|Book||Book of Isaiah|
|Bible part||Old Testament|
|Order in the Bible part||23|
Isaiah 16 is the sixteenth chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies spoken by the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Book of the Prophets. This and the previous chapter form one prophecy on Moab.
Some most ancient manuscripts containing this chapter in Hebrew language:
- Masoretic Text (10th century)
- Dead Sea Scrolls: (2nd century BC)
- 1QIsaa: complete
- 1QIsab: extant: verses 2-9
- 4QIsao (4Q68): extant: verses 1
Ancient translations in Koine Greek:
This chapter can be grouped into:
- Isaiah 16:1-14 = Moab Destroyed
- But now the Lord has spoken, saying,
- "three years … hireling", that is as a hireling (="hired man") has his fixed term of engagement, which neither he nor his master will allow to be added to or to be taken from, so the limit within which Moab is to fall is unalterably fixed (Isaiah 21:16). Fulfilled about the time when the Assyrians led Israel into captivity. The ruins of Elealeh, Heshbon, Medeba, Dibon, etc., still exist to confirm the inspiration of Scripture. The accurate particularity of specification of the places three thousand years ago, confirmed by modern research, is a strong testimony to the truth of prophecy. Some think this prophecy bears date with the former, concerning the Philistines, which was the year King Ahaz died, Isaiah 14:28 and so had its accomplishment in the fourth year of Hezekiah, when Shalmaneser came up against Samaria, and took Moab in his way, (2 Kings 18:9 others, that it was given out in the fourth year of Hezekiah, when the Assyrian besieged Samaria, and after three years took it, and then returned and fell upon the Moabites. Others place it in the eleventh year of Hezekiah, and suppose it to be fulfilled in his fourteenth by Sennacherib, about the same time he came up and took the fenced cities of Judah, and besieged Jerusalem, 2 Kings 18:13 and with this agree the Jewish writers, whose words are these,
- "after those things, and the establishment thereof, Sennacherib king of Assyria came into Judah, 2 Chronicles 32:1 and at the same time sent Tartan to Ashdod, (Isaiah 20:1) who overran the Ammonites and Moabites, who helped him when he besieged Samaria three years, that it might be fulfilled what is said, (Isaiah 16:14) at the same time the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem.
- Kimchi observes, as an interpretation of the phrase, "as the years of an hireling",
- "it is as if it was said, because they helped the king of Assyria three years against Samaria, it was as if they had been hired; therefore they fell by his hand, and the glory of Moab was light in the hand of the king of Assyria.
- Still others make it to be three years after this time; but very likely it might be later still, about the eighteenth or nineteenth year of Hezekiah, as Gataker thinks, who, in his notes on this place, has collected all these senses, and made his observations on them; and so had its accomplishment in some expedition of Esarhaddon, who greatly weakened and impoverished the country of Moab, though he did not destroy it, and which was an earnest and pledge of the utter destruction of it before prophesied of. Noldius renders it, "after three years"; and so Grotius: it was in the first year of Hezekiah, as Noldius observes, that this was said; and in the fourth year of his reign, Shalmaneser came against Samaria, and in his way was the beginning of this destruction, and but a beginning of it, as he observes, yet a pledge of the consummation by Nebuchadnezzar, which was long after these three years of Isaiah.
Notes and references
- Halley, Henry H. Halley's Bible Handbook: an abbreviated Bible commentary. 23rd edition. Zondervan Publishing House. 1962.
- Holman Illustrated Bible Handbook. Holman Bible Publishers, Nashville, Tennessee. 2012.
- J. D. Davis. 1960. A Dictionary of The Bible. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House.
- Therodore Hiebert, et.al. 1996. The New Intrepreter's Bible: Volume: VII. Nashville: Abingdon.
- Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
- Dead sea scrolls - Isaiah
- Timothy A. J. Jull; Douglas J. Donahue; Magen Broshi; Emanuel Toy (1995). "Radiocarbon Dating of Scrolls and Linen Fragments from the Judean Desert". Radiocarbon. 37 (1): 14. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- Isaiah 16:14
- Barnes, Albert. Notes on the Old Testament. London, Blackie & Son, 1884. Reprint, Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998.
- Prideaux's Connect. par. 1. B. 1. p. 18. Also: Vitringa.
- Seder Olam Rabba, c. 23. p. 64.
- Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible