Flight to Pella)

Gallus' campaign

In response to the unrest in Judaea, Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, assembled the Syrian legion XII Fulminata reinforced with units of III Gallica, IIII Scythica, and VI Ferrata, plus auxiliaries and allies (a total of approximately 30,000 soldiers) in order to restore order in the neighbouring province. The Syrian legion captured Narbata and also took Sipporis, which surrendered with no fight. The Judean rebels, who withdrew from Sipporis, took refuge at Atzmon hill, but were defeated following a short siege. Gallus later reached Acre in Western Galilee, and then marched on Caesarea and Jaffa, where he massacred some 8,400 people. Continuing his military campaign, Gallus took Lydda and Afeq and engaged Jerusalemite rebels in Geva, where he lost 500 Roman troops to Judean rebels under Simon bar Giora, reinforced by ally volunteers from Adiabene.

The Syrian legion then invested Jerusalem, but for uncertain reasons and despite initial gains, withdrew back towards the coast, where it was ambushed and defeated by Judean rebels at the Battle of Beth Horon – a result that shocked the Roman Empire leadership. The defeat of the Romans in Beth Horon is considered one of the worst military defeats of the Roman Empire by a rebel province throughout its history. Some 6,000 Roman troops were killed and many more wounded in the battle, with Legio XII Fulminata losing its aquila, as Gallus abandoned his troops in disarray fleeing to Syria.

Vespasian's campaign

Main articles: Siege of Yodfat and Siege of Gamla

Emperor Nero appointed general Vespasian, instead of Gallus to crush the rebellion. Vespasian, along with legions X Fretensis and V Macedonica, landed at Ptolemais in April 67. There he was joined by his son Titus, who arrived from Alexandria at the head of Legio XV Apollinaris, as well as by the armies of various local allies including that of king Agrippa II. Fielding more than 60,000 soldiers, Vespasian began operations by subjugating Galilee.[23] Many towns gave up without a fight, although others had to be taken by force. Of these, Josephus provides detailed accounts of the sieges of Yodfat and Gamla. By the year 68, Jewish resistance in the north had been crushed, and Vespasian made Caesarea Maritima his headquarters and methodically proceeded to cleanse the coastline of the country, avoiding direct confrontation with the rebels at Jerusalem. Based on questionable numbers from Josephus, it has been estimated that the Roman vanquishing of Galilee resulted in 100,000 Jews killed or sold into slavery.[24][25][26]

Regrouping and civil war

Main article: Zealot Temple Siege
A coin issued by the rebels in 68, note Paleo-Hebrew alphabet.[27] Obverse: "Shekel, Israel. Year 3." Reverse: "Jerusalem the Holy"

Jews, who were driven out of Galilee rebuilt Joppa (Jaffa), which had been destroyed earlier by Cestius Gallus. Surrounded and cut off by the Romans, they rebuilt the city walls, and used a light flotilla to demoralize commerce and interrupt the grain supply to Rome from Alexandria.[28]

In his The Jewish War Josephus wrote:

They also built themselves a great many piratical ships, and turned pirates upon the seas near to Syria, and Phoenicia, and Egypt, and made those seas unnavigable to all men.[29]

The leaders of the collapsed Northern revolt, John of Giscala and Eleazar ben Simon, managed to escape from Galilee to Jerusalem with a bulk of their forces. Packed with militants of many factions and largely cut off by Roman forces, Jerusalem quickly descended into anarchy, with the radicals taking control of large parts of the fortified city. Brutal civil war then erupted, with the Zealots and the fanatical Sicarii executing anyone advocating surrender, and by 68 the entire leadership of the southern revolt was assassinated in the infighting, some at the notorious Zealot Temple Siege.

New Emperor

Roman milestone mentioning the destruction of highways during the revolt

While the war in Judea was in progress, great events were occurring in Rome. In the middle of 68, the emperor Nero's increasingly erratic behavior finally lost him all support for his position. The Roman Senate, the Praetorian Guard and several prominent army commanders conspired for his removal. When the senate declared Nero an Enemy of the people, he fled Rome and committed suicide with the help of a secretary. The newly installed emperor, the former Governor of Spain Galba, was murdered after just a few months by Otho, a rival, triggering a civil war that came to be known as the Year of the Four Emperors. In 69, though previously uninvolved, the popular Vespasian was also hailed emperor by the legions under his command. He decided, upon gaining further widespread support, to leave his son Titus to finish the war in Judea, while he returned to Rome to claim the throne from the usurper Vitellius, who had already deposed Otho.

With the departure of Vespasian, who had opposed an open siege upon Jerusalem, fearing to lose many troops against the fortified city, Titus advanced Roman legions upon the capital of the rebellious province. Conquering town after town, Titus quickly advanced on the hill country, while the outcry of the brutal suppression created an immense wave of Judean refugees, seeking shelter in fortified Jerusalem. The Judean rebels avoided direct confrontation with the Roman troops, as multiple factions were mostly interested in their own control and survival, rather than Roman defeat. Weakened by the brutal civil war within the city, the victorious Zealot factions could still field a significant number of troops to oppose an immediate Roman conquest of the capital.

Fall of Jerusalem

The siege of Jerusalem, the fortified capital city of the province, quickly turned into a stalemate. Unable to breach the city's defenses, the Roman armies established a permanent camp just outside the city, digging a trench around the circumference of its walls and building a wall as high as the city walls themselves around Jerusalem. Anyone caught in the trench, attempting to flee the city would be captured, crucified, and placed in lines on top of the dirt wall facing into Jerusalem. The two Zealot leaders, John of Gischala and Simon Bar Giora, only ceased hostilities and joined forces to defend the city when the Romans began to construct ramparts for the siege. Those attempting to escape the city were crucified, with as many as five hundred crucifixions occurring in a day.[30]

During the infighting inside the city walls, a stockpiled supply of dry food was intentionally burned by the Zealots to induce the defenders to fight against the siege, instead of negotiating peace; as a result many city dwellers and soldiers died of starvation during the siege. Tacitus, a historian of the time, notes that those who were besieged in Jerusalem amounted to no fewer than six hundred thousand, that men and women alike and every age engaged in armed resistance, everyone who could pick up a weapon did, both sexes showed equal determination, preferring death to a life that involved expulsion from their country.[31] Josephus puts the number of the besieged at near 1 million.

The treasures of Jerusalem taken by the Romans (detail from the Arch of Titus).

Following a seven-month siege, Titus Flavius, Vespasian's son, eventually used the collapse of several of the city walls to breach Jerusalem. By the summer of 70, the Romans had breached the walls of Jerusalem, ransacking and burning nearly the entire city. The Romans began by attacking the weakest spot: the third wall. It was built shortly before the siege so it did not have as much time invested in its protection. They succeeded towards the end of May and shortly afterwards broke through the more important second wall. During the final stages of the Roman attack, Zealots under John of Giscala still held the Temple, while the Sicarii, led by Simon Bar Giora, held the upper city. The Second Temple (the renovated Herod's Temple), one of the last fortified bastions of the rebellion, was destroyed on Tisha B'Av (29 or 30 July 70).

All three walls of Jerusalem were eventually destroyed as well as the Temple and the citadels; the city was then put to the torch, with most survivors taken into slavery; some of those overturned stones and their place of impact can still be seen. John of Giscala surrendered at Agrippa II's fortress of Jotapata and was sentenced to life imprisonment. The famous Arch of Titus in Rome depicts Roman legionaries carrying the Temple of Jerusalem's treasuries, including the Menorah, during Titus' triumphal procession in Rome.[32] With the fall of Jerusalem, some insurrection still continued in isolated locations in Judea, lasting as long as 73.

Last strongholds

Main article: Siege of Masada
Remnants of one of several legionary camps at Masada in Israel, just outside the circumvallation wall at the bottom of the image.

During the spring of 71, Titus set sail for Rome. A new military governor was then appointed from Rome, Lucilius Bassus, whose assigned task was to undertake the "mopping-up" operations in Judea. He used X Fretensis to besiege and capture the few remaining fortresses that still resisted. Bassus took Herodium, and then crossed the Jordan to capture the fortress of Machaerus on the shore of the Dead Sea. Because of illness, Bassus did not live to complete his mission. Lucius Flavius Silva replaced him, and moved against the last Judean stronghold, Masada, in the autumn of 72. He used Legio X, auxiliary troops, and thousands of Jewish prisoners, for a total of 10,000 soldiers. After his orders for surrender were rejected, Silva established several base camps and circumvallated the fortress. According to Josephus, when the Romans finally broke through the walls of this citadel in 73, they discovered that 960 of the 967 defenders had committed suicide.


Outcome of the Great Revolt

An ancient Roman coin. The inscription reads IVDEA CAPTA. The coins inscribed Ivdaea Capta (Judea Captured) were issued throughout the Empire to demonstrate the futility of possible future rebellions. Judea was represented by a crying woman.
Roman denarius depicting Titus, circa 79. The reverse commemorates his triumph in the Judaean wars, representing a Jewish captive kneeling in front of a trophy of arms.

The defeat of the Jewish revolt altered the Jewish diaspora, as many of the Jewish rebels were scattered or sold into slavery. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, a sizeable portion of these were at Jewish hands and due to illnesses brought about by hunger. "A pestilential destruction upon them, and soon afterward such a famine, as destroyed them more suddenly."[1] On the order of 97,000 were captured and enslaved and many others fled to areas around the Mediterranean.[1]

The Jewish Encyclopedia article on the Hebrew Alphabet states: "Not until the revolts against Nero and against Hadrian did the Jews return to the use of the old Hebrew script on their coins, which they did from motives similar to those which had governed them two or three centuries previously; both times, it is true, only for a brief period."[33]

Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory,[34] saying, "There is no merit in vanquishing a people forsaken by their own God."

Before Vespasian's departure, the Pharisaic sage and Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai obtained his permission to establish a Judaic school at Yavne. Zakkai was smuggled away from Jerusalem in a coffin by his students. Later this school became a major center of Talmudic study (see Mishnah).

Further wars

Main articles: Kitos War and Bar Kokhba revolt

The Great Revolt of Judea marked the beginning of the Jewish–Roman wars, which radically changed the Eastern Mediterranean and had a crucial impact on the development of the Roman Empire and the Jews. Despite the defeat of the Great Revolt, tensions continued to build in the region. With the Parthian threat from the East, major Jewish communities throughout the Eastern Mediterranean revolted in 117 CE. The revolt (known as the Kitos War), while poorly-organized, was extremely violent and took two years for the Roman armies to subdue. Although only the final chapter of the Kitos War was fought in Judea, the revolt is considered part of the Jewish–Roman Wars. The immense number of casualties during the Kitos War depopulated Cyrenaica and Cyprus and also reduced Jewish and Greco-Roman populations in the region. The final conflict in the Jewish–Roman Wars erupted in 132 CE in Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba. Although Bar Kokhba was initially successful against Roman forces and established a short-lived state, eventual Roman effort defeated Bar Kokhba's rebels. The result was an almost complete genocide of the Jews, a ban on Judaism, and the unprecedented renaming of the province from Judea to Palaestina. Although Hadrian's death (in 137 CE) eased restrictions and persecution of the Jews, the survivors of his campaign were not many. Only a small Jewish community of several thousand survived in the Galilee, with smaller communities in other parts of the Mediterranean. It was then a turn of the spared Babylonian Jewish community to rise to prominence, although the rise of the Rabbinical Judaism in Galilee re-emerged as another rehabilitated Jewish center which would flourish until the 7th century.

Rise of the rabbis

The vocation of rabbi was founded by Rabban Gamaliel, a Pharisee, but the vocation's relationship to the Pharisees is debated. In any case, scholars agree that the rabbis replaced the High Priest's role in Jewish society after 70 CE.[35]

The destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE marked a turning point in Jewish history. In the absence of the Temple, the synagogue became the center of Jewish life.[35] When the Temple was destroyed, Judaism responded by fixating on the commandments of the Torah. Synagogues replaced the temple as a central meeting place, and the rabbis replaced high priests as Jewish community leaders. Because of the rabbis' dominance after 70 CE, the era is called the rabbinic period.[35] The rabbis filled the void of Jewish leadership in the aftermath of the Great Revolt, and they created a new kind of Judaism through their literature and teachings.[36]


The main account of the revolt comes from Josephus, the former Jewish commander of Galilee who, after capture by the Romans after the Siege of Yodfat, attempted to end the rebellion by negotiating with the Judeans on Titus's behalf. Josephus and Titus became close friends, and later Josephus was granted Roman citizenship and a pension. He never returned to his homeland after the fall of Jerusalem, living in Rome as a historian under the patronage of Vespasian and Titus.

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 PACE: The Jewish War, 6.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston), Perseus Project BJ6.9.3, .
  3. PACE: The Jewish War, 2.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston).PACE: The Jewish War, 2.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston).PACE: The Jewish War, 2.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston).PACE: The Jewish War, 2.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston)..
  4. Cohen, Shaye. "Roman Domination: The Jewish Revolt and the Destruction of the Second Temple" in Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple, ed. Hershel Shanks (Prentice Hall, Biblical Archeology Society), 269.
  5. 1 2 Cohen, Shaye. "Roman Domination: The Jewish Revolt and the Destruction of the Second Temple" in Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple, ed. Hershel Shanks (Prentice Hall, Biblical Archeology Society), 273.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cohen, Shaye. "Roman Domination: The Jewish Revolt and the Destruction of the Second Temple" in Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple, ed. Hershel Shanks (Prentice Hall, Biblical Archeology Society), 286.
  7. H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish Peoples, page 247–248: "Consequently, the province of Judea may be regarded as a satellite of Syria, though, in view of the measure of independence left to its governor in domestic affairs, it would be wrong to say that in the Julio-Claudian era Judea was legally part of the province of Syria."
  8. Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus III.8, IV.21.
  9. Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus V.26–28.
  10. Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus V.29.
  11. Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus VI.43.
  12. Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus VII.45.
  13. Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus XXI.185.
  14. PACE: Antiquities of the Jews, 18.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston), Perseus Project AJ18.7.2, ..
  15. 1 2 3 PACE: Antiquities of the Jews, 18.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston), Perseus Project AJ18.8.1, ..
  16. 1 2 Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXX.201.
  17. Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXX.203.
  18. Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXXI.213.
  19. PACE: The Jewish War, 2.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston), Perseus Project BJ2.14.5, .
  20. PACE: The Jewish War, 2.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston).
  21. PACE: The Jewish War, 2.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston).
  22. Eusebius, Church History 3, 5, 3; Epiphanius, Panarion 29,7,7-8; 30, 2, 7; On Weights and Measures 15. See: Craig Koester, "The Origin and Significance of the Flight to Pella Tradition", Catholic Biblical Quarterly 51 (1989), p. 90-106; P. H. R. van Houwelingen, "Fleeing forward: The departure of Christians from Jerusalem to Pella", Westminster Theological Journal 65 (2003); Jonathan Bourgel, "The Jewish Christians’ Move from Jerusalem as a pragmatic choice", in: Dan Jaffe (ed), Studies in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity, (Leyden: Brill, 2010), p. 107-138.
  23. Rocca S. 2008. The Forts of Judea 168 BCE – CE 73. Osprey, Wellingborough, pp. 37–39, 47–48.
  24. Broshi, Magen (1979-10-01). "The Population of Western Palestine in the Roman-Byzantine Period". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (236): 1–10. doi:10.2307/1356664. ISSN 0003-097X. JSTOR 1356664.
  25. Byatt, Anthony (1973-01-01). "Josephus and Population Numbers in First Century Palestine". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. 105 (1): 51–60. doi:10.1179/peq.1973.105.1.51. ISSN 0031-0328. Retrieved 2014-06-18.
  26. "Silver Shekel from the First Jewish Revolt, 66–70 CE". The Center for Online Judaic Studies. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  27. Malkin, Irad; Hohlfelder, Robert L. (1 September 1988). Mediterranean Cities: Historical Perspectives. Routledge. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-7146-3353-4. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  28. PACE: The Jewish War, 3.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston), Perseus Project BJ3.9.2, .
  29. Dimont, Max (June 2004) [1962 for first ed.]. "The Sealed Coffin". Jews, God, and History (2nd ed.). New York, New York 10014, USA: Signet Classic. p. 101. ISBN 0-451-62866-7. Retrieved 29 September 2009. To make sure that no food or water supply would reach the city from the outside, Titus completely sealed off Jerusalem from the rest of the world with a wall of earth as high as the stone wall around Jerusalem itself. Anyone not a Roman soldier caught anywhere in this vast dry moat was crucified on the top of the earthen wall in sight of the Jews of the city. It was not uncommon for as many as five hundred people a day to be so executed. The air was redolent with the stench of rotting flesh and rent by the cries and agony of the crucified. But the Jews held out for still another year, the fourth year of the war, to the discomfiture of Titus.
  30. Tacitus, Cornelius (1844) [1844]. "Book 5". The works of Cornelius Tacitus: with an essay on his life and genius, notes, supplements. Philadelphia, PA USA: Thomas Wardle. p. 504. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  31. Titus' Triumphal Arch
  32. Alphabet, the Hebrew. Coins, and Bibliography 6
  33. Philostratus, Vita Apollonii
  34. 1 2 3 Cohen, Shaye. "Roman Domination: The Jewish Revolt and the Destruction of the Second Temple" in Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple, ed. Hershel Shanks (Prentice Hall, Biblical Archeology Society), 297.
  35. Cohen, Shaye. "Roman Domination: The Jewish Revolt and the Destruction of the Second Temple" in Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple, ed. Hershel Shanks (Prentice Hall, Biblical Archeology Society), 298.
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