International Women's Day
|International Women's Day|
German poster for International Women's Day, March 8, 1914[lower-alpha 1]
|Next time||March 8, 2017|
International Women's Day (IWD), originally called International Working Women's Day, is celebrated on March 8 every year. In different regions the focus of the celebrations ranges from general celebration of respect, appreciation and love towards women for their economic, political and social achievements. The most effective Woman's day was the 1975 Icelandic women's strike which paved the way for the first female president in the world and the best example for women's equality the world has seen.
In some regions, the day lost its political flavor and became simply an occasion for people to express their love for women in a way somewhat similar to a mixture of Mother's Day and Valentine's Day. In other regions however, the political and human rights theme designated by the United Nations runs strong political and social awareness of the struggles of women worldwide are brought out and examined in a hopeful manner. Some people celebrate the day by wearing purple ribbons.
The earliest celebration was held as a Socialist political event in 1909. It blended the culture of many countries primarily in Europe, especially those in the Soviet Bloc. Declared a national holiday in the Soviet Union in 1917, it spread to other nearby countries. It is now celebrated in many Eastern countries.
The earliest Women's Day observance was held on February 28, 1909, in New York. It was organized by the Socialist Party of America in remembrance of the 1908 strike of the International Ladies Garment Worker's Union. There was no specific strike happening on March 8, despite later claims.
In August 1910, an International Women's Conference was organized to precede the general meeting of the Socialist Second International in Copenhagen, Denmark. Inspired in part by the American socialists, German Socialist Luise Zietz proposed the establishment of an annual International Woman's Day (singular) and was seconded by fellow socialist and later communist leader Clara Zetkin, although no date was specified at that conference. Delegates (100 women from 17 countries) agreed with the idea as a strategy to promote equal rights including suffrage for women. The following year on March 19, 1911 IWD was marked for the first time, by over a million people in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland. In the Austro-Hungarian Empire alone, there were 300 demonstrations. In Vienna, women paraded on the Ringstrasse and carried banners honouring the martyrs of the Paris Commune. Women demanded that they be given the right to vote and to hold public office. They also protested against employment sex discrimination. Americans continued to celebrate National Women's Day on the last Sunday in February.
In 1913 Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Saturday in February (by Julian calendar then used in Russia).
Although there were some women-led strikes, marches, and other protests in the years leading up to 1914, none of them happened on March 8. In 1914 International Women's Day was held on March 8, possibly because that day was a Sunday, and now it is always held on March 8 in all countries. The 1914 observance of the Day in Germany was dedicated to women's right to vote, which German women did not win until 1918.
In London there was a march from Bow to Trafalgar Square in support of women's suffrage on March 8, 1914. Sylvia Pankhurst was arrested in front of Charing Cross station on her way to speak in Trafalgar Square.
In 1917 demonstrations marking International Women's Day in Saint Petersburg on the last Thursday in February (which fell on March 8 on the Gregorian calendar) initiated the February Revolution. Women in Saint Petersburg went on strike that day for "Bread and Peace" – demanding the end of World War I, an end to Russian food shortages, and the end of czarism. Leon Trotsky wrote, "23 February (8th March) was International Woman's Day and meetings and actions were foreseen. But we did not imagine that this 'Women's Day' would inaugurate the revolution. Revolutionary actions were foreseen but without date. But in morning, despite the orders to the contrary, textile workers left their work in several factories and sent delegates to ask for support of the strike… which led to mass strike... all went out into the streets."
Following the October Revolution, the Bolshevik Alexandra Kollontai and Vladimir Lenin made it an official holiday in the Soviet Union, and it was established, but was a working day until 1965. On May 8, 1965 by the decree of the USSR Presidium of the Supreme Soviet International Women's Day was declared a non-working day in the USSR "in commemoration of the outstanding merits of Soviet women in communistic construction, in the defense of their Fatherland during the Great Patriotic War, in their heroism and selflessness at the front and in the rear, and also marking the great contribution of women to strengthening friendship between peoples, and the struggle for peace. But still, women's day must be celebrated as are other holidays."
From its official adoption in Russia following the Soviet Revolution in 1917 the holiday was predominantly celebrated in communist and socialist countries. It was celebrated by the communists in China from 1922, and by Spanish communists from 1936. After the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949 the state council proclaimed on December 23 that March 8 would be made an official holiday with women in China given a half-day off.
In the West, International Women's Day was first observed as a popular event after 1977 when the United Nations General Assembly invited member states to proclaim March 8 as the UN Day for women's rights and world peace. But women of Eastern European origins in North America were celebrating International Women's Day decades earlier than that. During World War II, some Western countries marked the date with an emphasis on women's contributions to the war effort and to the defeat of Fascism. Eleanor Roosevelt praised such celebrations of women's worldwide unity in her "My Day" column in 1944.
Official UN themes
|1996||Celebrating the Past, Planning for the Future|
|1997||Women and the Peace Table|
|1998||Women and Human Rights|
|1999||World Free of Violence Against Women|
|2000||Women Uniting for Peace|
|2001||Women and Peace: Women Managing Conflicts|
|2002||Afghan Women Today: Realities and Opportunities|
|2003||Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals|
|2004||Women and HIV/AIDS|
|2005||Gender Equality Beyond 2005; Building a More Secure Future|
|2006||Women in Decision-making|
|2007||Ending Impunity for Violence Against Women and Girls|
|2008||Investing in Women and Girls|
|2009||Women and Men United to End Violence Against Women and Girls|
|2010||Equal Rights, Equal Opportunities: Progress for All|
|2011||Equal Access to Education, Training, and Science and Technology: Pathway to Decent Work for Women|
|2012||Empower Rural Women, End Poverty and Hunger|
|2013||A Promise is a Promise: Time for Action to End Violence Against Women|
|2014||Equality for Women is Progress for All|
|2015||Empowering Women, Empowering Humanity: Picture it!|
|2016||Planet 50-50 by 2030: Step It Up for Gender Equality|
On the occasion of 2010 International Women's Day the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) drew attention to the hardships displaced women endure. The displacement of populations is one of the gravest consequences of today's armed conflicts. It affects women in a host of ways.
Events took place in more than 100 countries on March 8, 2011 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of International Women's Day. In the United States, President Barack Obama proclaimed March 2011 to be "Women's History Month", calling Americans to mark IWD by reflecting on "the extraordinary accomplishments of women" in shaping the country's history. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton launched the "100 Women Initiative: Empowering Women and Girls through International Exchanges", on the eve of IWD. In the run-up to 2011 International Women's Day, the Red Cross called on States and other entities not to relent in their efforts to prevent rape and other forms of sexual violence that harm the lives and dignity of countless women in conflict zones around the world every year. In Pakistan, the Punjab Government Project Gender Reform Action Plan (GRAP), Gujranwala District celebrated this day at the GIFT University Gujranwala. Shazia Ashfaq Mattu, MPA and GRAP officer Yasir Nawaz Manj organized the events.
Australia issued an IWD 100th anniversary commemorative 20-cent coin.
In Egypt, however, the day was a step back for women. In Egypt's Tahrir Square, hundreds of men came out not in support, but to harass the women who came out to stand up for their rights as the police and military stood by watching the events unfold in front of them. "The women – some in headscarves and flowing robes, others in jeans – had marched to Cairo's central Tahrir Square to celebrate International Women's Day. But crowds of men soon outnumbered them and chased them out", wrote Hadeel Al-Shalchi for The Associated Press (AP).
The UN theme for International Women's Day 2012 was Empower Rural Women – End Hunger and Poverty. In that year, Oxfam America invited people to celebrate inspiring women in their lives by sending a free International Women's Day e-Card or honoring a woman whose efforts had made a difference in the fight against hunger and poverty with Oxfam's International Women's Day award.
On the occasion of International Women's Day 2012, the ICRC called for more action to help the mothers and wives of people who have gone missing during armed conflict. The vast majority of people who go missing in connection with conflict are men. As well as the anguish of not knowing what has happened to the missing husband or son, many of these women face economic and practical difficulties. The ICRC underlined the duty of parties to a conflict to search for the missing and provide information to the families.
The Google Doodle for March 8, 2012 had an International Women's Day theme.
The UN theme for International Women's Day 2013 was "A promise is a promise: Time for action to end violence against women", while International Women's Day 2013 declared the year's theme as The Gender Agenda: Gaining Momentum.
The 2013 International Women's Day, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) draw attention to the plight of women in prison.
The UN theme for International Women's Day 2014 is "Equality for Women is Progress for All".
The Google Doodle on the eve of IWD 2014 (March 7, 2014) featured an International Women's day doodle video, showing images and videos of women from around the world, with music by Zap Mama.
American singer Beyoncé also posted an International Women's Day video to her YouTube account. Throughout the video, her song "***Flawless" plays, which includes a portion of the "We Should All Be Feminists" speech given by author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Knowles is a modern-day feminist.
The UN theme for International Women's Day 2015 is "Empowering Women, Empowering Humanity: Picture it!". Governments and activists around the world will commemorate the 20th anniversary year of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, an historic roadmap that sets the agenda for realizing women's rights.
The International Women's Day theme for 2016 is "Planet 50-50 by 2030: Step It Up for Gender Equality". An independent campaign, separate from the UN, is being run by financial firm EY with other corporate partners, organizing events around a #PledgeForParity hashtag.
The President of India, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, in his message issued on the eve of International Women's Day said: "On the occasion of International Womens Day, I extend warm greetings and good wishes to the women of India and thank them for their contributions over the years in the building of our nation."
The ministry of women and child development announced the setting up of four more one-stop crisis centers on March 8, in addition to the eight already functioning across the country. Ahead of Women's Day, the national carrier Air India operated what it claimed to be the world's longest non-stop flight where the entire flight operations were handled by women, as part of International Women's Day celebrations. The flight, from Delhi to San Francisco, covered a distance of around 14,500 kilometers in around 17 hours.
The Google Doodle of IWD 2016 (March 8, 2016) featured an International Women's day campaign, #OneDayIWill. Google users were able to watch a short video in which some women are seen sharing their aspirations, completing the sentence “One day I will…” by clicking on the play button on the Google Doodle.
In modern culture
The day is an official holiday in Afghanistan, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, China (for women only), Cuba, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Eritrea, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Macedonia (for women only), Madagascar (for women only), Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal (for women only), Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, and Zambia.
In some countries, such as Cameroon, Croatia, Romania, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Bulgaria and Chile, the day is not a public holiday, but is widely observed nonetheless. On this day it is customary for men to give the women in their lives – friends, mothers, wives, girlfriends, daughters, colleagues, etc. – flowers and small gifts. In some countries (such as Bulgaria and Romania) it is also observed as an equivalent of Mother's Day, where children also give small presents to their mothers and grandmothers.
In Armenia, after the collapse of the Soviet Union celebrations of IWD were abandoned. Instead, April 7 was introduced as state holiday of 'Beauty and Motherhood'. The new holiday immediately became popular among Armenians, as it commemorates one of the main holidays of the Armenian Church, the Annunciation. However, people still kept celebrating IWD on March 8 as well. Public discussion held on the topic of two 'Women's Days' in Armenia resulted in the recognition of the so-called 'Women's Month' which is the period between March 8 and April 7.
In Italy, to celebrate the day, men give yellow mimosas to women. Teresa Mattei chose the mimosa as the symbol of IWD in Italy because she felt that the French symbols of the day, violets and lily-of-the-valley, were too scarce and expensive to be used effectively in Italy. Yellow mimosas and chocolate are also one of the most common March 8 presents in Russia and Albania.
In many countries, such as in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Colombia, Estonia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine the custom of giving women flowers still prevails [within these regions only]. Women also sometimes get gifts from their employers. Schoolchildren often bring gifts for their female teachers, too.
In countries like Portugal and Italy groups of women usually celebrate on the night of March 8 in "women-only" dinners and parties.
In Pakistan working women in formal and informal sectors celebrate International Women's Day every year to commemorate their ongoing struggle for due rights, despite facing many cultural and religious restrictions. Some women working for change in society use IWM to help the movement for women's rights. In Poland, for instance, every IWD includes large feminist demonstrations in major cities.
In 1975, which was designated as International Women's Year, the United Nations gave official sanction to, and began sponsoring, International Women's Day.
As for efforts to achieve official recognition in the United States of America, actress and human rights activist Beata Pozniak worked with the Mayor of Los Angeles and the Governor of California to lobby members of the U.S. Congress to propose official recognition of the holiday. In February 1994, H.J. Res. 316 was introduced by Rep. Maxine Waters, along with 79 cosponsors, in an attempt to officially recognize March 8 of that year as International Women's Day. The bill was subsequently referred to, and remained in, the House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. No vote of either house of Congress was achieved on this piece of legislation.
The 2005 Congress (conference) of the British Trades Union Congress overwhelmingly approved a resolution calling for IWD to be designated a public holiday in the United Kingdom.
Since 2005, IWD has been celebrated in Montevideo, either on the principal street, 18 de Julio, or alternatively through one of its neighbourhoods. The event has attracted much publicity due to a group of female drummers, La Melaza, who have performed each year.
The internationalwomensday.com digital hub allows registration for IWD events. The IWD website adopts an annual theme that is globally relevant for groups and organizations and has the further objective that women and the media can learn about local activity.
In Taiwan, International Women's Day is marked by the annual release of a government survey on women's waist sizes, accompanied by warnings that weight gain can pose a hazard to women's health.
The Scottish Women's Convention (SWD) celebrates IWD on the Saturday nearest to 8 March. Over the past 10 years, women from throughout Scotland have met in the Scottish Parliament in a celebratory event organised by the SWC.
In the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, huge Soviet-style celebrations were held annually. After the fall of Communism, the holiday, generally considered to be one of the major symbols of the old regime, fell into obscurity. International Women's Day was re-established as an official "important day" by the Parliament of the Czech Republic in 2004 on the proposal of the Social Democrats and Communists. This has provoked some controversy as a large part of the public as well as the political right see the holiday as a relic of the nation's Communist past. In 2008, the Christian conservative Czechoslovak People's Party's deputies unsuccessfully proposed the abolition of the holiday. However, some non-government organizations consider the official recognition of International Women's Day as an important reminder of women's role in the society.
International Women's Day sparked violence in Tehran, Iran on March 4, 2007, when police beat hundreds of men and women who were planning a rally. (A previous rally for the occasion was held in Tehran in 2003.) Police arrested dozens of women and some were released after several days of solitary confinement and interrogation. Shadi Sadr, Mahbubeh Abbasgholizadeh and several more community activists were released on March 19, 2007, ending a fifteen-day hunger strike.
A popular apocryphal story which surfaced in French Communist circles claimed that women from clothing and textile factories had staged a protest on March 8, 1857 in New York City. The story alleged that garment workers were protesting against very poor working conditions and low wages and were attacked and dispersed by police. It was claimed that this event led to a rally in commemoration of its 50th anniversary in 1907. Temma Kaplan explains that "neither event seems to have taken place, but many Europeans think March 8, 1907, inaugurated International Women's Day." Speculating about the origins of this 1857 legend, Liliane Kandel and Françoise Picq suggested it was likely that (in recent times) some felt it opportune to detach International Women's Day from its basis in Soviet history and ascribe to it a more "international" origin which could be painted as more ancient than Bolshevism and more spontaneous than a decision of Congress or the initiative of those women affiliated to the Party.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to International Women's Day.|
- Afghanistan, 2002 ceremony at the Ministry of Women's Affairs, which USAID helped rehabilitate.
- Cloth commemorating International Women's Day, Cameroon, 2006.
- Bogotà, Colombia, 2009.
- Warsaw, Poland, 2010.
- Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2010.
- Sydney, Australia, 2011.
- Maldives, 2012.
- Arusha, Tanzania, 2012.
- Brazil, 2013.
- Communist Women's International
- Women's Equality Day
- Harriet Tubman Day
- International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women
- International Day of the Girl Child
- International Men's Day
- List of uprisings led by women
- Susan B. Anthony Day
- Helen Keller Day
- UN Women
- Scottish Women's Convention
- ↑ English : "Give Us Women's Suffrage. Women's Day, March 8, 1914. Until now, prejudice and reactionary attitudes have denied full civic rights to women, who as , mothers, and citizens wholly fulfill their duty, who must pay their taxes to the state as well as the municipality. Fighting for this natural human right must be the firm, unwavering intention of every woman, every female worker. In this, no pause for rest, no respite is allowed. Come all, you women and girls, to the 9th public women's assembly on Sunday, March 8, 1914, at 3 pm."
- ↑ The text reads: "8th of March is the day of rebellion of the working women against kitchen slavery" and "Down with the oppression and narrow-mindedness of household work!".
- ↑ "Give Us Women's Suffrage (March 1914)". German History in Documents and Images. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- 1 2 3 "UN WomenWatch: International Women's Day – History". UN.org. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
- 1 2 Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild, "From West to East: International Women’s Day, the First Decade”, Aspasia: The International Yearbook of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern European Women's and Gender History, vol. 6 (2012): 1-24.
- 1 2 "United Nations page on the background of the IWD". Un.org. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "8th of March – International woman's day: in search of the lost memory". Archived from the original on March 13, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- 1 2 3 4 Temma Kaplan, "On the Socialist Origins of International Women's Day", Feminist Studies, 11/1 (Spring, 1985)
- ↑ "History of International Women's Day". United Nations. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- ↑ "About International Women's Day". Internationalwomensday.com. March 8, 1917. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- ↑ "Women's Suffrage". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- ↑ "Suffragist Disorders". The Times. March 9, 1914. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
- ↑ Nelson, Jinty. "International Women's Day: a centenary to celebrate". History Workshop Online. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- ↑ "Anniversaries of important events". China Factfile. Chinese Government. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- ↑ "WomenWatch: International Women's Day". Un.org. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "Ukrainian Women's Organization Marks Women's 'May Day'" Winnipeg Tribune (March 10, 1937): 10. via Newspapers.com
- ↑ "International Day Celebrated" Sydney Morning Herald (March 8, 1943): 3. via Newspapers.com
- ↑ Eleanor Roosevelt, "My Day" Ottawa Journal (January 13, 1944): 19. via Newspapers.com
- ↑ "WomenWatch: International Women's Day". Un.org. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
- ↑ "Women and displacement: strength in adversity". International Committee of the Red Cross. March 2, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- 1 2 Sindelar, Daisy. "Women's Day Largely Forgotten in West, Where It Got Its Start". Radio Free Europe. Radio Free Europe. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
- ↑ Pasha, Masroor Afzal. "To commemorate 100th International Women's Day". Daily Times. Daily Times. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
- ↑ McKellogg, JulieAnn. "Clinton Launches 100th Anniversary of International Women's Day". VOA News. voanews.com. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
- ↑ "International Women's Day: the fight against sexual violence must not falter". Icrc.org. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ Al-Shalchi, Hadeel (March 8, 2011). "Egyptian women's rights protest marred by hecklers". The Washington Post. AP. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- ↑ "UN WomenWatch: International Women's Day 2012 – UN Observances Worldwide". Un.org. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- ↑ "International Women's Day Celebration". Actfast.oxfamamerica.org. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ Helping women take matters into their own hands International Committee of the Red Cross
- ↑ Peacock, Louisa (March 7, 2014). "Women's Day 2014 celebrated with a Google Doodle". The Telegraph. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- ↑ "UN WomenWatch: International Women's Day 2014". Un.org. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
- ↑ "INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY 2013 Theme: The Gender Agenda – Gaining Momentum". Aurora Ventures. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- ↑ "The forgotten plight of women behind bars". ICRC. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
- ↑ "International Women's Day | UN Women – Headquarters". UN Women. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- ↑ – 19:00. "International Women's Day conference". Unesco-Ihe. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- ↑ "Women's Day 2014: Google doodles a music video featuring women from around the world". IBN Live. March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- ↑ "Google Doodles for 2014". Google. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- ↑ Eliana Dockterman. "Beyoncé: Lessons in Modern Feminism". TIME.com. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- ↑ "International Women's Day | UN Women – Headquarters". UN Women. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- ↑ "The Beijing Platform for Action, inspiration then and now | Beijing+20 campaign". UN Women. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- ↑ "International Women's Day 2016". UN Women. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- ↑ "IWD 2016 campaign theme #PledgeForParity". International Women's Day. Ernst & Young. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- ↑ "President of Indias message on the eve of International Womens Day". business-standard.com. Delhi. March 7, 2016.
- ↑ "Women's Day gift: Govt to come with 4 one-stop crisis centres". The Times of India. March 7, 2016.
- ↑ PTI (March 7, 2016). "Ahead of Women's Day, Air India operates 'world's longest all-women flight'". The Indian Express.
- ↑ https://www.google.com/doodles/international-womens-day-2016
- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "IRIN Asia | AFGHANISTAN: Marking International Women's Day | Afghanistan | Gender Issues". Irinnews.org. March 8, 2005. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "Armenian Holidays – ARMENIA Information". Armeniainfo.am. July 5, 1995. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ Azerbaijan.msntour.az
- ↑ "Public Holidays in Azerbaijan – International Women's Day". advantour.com. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- ↑ (Russian) President's decree on public holidays in Belarus – 1998
- ↑ Coordination Team (May 22, 2011). "Taking International Women's Day Seriously in Burkina Faso". capacity4dev.ec.europa.eu. Development and Cooperation – EuropeAid. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- ↑ "2007 Cambodia Public Holiday – Cambodia e-Visa Blog". Cambodiaevisa.com. August 4, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "Public holidays in the People's Republic of China". Sg2.mofcom.gov.cn. January 9, 2008. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
- ↑ "Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Cuba". Cubaminrex.cu. March 8, 2011. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "დღესასწაულები". Embassy.mfa.gov.ge. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "Holidays and weekends in the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2014 year". E.gov.kz. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- ↑ "Kyrgyz and American Holidays (In Russian)". U.S. Embassy Bishkek. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
- ↑ "Lao Cultural Events / Public Holidays". laoyp.com. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- ↑ "Madagascar 2009 Public Holidays". Qppstudio.net. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ (Romanian) Article 111 (1c) of the work codex of Moldova, PDF, page 53 "Article 111. Non-working holidays. (1) in Moldova, non-working holidays, maintaining the average salary, are: (…) c) March 8 – International Women's Day; (…)".
- ↑ "Mongolia Web News". Mongolia-web.com. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "National Holidays (In Russian)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
- ↑ "Hanoi streets jammed on Int'l Day for Women | Vietnam News & Information Portal". En.www.info.vn. March 9, 2011. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "Zambia 2009 Public Holidays". Qppstudio.net. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "QPPstudio.net". QPPstudio.net. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ (Croatian) Zakon o blagdanima, spomendanima i neradnim danima u Republici Hrvatskoj
- 1 2 "Ziua Internațională a Femeii. De 8 martie Google posteaza un desen pentru acest eveniment". Agentia.org. November 24, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "Žene su heroji ovog društva (in Bosnian)". Oslobodjenje. March 8, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "Happy Woman Day 2016". Happy Woman Day 2016.
- ↑ "Bulgarian national radio". Bulgarian national radio.
- ↑ "Días Nacionales en Chile (in Spanish)". feriadoschilenos.cl. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "la Repubblica/societa: 8 marzo, niente manifestazione tante feste diverse per le donne". Repubblica.it. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "politica " Festa della donna, parla Ciampi "La parità è ancora lontana"". Repubblica.it. March 8, 2006. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ Pirro, Dierdre (March 25, 2013). "Teresa Mattei, Flower power". The Florentine. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
- ↑ "March 8 in Poland: Still Marching Together for Freedom and Equality". Ippf.org. Archived from the original on April 7, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "Formalization of International Women's Day". Comoserguapa.com. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- ↑ "Bill Summary & Status 103rd Congress (1993–1994) H.J.RES.316". Library of Congress. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "Travel Guide to Uruguay – Uruguay gets a female beat". UruguayNow. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "About". internationalwomensday.com.
- ↑ "Women's waistlines increasing: bureau". Taipei Times. March 9, 2013.
- 1 2 Karen Kapusta‐Pofahl. "Reinstating International Women's Day in the Czech Republic: Feminism, Politics and the Specter of Communism". Washburn University. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
- ↑ "Iranian Women Rally to Demand Equal Social, Political Rights" Index-Journal (March 9, 2003): 9. via Newspapers.com
- ↑ Harrison, Frances (March 8, 2007). "Middle East | Iranian women struggle for equality". BBC News. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ↑ "Iran: Release Women's Rights Advocates | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. March 8, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- 1 2 3 Temma Kaplan, On the Socialist Origins of International Women's Day, in: Feminist Studies, 11, 1985, S. 163–171. (PDF)
- 1 2 Liliane Kandel / Françoise Picq, "Le Mythe des origines à propos de la journée internationale des femmes" Archived September 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., in: La Revue d'en face, 12, 1982, S. 67–80.
- ↑ Angela Howard Zophy, Handbook of American women's history, Garland, 1991, 187.
- On IWD's centenary, historian Jinty Nelson looks at its genesis and achievements – and the ground still to cover
- The socialist roots of International Women's Day. Al Jazeera America. March 7, 2015
- Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild, "From West to East: International Women’s Day, the First Decade”, Aspasia: The International Yearbook of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern European Women's and Gender History, vol. 6 (2012): 1-24.