This article is about the city in the Philippines. For other uses, see Imus (disambiguation).
Imus City
Lungsod ng Imus
Component City
(From top, left to right) Aerial view of the City of Imus, the Imus Cathedral, Imus City Hall, the Gen. Licerio Topacio Monument at Imus Plaza, and the Imus Heritage Park where the Battle of Alapan took place.

Nickname(s): Flag Capital of the Philippines

Location in the province of Cavite
Imus City

Location within the Philippines

Coordinates: PH 14°24′N 120°56′E / 14.400°N 120.933°E / 14.400; 120.933Coordinates: PH 14°24′N 120°56′E / 14.400°N 120.933°E / 14.400; 120.933
Country Philippines
Region CALABARZON (Region IV-A)
Province Cavite
Congr. districts Lone District of Imus
Incorporated 1795
Cityhood June 30, 2012
Barangays 97[1]
  Mayor Emmanuel Maliksi (Liberal)
  Vice Mayor Arnel "Ony" Cantimbuhan (Liberal)
  Total 64.70 km2 (24.98 sq mi)
Highest elevation[3] 70 m (230 ft)
Population (2015)[5]
  Total 403,785
  Density 6,200/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Imuseño
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 4103
Dialing code 46

Imus, officially the City of Imus (Filipino: Lungsod ng Imus), is the de jure capital city of the province of Cavite in the Philippines. The former municipality was officially converted into a city following a referendum on June 30, 2012.[6] Based on the 2010 local government unit (LGU) income of Imus, the former town is classified as a first-class component city of Cavite with a population of 301,624 people according to the 2010 census.[5][7]

Located about 19 km (12 mi) south of Metro Manila, Imus was the site of two major Katipunero victories during the Philippine Revolution against Spain. The Battle of Imus was fought on September 3, 1896 and the Battle of Alapan, on May 28, 1898, the day when the first Philippine flag was flown making Imus the "Flag Capital of the Philippines". Both events are celebrated annually in the city. The Imus Historical Museum honors the city's history with historical reenactment of scenes from the revolution.

Imus is also the religious center of Cavite as the see of the Diocese of Imus, which is coterminus with the province. The city hosts Imus Cathedral, which is under the patronage of the canonically-crowned Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Imus (Our Lady of the Pillar of Imus). The city served as the host diocese during the 5th Asian Youth Day on November 20–27, 2009.


There are at least four versions on the origin of the name of the city. Firstly, Imus is a Tagalog word meaning "a piece of land cutting into the junction of two rivers." The old location of the church is in Toclong where the confluence of Imus River and Julian River is located, forming a slice of land.

A second version is a rationalization of a geographical fact. Some intellectuals of the city theorized that the name "Imus" originated from the Latin word infimus, meaning lowland.[8] Comparing the altitude of different towns in Cavite province, Imus is described as lowland, slowly elevating to the neighboring city of Dasmariñas, to Silang, Indang, Amadeo, Mendez, Alfonso, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, peaking in Tagaytay City Ridge, the highest part of the province, as upland towns.

Although there is no verifiable source of this theory, it has also been said that the name Imus is derived from the word centimos, the smallest unit of metal currency during the Spanish colonial era. During that era, a detachment of Spanish soldiers was stationed at the Recollect estate house, and after they left a few natives scrounged the place for articles left behind. They found a number of centimo coins and went away exclaiming in utter delight, "Centimos! Centimos!". The place has since been identified as Imus.[9]

Still, another legend is that of a young mother crooning her child to sleep with a plaintive Tagalog ditty called "limos." A group of Spanish soldiers, who had gone there for the first time, asked her name of the place, and the woman, thinking that they were asking her the name of the song, answered "Limos". The Spaniards went away muttering the last syllable "imus".[9]


Early history

The Bridge of Isabel II in Imus in 1899 with the missing northern span blown up by the revolutionaries, temporarily replaced by a wooden plank.

Like Cavite City (originally called Cavite La Punta) and Noveleta (La Tierra Alta), Imus used to be a part of Cavite el Viejo (now Kawit), whose parish church was built by the Jesuits during the administration of Archdiocese of Manila Archbishop Miguel Garcia Serrano, 1618-1629. For more than a century and a half the people of Imus had to endure walking or traveling 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi) of dirt road to attend religious services or transact official business in the city proper. The difficulty of communication between Imus and Cavite el Viejo was a long-standing complaint of the Imuseños until another religious order, the Augustinian Recollects, as a consequence of the British occupation of Manila in 1762, established a parish church in Imus, in what is now known as Bayang Luma.

However, the church site was far from the estate house of the 11,100 hectares (27,000 acres) hacienda acquired in 1686 by the Recollect Corporation, and when the church was destroyed by the strong typhoon of September 1779, the Recollect Friars transferred it to barrio Toclong, and finally to sitio de Balangon, now the city plaza of Imus.

With the establishment of the Recollect parish the people of Imus gained their religious emancipation from the Jesuit-run parish of Cavite el Viejo. The Recollects, however, would not be content with little victory or achievement. In 1774, Recollect Fr. Pedro San Buenaventura petitioned the government to "separate the inquilinos (tenants) of Imus from the political jurisdiction of the government of "Cavite el Viejo". After a considerable time of waiting, the petition was granted and Imus became an independent municipality on October 3, 1795..

On May 28, 1898, Imus gained its independence from Spanish colonial rule after the last remaining stronghold of forces from the Spanish empire had been defeated in the Battle of Alapan as headed by General Emilio Aguinaldo. This battle led to the Philippine Declaration of Independence in Kawit, Cavite June 12, 1898. The modern flag of the Philippines was first unfurled in victory during this battle as they march their way to the present day Cavite City, together with the captured forces of Spain.[10][11] In commemoration of the event, A Battle of Alapan marker was constructed inside the compound of Alapan Elementary School May 28, 1998 and was inaugurated by President Fidel V. Ramos. Although, May 28, 2014, a new marker and the Imus National Heritage Park were inaugurated at Barangay Alapan 2-A to make the initially constructed marker more accessible to the public.

Modern history

On June 11, 1977, then President Ferdinand Marcos issued Presidential Decree No. 1163, which transferred the provincial capital of Cavite from Trece Martires City to Imus City. There is no other enabling law after that, that specifies the capital of Cavite[12]

On May 28, 2008, National Flag Day, the city celebrated the First Wagayway Festival (Flag-Waving Festival) signifying the very first unfurling of the Flag of the Philippines during the Battle of Alapan on May 28, 1898 against the Spanish colonizers. The battle was a major victory for General Emilio Aguinaldo (later the first president of the Philippine Republic) during the Philippine Revolution, which eventually lead to the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain on June 12, 1898 in nearby Kawit, Cavite. The five-day event was highlighted by the historical reenactment of events from the sewing of the flag by Filipino exiles in Hong Kong, the Battle of Alapan, to the defeat of the Filipinos by the American troops silencing the dreams of an independent Philippines. The reenactment included students, city employees and barangay officials.[13]

The festival was launched by then mayor, Emmanuel Maliksi, who reminded the people that the core of the celebration is love and respect for the Philippine flag, which symbolizes freedom and love for the country. Among the guests present was the former Prime Minister of the Philippines, Cesar Virata, who is a grandnephew of General Emilio Aguinaldo.[13]

Lone district of Imus

A bill was filed by Congressman Joseph Abaya with co-authors Congressman Pidi Barzaga and Crispin Remulla creating the municipality of Imus as a lone Legislative districts of the Philippines. The bill was supported by Senator Panfilo Lacson, Senator Richard Gordon and Senator Bong Revilla. On October 22, 2009, Republic Act 9727 was approved by the President of the Philippines creating the lone district of Imus as the "Third District of Cavite".[14]

Incorporation as city

During the 10th Congress (1995–1998), a House Bill (HB) no. 08960[15] was filed by Congressman Renato P. Dragon together with the other cityhood bills for Bacoor (HB 08959)[16] and Dasmariñas (HB 08931).[17] The bills did not pass the Congress. Congressman Erineo Maliksi filed House Bill no. HB01989[18] last August 3, 2010, which created the city of Imus. The bill was enacted into law as Republic Act No. 10161.[19] The plebiscite required to ratify the conversion of the municipality of Imus into a component city was scheduled June 30. 2012. Republic Act No. 10161 was ratified by the registered voters of Imus through a plebiscite conducted last June 30, 2012, converted the municipality of Imus in the Province of Cavite into a component city to be known as the City of Imus. There were about 22,742 voters who cast their ballots in the town's 453 polling precincts. The "yes" votes won overwhelmingly getting 20,438 while the "no" votes got 2,304.



Imus aerial Photograph showing its east to west extremities. Foreground is Barangay Buhay na Tubig and Barangay Alapan at back.

Imus covers a land total area of 6,470 ha (16,000 acres) or 64.70 km2 (24.98 sq mi), approximately 6.8% of the total land area of the province of Cavite, which is 1,427.06 square kilometres (550.99 sq mi).[3][4][12] The almost rectangular inland city of Cavite is bounded by the municipalities of Kawit and Noveleta to the north, and General Trias to the west; by the cities of Bacoor to the east and Dasmariñas to the south.[20]

The city is located near the Metropolitan Manila area, just 21 kilometers (13 mi) south of Manila. With the continuous expansion of Metro Manila, this local government unit is now included in the Greater Manila area, which reaches Lipa City in its southernmost part.

Political subdivisions

As of 2010, the population of Imus city is 301,624 from a total of 97 barangays. In 1998, the town was originally composed of 21 barangays and these former barangays were further subdivided for a total now of 97. The barangays which have been divided into two or more each, carries the original barangay name distinguished by capital letters if the name ends in numbers, e.g., Medicion 1, is subdivided into Medicion 1-A, Medicion 1-B, etc. Names ending in letters (e.g., Bucandala, Bayan Luma, etc..), are distinguished by numbers (Bucandala 1, Bayan Luma 2, etc.). The only exceptions to this rule are Barangay Buhay na Tubig and the villages inside Bahayang Pag-asa Subdivision, namely Mariano Espeleta I to III, Pinagbuklod, Magdalo, Maharlika and Bahayang Pag-asa (later renamed Bagong Silang).[21]

  • Alapan I-A
  • Alapan I-B
  • Alapan I-C
  • Alapan II-A
  • Alapan II-B
  • Anabu I-A
  • Anabu I-B
  • Anabu I-C
  • Anabu I-D
  • Anabu I-E
  • Anabu I-F
  • Anabu I-G
  • Anabu II-A
  • Anabu II-B
  • Anabu II-C
  • Anabu II-D
  • Anabu II-E
  • Anabu II-F
  • Bagong Silang
  • Bayan Luma I
  • Bayan Luma II
  • Bayan Luma III
  • Bayan Luma IV
  • Bayan Luma V
  • Bayan Luma VI
  • Bayan Luma VII
  • Bayan Luma VIII
  • Bayan Luma IX
  • Bucandala I
  • Bucandala II
  • Bucandala III
  • Bucandala IV
  • Bucandala V
  • Buhay na Tubig
  • Carsadang Bago I
  • Carsadang Bago II
  • Mariano Espeleta I
  • Mariano Espeleta II
  • Mariano Espeleta III
  • Magdalo
  • Maharlika
  • Malagasang I-A
  • Malagasang I-B
  • Malagasang I-C
  • Malagasang I-D
  • Malagasang I-E
  • Malagasang I-F
  • Malagasang I-G
  • Malagasang II-A
  • Malagasang II-B
  • Malagasang II-C
  • Malagasang II-D
  • Malagasang II-E
  • Malagasang II-F
  • Malagasang II-G
  • Medicion I-A
  • Medicion I-B
  • Medicion I-C
  • Medicion I-D
  • Medicion II-A
  • Medicion II-B
  • Medicion II-C
  • Medicion II-D
  • Medicion II-E
  • Medicion II-F
  • Pag-Asa I
  • Pag-Asa II
  • Pag-Asa III
  • Palico I
  • Palico II
  • Palico III
  • Palico IV
  • Pasong Buaya I
  • Pasong Buaya II
  • Pinagbuklod
  • Poblacion I-A
  • Poblacion I-B
  • Poblacion I-C
  • Poblacion II-A
  • Poblacion II-B
  • Poblacion III-A
  • Poblacion III-B
  • Poblacion IV-A
  • Poblacion IV-B
  • Poblacion IV-C
  • Poblacion IV-D
  • Tanzang Luma I
  • Tanzang Luma II
  • Tanzang Luma III
  • Tanzang Luma IV
  • Tanzang Luma V
  • Tanzang Luma VI
  • Toclong I-A
  • Toclong I-B
  • Toclong I-C
  • Toclong II-A
  • Toclong II-B


Population census of Imus City
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 12,912    
1918 13,940+0.51%
1995 177,408+3.34%
2000 195,482+2.10%
2007 253,158+3.63%
2010 301,624+6.58%
2015 403,785+5.71%


City Government of Imus
Alex "AA" L. Advincula
Emmanuel L. Maliksi
Vice Mayor
Ony Cantimbuhan
Sangguniang Panlungsod
Dennis Lacson Eunice C. Ferriol
Argel Reyes Jeffrey V. Asistio
Lloyd Emman Jaro Edgardo T. Saquilayan
Darlon Jay S. Sayarot Leonardo Antonio Deocadis
Raymond Argüelles Vincent Amposta
Oscar B. De Quiroz Exequiel B. Ropeta, Jr.
Board Members
Homer T. Saquilayan Larry Boy S. Nato

City seal

List of heads

  • Licerio Topacio (1888–1890)
  • Cayetano Topacio (1890–1892)
  • Angel Buenaventura (1892–1894)

Capitanes Municipal
  • Bernardino Paredes (1894–1896)
  • Jose Tagle (1896–1897)
  • Valentin Conejo (1898)
  • Juan Castaneda (1899)
Municipal Presidents
  • Donato Virata (1900–1903)
  • Juan Viña(1903)
  • Licerio Topacio (1903)
  • Pedro Buenaventura (1903)
  • Pantaleon Garcia (1904–1905)
  • Felipe Viña (1905–1909)
  • Maximo Abad (1910–1912)
  • Felipe Viña (1912–1915)
  • Pablo Palma (acting: 1912-1913)
  • Cecilio Kamantigue (1915–1919)
  • Felix Paredes (1919–1925)
  • Blas Mallari (1925–1928)
  • Epifanio Gabriel (1928–1931)
  • Dominador Camerino (1931–1940)
  • Geronimo Maluto (acting: 1931-1932)
  • Elpidio Osteria (1940–1944)
  • Alfredo Saqui (1944–1945)
  • Fortunato Remulla (1945)
  • Dominador Ilano (1945–1946)
  • Epifanio Gabriel (acting: 1946)
  • Dominador Ilano (1946–1963)
  • Rodrigo Camia (acting: 1960)
  • Dominador Camerino (1964–1967)
  • Manuel Paredes (1967)
  • Jose V. Jamir (1968–1986)
  • Mariano Reyes (acting: 1968, 1969, 1971)
  • Damian Villaseca (acting: 1986)
  • Wilfredo Garde (acting: 1986-1988)
  • Erineo S. Maliksi (1988–1998)
  • Ricardo C. Paredes Sr.(acting: 1998)
  • Oscar A. Jaro (1998–2001, 2004, 2007)
  • Homer T. Saquilayan (2001-2004, 2004-2007, 2010–2011, 2013)
  • Emmanuel L. Maliksi (2007-2010, 2011-2013, 2013-present)


Lotus Mall

Imus is the foremost banking center of Cavite with numerous financial institutions and also an excellent banking infrastructure is being propagated by the present government to spearhead the development of the city. The city of Imus has shown a steady rise in its income earning a 1st class income classification in 1986. Its 9,701-hectare (23,970-acre) land area serves as home to a population of 195,482. In 1993, Imus had 1,369 commercial establishments, 200 manufacturing establishments and 41 financial institutions. Ten years hence, it has 6,636 licensed business establishments that include 4,376 commercial establishments, 300 manufacturing establishments and 190 financial institutions.

With a comfortable 18 km (11 mi) distance from Metro Manila, Imus serves as a favorable site for industrial establishments such as the 200-hectare (490-acre) Imus Informal Industrial Estate and Anabu Hills Industrial Estate. Corporations that are 100% Filipino-owned include Annie's Candy Manufacturing, Inc., CKL Industries and Liwayway Mktg. Corp. Factories of partly Filipino-owned corporations include Champan Garment Corp., Hayag Motorworks & Machine Shop and San Miguel-Yamamura Asia Corp.. Foreign-owned corporations include Frontline Garments Corp. and EDS MFG, Inc., which produces automotive wiring harness. Imus is also the home of the Anabu Handmade Paper Products, a producer of handmade paper and paper products.

The Imus Commercial/Business District along Nueño Avenue (also called Imus Boulevard) is the center of commerce in the city. The Imus Public Market (Pamilihang Bayan ng Imus) is the hub of trade in the district. The market is divided into 25 zones and has a total of 805 stalls. Commercial, industrial and manufacturing industries owned by Taiwanese, Japanese and Filipino investors can also be found there. There are 3,601 commercial establishments duly registered in the city as of March 1999.

The city of Imus provides an atmosphere conducive to business and a climate of optimism and buoyancy for investors. Eighteen major industrial establishments with a total capitalization of 1.311 billion pesos have established their base at the Imus Informal Industrial Estate providing local employment to an estimated 13,478 people as of December 1998. Located just along the stretch of the General Emilio Aguinaldo Highway, the main highway of Cavite traversing the city from north to south, the 200-hectare informal industrial estate houses manufacturing companies owned by foreign and Filipino investors. Imus has ventured to the export of automotive wire harness and electrical components, acrylic sheets and lighting fixtures, processed foods, shellcraft, bamboo, rattan and woodcraft, furniture, garments and novelty items to other countries. The implementation of the strategic Daang Hari Road will further augment the development of Imus. Several subdivisions and mass housing projects and the establishment of factories and small-scale industries in many of its barangays have resulted in a movement of population into the city.

However, heavy traffic congestion caused by the 'buhos' (pour) system, inadequate road signage and systems, poor road maintenance, mixed vehicles (tricycles, pedicabs, bicycles, etc.), unjustified traffic priority schemes and rampant violation of traffic rules is observable on roads. This is causing headaches to travelers specifically along Aguinaldo Highway. On 2015, traffic lights were built on Aguinaldo Highway, and it lessen the traffic.

Ayala Land Inc. is investing Php 70 B for an estate "Vermosa", it will be accessible by Muntinlupa-Cavite Expressway.[26]

Shopping malls/centres

Robinsons Place Imus (interior)

Due to its proximity came from nearby Metropolitan Manila region and the it being very progressive, the city (along its parent province) had continuously grown its major shopping malls and shopping centres, these are namely

  • All Home Imus
  • CityMall Anabu
  • FRC Mall
  • Lotus Mall
  • Lumina Point Mall
  • Puregold Tanzang Luma
  • Puregold Anabu
  • Robinsons Place Imus
  • Robinsons Townville (Buhay na Tubig)
  • Shopwise Imus
  • SM Hypermarket Imus (formerly Makro Imus)
  • S&R Membership Shopping Imus
  • South Supermarket
  • The District Imus (formerly The District Cavite)

Sister cities

Attractions and landmarks

Notable people from Imus



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  4. 1 2 3 "Municipality of Imus". Cavite Provincial Website. Retrieved on 2012-06-30.
  5. 1 2 3 Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. Calica, Aurea (April 22, 2012). "Bacoor, Imus now cities". The Philippine Star. Retrieved September 29, 2016 via
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  8. "Infimus". Google Translate. Retrieved on 2012-08-08.
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  11. "Presidential Proclamation No. 374". Philippine Gazette. 6 March 1965. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  12. 1 2 "Quick Facts". Cavite Province Official Website. Retrieved on 2012-08-25.
  13. 1 2 Sauler, Erika (2008-06-02). "First Wagayway Festival marks Imus as RP flag capital". Global Nation. Retrieved on 2012-06-02.
  14. "House Bill No. 4254". Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved on 2012-06-06.
  15. "House Bill no. 08960". Philippine House of Representatives.
  16. "House Bill no. 08959". Philippine House of Representatives.
  17. "House Bill no. 08931". Philippine House of Representatives.
  18. "House Bill no. 01989. Philippine House of the Representatives. Retrieved on 2012-06-06.
  19. "Republic Act no. 10161". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved on 2012-05-31.
  20. "Cities and Municipalities". Cavite Provincial Website. Retrieved on 2012-06-30.
  21. "Barangay Population Data; Municipality of Imus". Local Water Utilities Administration. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  22. United States Bureau of Census (1905). "Census of the Philippine Islands, 1903, Vol. 2", pg. 129. Google Books.
  23. Census Office of the Philippines Islands (1921). "Census of the Philippine Islands, 1918", pg. 152. University of Michigan Library.
  24. "Cavite Population Census of 1995". National Statistics Office of the Philippines. Retrieved on 2012-06-30.
  25. Nheil Ace. "The Official Seal of City of Imus". Facebook.
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