The India Office was a British government department created in 1858 to oversee the administration, through a Viceroy and other officials, of the Provinces of British India. These territories comprised most of the modern-day nations of Bangladesh, Burma, India, and Pakistan, as well as Aden and other territories around the Indian Ocean. The department was headed by the Secretary of State for India, a member of the British cabinet, who was formally advised by the Council of India.
Upon the partition of British India in 1947 into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan, the India Office was closed down. Responsibility for the United Kingdom's relations with the two new countries was transferred to the Commonwealth Relations Office (formerly the Dominions Office).
Origins of the India Office (1600–1858)
The East India Company was established in 1600 as a joint-stock company of English merchants who received, by a series of charters, exclusive rights to English trade with the "Indies", defined as the lands lying between the Cape of Good Hope and the Straits of Magellan; the term "India" had been derived from the name of a river, the Indus, long important to commerce and civilization in the region. The Company soon established a network of 'factories' throughout the south and east Indies in Asia. Over a period of 250 years the Company underwent several substantial changes in its basic character and functions.
A period of rivalry between the Old and New Companies after 1698 resulted in the formation in 1709 of the United Company of Merchants Trading to the East Indies. This 'new' East India Company was transformed during the second half of the eighteenth century from a mainly commercial body with scattered Asian trading interests into a major territorial power in South Asia with its headquarters in Bengal, present day Bangladesh and the State of West Bengal of India. The political implications of this development eventually caused the British government in 1784 to institute standing Commissioners (the Board of Control) in London to exercise supervision over the Company's Indian policies.
This change in the Company's status, along with other factors, led to the Acts of Parliament of 1813 and 1833, which opened British trade with the East Indies to all shipping and resulted in the Company's complete withdrawal from its commercial functions. The Company continued to exercise responsibility, under the supervision of the Board, for the government of British India until the re-organisation of 1858.
Throughout most of these changes the basic structure of Company organisation in East India House in the City of London remained largely unaltered, comprising a large body of proprietors or shareholders and an elected Court of Directors, headed by a chairman and deputy chairman who, aided by permanent officials, were responsible for the daily conduct of Company business. The Board of Control maintained its separate office close to the Government buildings in Westminster.
With the India Act of 1858 the Company and the Board of Control of the East India Companies were replaced by a single new department of state, the India Office, which functioned, under the Secretary of State for India, as an executive office of United Kingdom government alongside the Foreign Office, Colonial Office, Home Office and War Office.
Description and functions
The Secretary of State for India was assisted by a statutory body of advisers, the Council of India, and headed a staff of civil servants organised into a system of departments largely taken over from the East India Company and Board of Control establishments, and housed in a new India Office building in Whitehall. The Secretary of State for India inherited all the executive functions previously carried out by the Company, and all the powers of 'superintendence, direction and control' over the British provincial administrations in South Asia previously exercised by the Board of Control. Improved communications with South Asia – the overland and submarine telegraph cables (1868–70), and the opening of the Suez Canal (1869) – rendered this control, exercised through the Viceroy and provincial Governors covering large areas in the regions of Asia, Africa and the Middle East, more effective in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. It was only with the constitutional reforms initiated during the First World War, and carried forward by the India Acts of 1919 and 1935, that there came about a significant relaxation of India Office supervision over the Government of British India, and with it, in South Asia, a gradual devolution of authority to legislative bodies and local governments. The same administrative reforms also led in 1937 to the separation of Burma from rest of South Asia and the creation in London of the Burma Office, separate from the India Office though sharing the same Secretary of State and located in the same building. With the gradual events and establishments of sovereign independent nations and the final grant of independence to India (Bharat Ganarajya) and Pakistan in 1947, and to Burma (Myanmar) in 1948, both the India Office and the Burma Office were officially dissolved.
As a result of the widespread involvement in the external relations and defence policy of pre-1947 African, Asian and Middle Eastern countries, the India Office was also responsible for particular neighbouring or connected areas at different times. Among the most significant of these are:
- Bengal (1616-1857);
- Sri Lanka then called Ceylon (c. 1750–1802);
- St Helena (to 1834);
- Cape of Good Hope (to 1836);
- Zanzibar, Somalia and Ethiopia (mainly nineteenth century);
- Red Sea, Arabian Peninsula, Persian Gulf states, Iraq and Iran (c. 1600-1947);
- Afghanistan, Russian and Chinese Central Asia, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan and Sikkim (late eighteenth century to 1947);
- Malaya and South-East Asia (to c. 1867);
- Indonesia (to c. 1825);
- China (early seventeenth century to 1947); and
- Japan (seventeenth century).
Other groups of involvement have also resulted from India Office interest in the status of Indian emigrants to the West Indies, south and east Africa, and Fiji.
- 1600 East India Company established in London
- 1709 United East India Company emerges as union of the Old and New Companies
- 1757 Battle of Plassey (Pâlāshīr Juddho)
- 1765 Mughal Emperor grants Diwani of Bengal – right to collect land revenue – to East India Company
- 1773 Warren Hastings appointed as first Governor of Bengal
- 1784 British Government Board of Control established in London
- 1813 End of East India Company's monopoly rights over trade with British India
- 1833 End of East India Company's monopoly rights over trade with China
- 1857 Indian Uprisings
- 1858 East India Company and Board of Control replaced by India Office and Council of India
- 1937 Separation of Burma from British India. Establishment of Burma Office
- 1947 Birth of India and Pakistan. Independence granted to both countries. Abolition of India Office
- 1948 Independence of Burma and abolition of Burma Office
- 1971 Independence of East Bengal (Bangladesh) from Pakistan
India Office Records
The India Office Records are the repository of the archives of the East India Company (1600–1858), the Board of Control or Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of British India (1784–1858), the India Office (1858–1947), the Burma Office (1937–1948), and a number of related British agencies overseas which were officially linked with one or other of the four main bodies. The focus of the India Office Records is in the territories mainly that today include Central Asia, the Middle East, regions of Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and their administration before 1947. The official archives of the India Office Records are complemented by over 300 collections and over 3,000 smaller deposits of Private Papers relating to the British experience in India.
The India Office Records, previously housed in the India Office Library, are now administered as part of the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections of the British Library, London as part of the Public Records of the United Kingdom, and are open for public consultation. The comprise 14 kilometres of shelves of volumes, files and boxes of papers, together with 70,000 volumes of official publications and 105,000 manuscript and printed maps.
- Secretary of State for India
- Under-Secretary of State for India
- Governor-General of India
- History of India
- History of West Bengal
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- Arnold P. Kaminsky (1986). The India Office, 1880-1910. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-24909-9. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- Khan, M. S. "The India Office Library: Who Owns It?" The Eastern Librarian, vol. I No. 1, 1966, pp. 1–10
- Moir, Martin. A General Guide to the India Office Records (1988) 331 pages
- Seton, M. C. C. & Stewart, S. F. . The India Office (1926) 299 pages
- Williams, Donovan. The India Office, 1858-1869 (1983) 589 pages
- Catalogue of the Library of the India Office: Supplement 2: 1895-1909, 1909 (1888)
- India Office Records hub British Library site
- Search the India Office Records at Access 2 Archives National Archives site