Jewish religious terrorism

Jewish religious terrorism is religious terrorism committed by extremists within Judaism motivated by religious rather than ethnic or nationalistic beliefs.[1][2]


Some researchers on ethnic terrorism distinguish between ethnic terrorism and religious terrorism, but admit that the distinction between these forms of terrorism is often blurred in practice. Daniel Bymen, in his study on "The Logic of ethnic terrorism", argues that Jews operate far more as an ethnic group than as a community motivated by and organized according to religious doctrine.[3] As good examples of Jewish terrorism based on ethnic, not religious grounds, or Zionist political violence, the author cites Jewish underground groups Irgun and Lehi, which operated against British law during the British Mandate of Palestine before the Israeli declaration of independence in 1948.


Zealotry in the 1st century

According to Mark Burgess, the 1st century Jewish political and religious movement called Zealotry was one of the first examples of the use of terrorism by Jews.[4] They sought to incite the people of Judaea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from Israel by force of arms. The term Zealot, in Hebrew kanai, means one who is zealous on behalf of God.[5][6] The most extremist groups of Zealots were called Sicarii.[4] Sicarii used violent stealth tactics against Romans. Under their cloaks they concealed sicae, or small daggers, from which they received their name. At popular assemblies, particularly during the pilgrimage to the Temple Mount, they stabbed their enemies (Romans or Roman sympathizers, Herodians), lamenting ostentatiously after the deed to blend into the crowd to escape detection. In one account, given in the Talmud, Sicarii destroyed the city's food supply so that the people would be forced to fight against the Roman siege instead of negotiating peace. Sicarii also raided Jewish habitations and killed fellow Jews whom they considered apostates and collaborators.

Since 1948

According to a study by the political scientist Noemi Gal-Or, after the creation of Israel, Jewish terrorism has been assessed in Israel as "far less significant" than Arab terrorism.[7] It lasted a few years during the 1950s and was directed at internal Israeli-Jewish targets, not at the Israeli Arab population.[7] There was then a long intermission until the 1980s, when the Jewish Underground was exposed.[7] However, some argue that in the modern era Jewish religious extremism has been greatly underestimated. The phenomena of price tag attacks began around 2008. These are hate crimes done by extremist settler Jewish Israelis usually involve the destruction of property or hateful graffiti, particularly targeting property associated with Arabs, Christians, secular Israelis, and Israeli soldiers. The name was derived from the words "Price tag" which may be scrawled on the site of the attack — with the allegation that the attack was a "price" for settlements the government forced them to give up and revenge for Palestinian attacks on settlers.[8] They have been variously called terrorism, particularly when they result in death. Another modern phenomenon is "revenge" attacks, motivated by a desire for "revenge" against Palestinian terrorism. A particularly egregious example of this phenomenon was the Kidnapping and murder of Mohammed Abu Khdeir, in which a Palestinian teenager was burned to death by an Israeli man and two teenagers. Their declared motive was vengeance for the kidnapping and murder of three Israeli teenagers. In July 2015, two attacks suspected to be by religious Israeli Jews occurred a day apart, the first a stabbing attack at a Jerusalem Gay Pride Parade and the second a price-tag arson attack against a Palestinian house in Duma. Shortly after the two terror attacks, one of which killed an Israeli girl and another a Palestinian infant, Israel came under criticism, including from within its government and from the Jewish community in the U.S., for not doing enough to address the threat of terrorism by Jewish extremists. Those saying Israel should be more proactive in addressing Jewish extremism included the ADL and AJC.

It has been suggested that a similarity between Jewish religious terrorists and jihad networks in Western democracies is their alienation and isolation from the values of the majority, mainstream culture, which they view as an existential threat to their own community. Other similarities between these groups are that their ideology is not exclusively religious, as it attempts to achieve political, territorial and nationalistic goals as well, e.g., the disruption of the Camp David accords. However, the newer of these Jewish groups have tended to emphasize religious motives for their actions at the expense of secular ones. In the case of Jewish terrorism, most networks consist of religious Zionists and ultra-Orthodox Jews living in isolated, homogenous communities.[9]

The following groups have been considered religious terrorist organizations in Israel:

Shin Bet has complained that the Israeli government is too lenient in dealing with religious extremism of Jewish extremists who want the creation of a Jewish land based on halacha, Jewish religious laws. Says Haaretz:"The Shin Bet complained that the courts are too lenient, particularly in enforcement against those who violate restraining orders distancing them from the West Bank or restricting their movement. The Shin Bet supports the position of Defense Minister Moshe Ya’alon, who has called for limited use of administrative detention against Jewish terrorists." [47] Israeli agencies keeping tabs on the religious terrorist groups say they are "anarchist" and "anti-Zionist," motivated to bring down the government of Israel and create a new Israeli "kingdom" that would operate according to halacha (Jewish law).[47] A week after the July 2015 attacks, administrative detention was approved for Jewish terror suspects.[8]


Several violent acts by Jews have been described as terrorism and attributed to religious motivations.The following are the most notable:[48]

See also


  1. "Explaining Part 1: The Axis of Good and Evil." Section "Terrorism Across Religions." by Mark Burgess.
  2. 1 2 3 Pedahzur, Ami; Perliger, Arie (2009). Jewish terrorism in Israel. Columbia University Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-231-15446-8. Our Jewish terrorism dataset consists of a list of terror incidents perpetrated by Jewish terrorists in Israel.
  3. "The Logic of Terrorism" by Daniel Bymen. 1997. pp. 151, 155 and 157.
  4. 1 2 Burgess, Mark. "A Brief History of Terrorism".
  5. Zealot, Online Etymology Dictionary
  6. Zelotes, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon", at Perseus
  7. 1 2 3 Gal-or, Noemi (Editor). Tolerating Terrorism in the West: An International Survey. Routledge, 2004. ISBN 978-0-415-02441-9. pp. 61–62
  8. 1 2 "Quick Links". CNN.
  9. , [Terrorism, Identity, and Legitimacy: The Four Waves Theory and Political Violence: Ed Jean Rosenfeld: Comparison of Jewish and other manifestations of religious terrorism: Ami Pedahzer and Arie Perliger: pp. 105–107]
  10. Pedahzur, Ami, and Arie Perliger (2009). “Jewish Terrorism in 33-37”, Columbia University Press, (2009)
  11. Pedahzur, Ami, and Arie Perliger (2009). “Jewish Terrorism in 31-33”, Columbia University Press, (2009)
  12. For The Land and The Lord: The Evolution of Gush Emunim, by Ian S. Lustick
  13. Ami Pedahzur, and Arie Perliger (2009). “Jewish Terrorism in Israel.Ch 3”, Columbia University Press, (2009)
  14. Radical Orthodox Group Terrorizes Secular Israelis. Pittsburgh Press Feb 25, 1989
  15. 1 2 3 Brother against brother: violence and extremism in Israeli politics Ehud Sprinzak, p. 277
  16. Critical essays on Israeli society, politics, and culture By Ian Lustick, Barry M. Rubin, Association for Israel Studies, p. 71
  17. , [Terrorism, Identity, and Legitimacy: The Four Waves Theory and Political Violence: Ed Jean Rosenfeld: Comparison of Jewish and other manifestations of religious terrorism: Ami Pedahzer and Arie Perliger: p. 106]
  18. , [ Supreme Court rejects appeal of the 'Bat Ayin Underground': Yuval Yoaz ]
  19. , [Jewish terrorist group (Bat Ayin) attempts to blow up girls school in the East Jerusalem neighborhood of A-Tur: Palestine: Information with Provenance]
  20. , [ Bat Ayin terror cell members get 12 to 15 years in prison: Sun, August 07, 2011: Jonathan Lis]
  21. , Israel’s Next War: CHAPTER TWO: A Plot That Shocked All of Israel: Members of a terror cell in the settlement of Bat Ayin are caught trying to bomb a girls' school in East Jerusalem at the busiest time in the morning
  22. , [Acts of Jewish terrorism since 1949: 11/03/2005: Matthew Gutman]
  23. , [Jewish Terrorism in Israel: Monday January 11, 2010: Palestine Center Book Review No 1 : 11 January 2010: "Jewish Terrorism in Israel" written by Ami Pedahzur and Arie Perliger Hardcover: 264 pages, Columbia University Press November 9, 2009:]
  25. "'Report: Ya'alon moves to name anti-assimilation group Lehava a terrorist organization' (4 Jan 2015) The Jerusalem Post"
  26. Livni: Ya'alon's attempt to label Lahava a terrorist group comes too late Jerusalem Post, 4 Jan 2015
  27. Why Israel may list this hard-line Jewish group as a terrorist organization The Washington Post, 5 Jan 2015
  28. Anti-Arab group poses legal, political dilemma for Israel Reuters, 28 Dec 2014
  30. Lidman, Melanie (20 September 2011). "Police arrest one of the leaders of Mea She'arim 'mafia'". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  31. Maayan, Lubell (22 April 2011). "Religious zealots attack "immodest" Jerusalem shops". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
  32. Tessler, Yitzchak (2011-12-14). נפש יהודי הומייה. Ma'ariv nrg (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2011-11-07.
  33. Amoni, P. An Interview with Rav Shlomo Pappenheim. Ami Magazine, September 2011
  34. "Cabinet Communique - March 13, 1994". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
  35. Canada Public Safety website Archived July 31, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  36. "COUNCIL COMMON POSITION 2009/67/CFSP". Official Journal of the European Union. European Union. 26 January 2009. p. L 23/41.
  37. "Country Reports on Terrorism 2004" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. April 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
  38. "Kach, Kahane Chai (Israel, extremists)". Council for Foreign Relations. 20 March 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
  39. "Terrorist Organization Profile: Kach". National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. University of Maryland. 23 June 2015.
  40. Bohn, Michael K. (2004). The Achille Lauro Hijacking: Lessons in the Politics and Prejudice of Terrorism. Brassey's Inc. p. 67. ISBN 1-57488-779-3.
  41. Federal Bureau of Investigation - Congressional Testimony Archived March 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  42. Anti-Defamation League on JDL
  43. JDL group profile from National Consortium for the Study of Terror and Responses to Terrorism Archived August 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  44. Brother against brother: violence and extremism in Israeli politics from Altalena to the Rabin assassination by Ehud Sprinzak
  45. The boundaries of liberty and tolerance: the struggle against Kahanism in Israel By Raphael Cohen-Almagor
  46. A revolt and a king: The ideology behind Jewish terrorism YNET News, Jan 3, 2016
  47. 1 2 Settler Terror Underground Seeks to Overthrow Israeli Government, Say Investigators Haaretz, 3 August 2015
  48. "Terror in Shfaram". Jerusalem Post. 7 August 2005. p. 13.
  49. "CLASSIFICATION TO THE HAGIOLOGION OF THE NEW HIEROMARTYR FILOUMENOS.". Jerusalem Patriarchate News Gate. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
  50. James, Randy (3 November 2009). "Accused Jewish Terrorist Jack Teitel". Time.,8599,1934103,00.html. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
  51. Weiss, Mark (2 November 2009). "Israeli police arrest West Bank settler over Palestinian killings". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
  52. Mitchell, Chris (6 November 2009). "Suspect Arrest Announced in Ami Ortiz Case". CBN News. Retrieved 2009-11-30.
  53. Levinson, Chaim (1 November 2009). "Who is suspected Jewish terrorist Yaakov Teitel?". Haaretz. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
  57. Washington Post, 5 August 2005
  58. Harvey W. Kushner. Encyclopedia of Terrorism, SAGE Publications, 2003, ISBN 978-0-7619-2408-1, p. 150.
  59. 1994: Jewish settler kills 30 at holy site BBC On This Day
  60. In the Spotlight: Kach and Kahane Chai Center for Defense Information October 1, 2002
  61. Stern, Jessica (2004). Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. HarperCollins. p. 91. ISBN 0-06-050533-8.
    • Mahan, Sue; Griset, Pamala, Terrorism in Perspective, SAGE, 2007, pp. 137, 138
    • Mickolus, Edward, The terrorist list: A-K, ABC-CLIO, 2009, p. 66
    • Hoffman, Bruce Inside Terrorism 1998, p. 88
  62. 1 2 3 4 Mark Juergensmeyer. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24011-1.
  63. Palestinian baby killed in arson attack 'by Israeli settlers' The Telegraph, 31 July 2015
  64. Why Jewish Terror Is Different This Time Forward, 1 August 2015


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