This article is about the digital television standard. For Islamic Development Bank, see Islamic Development Bank.

The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) (Japanese: 統合デジタル放送サービス, Tōgō dejitaru hōsō sābisu) is a Japanese standard for digital television (DTV) and digital radio used by the country's radio and television networks. ISDB replaced NTSC-J analog television system and the previously used MUSE Hi-vision analogue HDTV system in Japan, and will be replacing NTSC, PAL-M and PAL-N in South America. Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting (DTTB) services using ISDB-T started in Japan in December 2003 and in Brazil in December 2007 as a trial. Since many countries have adopted ISDB over other digital broadcasting standards.

Countries and territories using ISDB-T





DTT broadcasting systems. Countries using ISDB are shown in green.

ISDB is maintained by the Japanese organization ARIB. The standards can be obtained for free at the Japanese organization DiBEG website and at ARIB.

The core standards of ISDB are ISDB-S (satellite television), ISDB-T (terrestrial), ISDB-C (cable) and 2.6 GHz band mobile broadcasting which are all based on MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 standard for multiplexing with transport stream structure and video and audio coding (MPEG-2 or H.264), and are capable of high definition television (HDTV) and standard definition television. ISDB-T and ISDB-Tsb are for mobile reception in TV bands. 1seg is the name of an ISDB-T service for reception on cell phones, laptop computers and vehicles.

The concept was named for its similarity to ISDN, because both allow multiple channels of data to be transmitted together (a process called multiplexing). This is also much like another digital radio system, Eureka 147, which calls each group of stations on a transmitter an ensemble; this is very much like the multi-channel digital TV standard DVB-T. ISDB-T operates on unused TV channels, an approach taken by other countries for TV but never before for radio.


The various flavors of ISDB differ mainly in the modulations used, due to the requirements of different frequency bands. The 12 GHz band ISDB-S uses PSK modulation, 2.6 GHz band digital sound broadcasting uses CDM, and ISDB-T (in VHF and/or UHF band) uses COFDM with PSK/QAM.


Besides audio and video transmission, ISDB also defines data connections (Data broadcasting) with the internet as a return channel over several media (10Base-T/100Base-T, Telephone line modem, Mobile phone, Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11) etc.) and with different protocols. This is used, for example, for interactive interfaces like data broadcasting (ARIB STD-B24) and electronic program guides (EPG).

Interfaces and Encryption

The ISDB specification describes a lot of (network) interfaces, but most importantly the Common Interface for Conditional Access System (CAS). While ISDB has examples of implementing various kinds of CASes, in Japan CAS called "B-CAS" is used. (ARIB STD-B25) defines the Common Scrambling Algorithm (CSA) system called MULTI2 required for (de-)scrambling television.

The ISDB CAS system in Japan is operated by a company named B-CAS; the CAS card is called B-CAS card. The Japanese ISDB signal is always encrypted by the B-CAS system even if it is a free television program. That is why it is commonly called "Pay per view system without charge". An interface for mobile reception is under consideration.

ISDB supports RMP (Rights management and protection). Since all digital television (DTV) systems carry digital data content, a DVD or high-definition (HD) recorder could easily copy content losslessly. Hollywood requested copy protection; this was the main reason for RMP being mandated. The content has three modes: “copy once”, “copy free” and “copy never”. In “copy once” mode, a program can be stored on a hard disk recorder, but cannot be further copied; only moved to another copy-protected media—and this move operation will mark the content “copy one generation”, which is mandated to permanently prevent further copying. “Copy never” programming may only be timeshifted and cannot be permanently stored. Currently, the Japanese government is evaluating using the Digital Transmission Content Protection (DTCP) "Encryption plus Non-Assertion" mechanism, to allow making multiple copies of digital content between compliant devices.[17]


There are two types of ISDB receiver: Television and set-top box. The aspect ratio of an ISDB-receiving television set is 16:9; televisions fulfilling these specs are called Hi-Vision TV. There are three TV types: Cathode ray tube (CRT), plasma display panel (PDP) and liquid crystal display (LCD), with LCD being the most popular Hi-Vision TV on the Japanese market nowadays. The cheapest 32-inch LCD is ¥27,800 (approx. 360 US$) and 22-inch for ¥17,970 (approx. $233 US) for retail price as of November 2011.

The LCD share as measured by JEITA in November 2004 was about 60%. While PDP sets occupy the high end market with units that are over 50 inches (1270 mm), PDP and CRT set shares are about 20% each. CRT sets are considered low end for Hi-Vision. An STB is sometimes referred to as a digital tuner.

Typical middle to high-end ISDB receivers marketed in Japan have several interfaces:

Copy-protection technology

All TV broadcasters in Japan is encrypted with Copy-Once, which allows users to record to a digital medium (D-VHS, DVD, HDD, etc.) but does not allow dubbing to another digital medium. On the other hand, the "Copy-Once" technology does not prohibit all types of dubbing. It is possible to dub to an analog medium (such as standard VHS) and if recorded to an HDD, it will allow users to "Move" the contents to a D-VHS, but not copy. In contrast, 1seg digital broadcasts which are for low-bandwidth mobile reception and occupy 1/13th of a digital channel, are transmitted 'in the clear' and do not carry copy protection information.

Many users are also very worried about the recent news of severe protection in the future. There are modes in ISDB that do not allow the output of signal from an Analog connector (D-connector, Component, Composite, S-Video, etc.). There are already plans to not allow analog output for "Copyright Protection" reasons. (Same as Blu-ray and HD DVD) This will make all currently sold STB Tuners, and the majority of LCD/Plasma TVs without HDMI inputs unusable. Plus all analog VHS, D-VHS that can only record via analog input, and all DVD players will also become unusable. These more limiting copy protection technologies will all start after analog broadcasting ends (when there won't be any choice for viewers). Currently, no financial assistance schemes have been announced, and viewers without proper devices will be forced to buy a new compatible TV or set top box in order to view ISDB broadcasts. Though not clear, it is said that there are also plans to protect all programs with "Copy-Never".

The copy protection on ISDB broadcasts can be circumvented with the proper hardware and software.[18]

Brazilian standard ISDB-Tb does not implement this copy protection mechanism. For other countries, there are some examples of implementing CAS system (such as verimatrix) by the operators' choice.

B-CAS card

The B-CAS card is required to decode all broadcasts in Japan. These cards are included with every digital TV or tuner at no charge. To use this card, the end user must agree to the statement written on the registration card. Despite the fact that the card must be inserted to watch TV, if the end user refuses to accept the terms/conditions contained within the statement, the user cannot watch digital broadcasts. Essentially, users are "forced" to agree with the statement. Though registration is not required, it is recommended to fully enjoy interactive programs. Unregistered B-CAS card displays a watermark in a corner of the screen, suggesting the user to register. However, many viewers worry about the leaking of personal information, and the power/rights the TV stations have to access personal information for almost every citizen in Japan. In case of loss or destruction, new B-CAS card of the same number can be issued for a fee of 2,000 yen.[19]


Typical Japanese broadcast service consists as follows:

  1. One HDTV or up to three SDTV services within one channel.
  2. Provides data broadcasting.
  3. Interactive services such as games or shopping, via telephone line or broadband internet.
  4. Equipped with an electronic program guide.
  5. Ability to send firmware patches for the TV/tuner over the air.

There are examples providing more than 10 SDTV services with H.264 coding in some countries.



Japan started digital broadcasting using the DVB-S standard by PerfecTV in October/1996, and DirecTV in December/1997, with communication satellites. Still, DVB-S did not satisfy the requirements of Japanese broadcasters, such as NHK, key commercial broadcasting stations like Nippon Television, TBS, Fuji Television, TV asahi, TV Tokyo, and WOWOW (Movie-only Pay-TV broadcasting). Consequently, ARIB developed the ISDB-S standards. The requirements were HDTV capability, interactive services, network access and effective frequency utilization, and other technical requirements. The DVB-S standard allows the transmission of a bit stream of roughly 34 Mbit/s with a satellite transponder, which means the transponder can send one HDTV channel. Unfortunately, the NHK broadcasting satellite had only four vacant transponders, which led ARIB and NHK to develop ISDB-S: The new standard could transmit at 51 Mbit/s with a single transponder, which means that ISDB-S is 1.5 times more efficient than DVB-S and that one transponder can transmit two HDTV channels, along with other independent audio and data. Digital satellite broadcasting (BS digital) was started by NHK and followed commercial broadcasting stations on 1 December 2000. Today, SKY PerfecTV!, successor of Skyport TV, and Sky D, CS burn, Platone, EP, DirecTV, J Sky B, and PerfecTV!, adopted the ISDB-S system for use on the 110 degree (east longitude) wide-band communication satellite.

Technical specification

This table shows the summary of ISDB-S (satellite digital broadcasting).

Transmission channel coding Modulation TC8PSK, QPSK, BPSK (Hierarchical transmission)
Error correction coding Inner coding Trellis [TC8PSK] and Convolution
Outer coding RS (204,188)
TMCC Convolution coding+RS
Time domain multiplexing TMCC
Conditional Access Multi-2
Data broadcasting ARIB STD-B24 (BML, ECMA script)
Service information ARIB STD-B10
Multiplexing MPEG-2 Systems
Audio coding MPEG-2 Audio (AAC)
Video coding MPEG-2 Video


Frequency and channel specification of Japanese Satellites using ISDB-S

Method BS digital broadcasting Wide band CS digital broadcasting
Frequency band 11.7 to 12.2 GHz 12.2 to 12.75 GHz
Transmission bit rate 51 Mbit/s (TC8PSK) 40 Mbit/s (QPSK)
Transmission band width 34.5 MHz* 34.5 MHz
*Compatible with 27 MHz band satellite transponder for analog FM broadcasting.



HDTV was invented at NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories (Japan Broadcasting Corporation's Science & Technical Research Laboratories). The research for HDTV started as early as the 1960s, though a standard was proposed to the ITU-R (CCIR) only in 1973.

By the 1980s, a high definition television camera, cathode-ray tube, video tape recorder and editing equipment, among others, had been developed. In 1982 NHK developed MUSE (Multiple sub-nyquist sampling Encoding), the first HDTV video compression and transmission system. MUSE used digital video compression, but for transmission frequency modulation was used after a digital-to-analog converter converted the digital signal.

In 1987, NHK demonstrated MUSE in Washington D.C. and NAB. The demonstration made a great impression in the U.S. As a result, the U.S. developed its own ATSC terrestrial DTV system. Europe also developed their own DTV system called DVB. Japan began R&D of a completely digital system in the 1980s that led to ISDB. Japan began terrestrial digital broadcasting, using ISDB-T standard by NHK and commercial broadcasting stations, on 1 December 2003.


Treeview of ISDB-T, channels, Segments and arranging multiple program broadcasting.

ISDB-T is characterized by the following features:


ISDB-T was adopted for commercial transmissions in Japan in December 2003. It currently comprises a market of about 100 million television sets. ISDB-T had 10 million subscribers by the end of April 2005. Along with the wide use of ISDB-T, the price of receivers is getting low. The price of ISDB-T STB in the lower end of the market is ¥19800 as of 19 April 2006.[20] By November 2007 only a few older, low-end STB models could be found in the Japanese market (average price U$180), showing a tendency towards replacement by mid to high-end equipment like PVRs and TV sets with inbuilt tuners. In November 2009, a retail chain AEON introduced STB in 40 USD,[21] followed by variety of low-cost tuners. The Dibeg web page confirms this tendency by showing low significance of the digital tuner STB market in Japan.[22]

Brazil, which currently uses an analogue TV system (PAL-M) that slightly differs from any other countries, has chosen ISDB-T as a base for its DTV format, calling it ISDB-Tb or internally SBTVD (Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital-Terrestre). The Japanese DiBEG group incorporated the advancements made by Brazil -MPEG4 video codec instead of ISDB-T's MPEG2 and a powerful interaction middleware called Ginga- and has renamed the standard to "ISDB-T International".[23] Other than Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Chile and Ecuador[24] which have already selected ISDB-Tb, there are other South American countries, mainly from Mercosur, such as Venezuela,[25] that are considering ISDB-Tb, which could provide economies of scale and common market benefits from the regional South American manufacturing instead of importing ready-made STBs as is the case with the other standards. Also, it has been confirmed with extensive tests realized by Brazilian Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (ABERT), Brazilian Television Engineering Society (SET) and Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie the insufficient quality for indoor reception presented by ATSC and, between DVB-T and ISDB-T, the latter presented superior performance in indoor reception and flexibility to access digital services and TV programs through non-mobile, mobile or portable receivers with impressive quality.[26]

The ABERT–SET group in Brazil did system comparison tests of DTV under the supervision of the CPqD foundation. The comparison tests were done under the direction of a work group of SET and ABERT. The ABERT/SET group selected ISDB-T as the best choice in digital broadcasting modulation systems among ATSC, DVB-T and ISDB-T. Another study found that ISDB-T and DVB-T performed similarly, and that both were outperformed by DVB-T2.[27]

ISDB-T was singled out as the most flexible of all for meeting the needs of mobility and portability. It is most efficient for mobile and portable reception. On June 29, 2006, Brazil announced ISDB-T-based SBTVD as the chosen standard for digital TV transmissions, to be fully implemented by 2016. By November 2007 (one month prior DTTV launch), a few suppliers started to announce zapper STBs of the new Nippon-Brazilian SBTVD-T standard, at that time without interactivity.

The implementation rollout in Brazil is proceeding successfully although some voice like Philips' say[28] that its implementation could be faster. It terms of broadcasting, the implementation plan seems to be on target. In only eight months since the start, the digital signal is present in four state capitals and by the end of 2008 another three capitals will receive the signal. In terms of end-customers the implementation could be better, since at the moment it is estimated only 20,000 set-top boxes have been sold. Part of this low sales number can be explained by the prices that in the beginning ranged from BRL 600 to BRL 1,100. However, recently new set-top boxes were launched in market at R$300 (approx US$150) that will probably increase set-top box sales. Another reason to explain low sales level is the interactivity service not available yet. That is because the "middleware" developed by Brazilian universities (PUC Rio and Federal University of Paraiba) was finished in October 2008. It is expected the interactivity will be a strong appeal bringing more and more people to digital TV world.

Additionally, mobile TV started successfully with the launch of Samsung and Toshiba cell phones with ISDB-T "one-seg" tuners. Its main appeal is that the service is free. That is a very impressive accomplishment in a short period since Brazil launched its digital mobile TV for free. In other countries such accomplishment occurred years later, and in others like the U.S. and Europe this is far from reality and probably won't be for free .[29] Subscription mobile TV in Germany using DVB-H has been dubbed "a failure".[29] In Italy the cost of receiving mobile TV over DVB-H costs the user €9.90 per month just for the basic channel package.[30]

Adoption by country

This lists the countries who adopted the ISDB-T standard, chronologically arranged.

Technical specification

Segment structure

ARIB has developed a segment structure called BST-OFDM (see figure). ISDB-T divides the frequency band of one channel into thirteen segments. The broadcaster can select which combination of segments to use; this choice of segment structure allows for service flexibility. For example, ISDB-T can transmit both LDTV and HDTV using one TV channel or change to 3 SDTV, a switch that can be performed at any time. ISDB-T can also change the modulation scheme at the same time.

s11 s 9 s 7 s 5 s 3 s 1 s 0 s 2 s 4 s 6 s 8 s10 s12

The above figure shows the spectrum of 13 segments structure of ISDB-T.
(s0 is generally used for 1seg, s1-s12 are used for one HDTV or three SDTVs)

Summary of ISDB-T

channel coding
Modulation 64QAM-OFDM,
(Hierarchical transmission)
Error correction coding Data:
Inner coding: Convolutional 7/8,5/6,3/4,2/3,1/2
Outer coding: Reed-Solomon(204,188)
Shortened code (184,102)
of Difference Cyclic Code (273,191)
Guard interval 1/32,1/16,1/8,1/4
Interleaving Time, Frequency, bit, byte
Frequency domain multiplexing BST-OFDM
(Segmented structure OFDM)
Conditional Access Multi-2
Data broadcasting ARIB STD-B24 (BML, ECMA script)
Service information ARIB STD-B10
Multiplexing MPEG-2 Systems
Audio coding MPEG-2 Audio (AAC)
Video coding MPEG-2 Video MPEG-4 AVC /H.264*


Specification of Japanese terrestrial digital broadcasting using ISDB-T.

Method Terrestrial digital broadcasting
Frequency band VHF/UHF, super high band
Transmission bit rate 23 Mbit/s(64QAM)
Transmission band width 5.6 MHz*

2.6 GHz Mobile satellite digital audio/video broadcasting

MobaHo! is the name of the services that uses the Mobile satellite digital audio broadcasting specifications. MobaHo! started its service on 20 October 2004. Ended on 31 March 2009


ISDB-Tsb is the terrestrial digital sound broadcasting specification. The technical specification is the same as ISDB-T. ISDB-Tsb supports the coded transmission of OFDM siginals.


ISDB-C is cable digital broadcasting specification. The technical specification is developed by JCTEA.


ISDB-Tmm (Terrestrial mobile multi-media) will use suitable number of segments by station with video coding MPEG-4 AVC/H.264. With multiple channel, ISDB-Tmm will serve for dedicating contents such as sport, movie, music channel and other with CD quality sound. This service uses the VHF band, 207.5–222 MHz which is used after the switchover to digital television in July 2011.

Japanese Ministry licensed to mmbi, Inc. or Multimedia Broadcasting, Inc (マルチメディア放送 Maruchi Medhia Hōsō) for ISDB-Tmm method on 9 September 2010.[41][42][43] The MediaFLO method offered with KDDI was not licensed.[44]

The ISDB-Tmm broadcasting service by mmbi, Inc. is named モバキャス (pronounced mobakyasu), literally short form of mobile casting on 14 July 2011, announced the new broadcasting station is named NOTTV on 4 October 2011, and approved the operation by Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications on 13 October 2011.[45] Planning the service with monthly subscription fee of 420 yen for south Kanto Plain, Aichi, Osaka, Kyoto and some other prefectures from 1 April 2012. The deployment plan is to cover approximately 73% of household by end of 2012, approximately 91% by end of 2014, and 125 stations or repeater will be installed in 2016 to cover cities nationwide.[46][47] Smartphone and Tablet computer with receiving capability is also available in March and April as the initiative terminals on the market.


ARIB and JCTEA developed the following standards. Some part of standards are located on the pages of ITU-R and ITU-T.

Channel Communication
Satellite television
Satellite television
Terrestrial television Satellite Sound Terrestrial Sound Cable television
Nickname - ISDB-S ISDB-T 2.6 GHz mobile broadcasting ISDB-Tsb 64QAM, Trans-modulation (ISDB-C)
- ITU-R BO.1408 ITU-R BT.1306-1 - ITU-R BS.1114 ITU-T J.83 Annex C, J.183
Server type broadcasting - ARIB STD-B38 -
Conditional access - ARIB STD-B25 (Multi-2) JCTEA STD-001
Service information - ARIB STD-B10 JCTEA STD-003
Data broadcasting - ARIB STD-B24 (BML), ARIB STD-B23 (EE or MHP like) -
Video/Audio compression and multiplexing MPEG-2 ARIB STD-B32 (MPEG) -
Technical report - ARIB TR-B13 ARIB TR-B14 - - -

Table of terrestrial HDTV transmission systems

Table 1: Main characteristics of three DTTB systems
Source coding
Video Main profile syntax of ISO/IEC 13818-2 (MPEG-2 - video)
Audio ATSC Standard A/52 (Dolby AC-3) ISO/IEC 13818-2 (MPEG-2 layer II audio) and Dolby AC-3 ISO/IEC 13818-7 (MPEG-2 AAC audio)
Transmission system
Channel coding -
Outer coding R-S (207, 187, t = 10) R-S (204, 188, t = 8)
Outer interleaver 52 R-S block interleaver 12 R-S block interleaver
Inner coding Rate 2/3 trellis code Punctured convolution code: Rate 1/2, 2/3,3/4, 5/6, 7/8 Constraint length = 7, Polynomials (octal) = 171, 133
Inner interleaver 12 to 1 trellis code interleaver Bit-wise interleaving and frequency interleaving Bit-wise interleaving, frequency interleaving and selectable time interleaving
Data randomization 16-bit PRBS
Modulation 8-VSB and 16-VSB COFDM
QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM
Hierarchical modulation: multi-resolution constellation (16QAM and 64 QAM)
Guard interval: 1/32, 1/16, 1/8 & 1/4 of OFDM symbol
2 modes: 2k and 8k FFT
BST-COFDM with 13 frequency segments
Hierarchical modulation: choice of three different modulations on each segment
Guard interval: 1/32, 1/16, 1/8 & 1/4 of OFDM symbol
3 modes: 2k, 4k and 8k FFT

See also

General category

Transmission technology


  3. モルディブ共和国政府による同国国営放送の地デジ日本方式採用決定、日・モルディブ共同声明を公表 [Republic of Maldives decided to adopt ISDB-T, Japan-Maldives issued a joint statement] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2011-10-19. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
  4. 1 2
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  8. Gobierno se decidió por la norma japonesa
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  10. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2010-07-05). ボリビア多民族国における地上デジタルテレビ放送日本方式採用の決定 [The decision to adopt Japanese DTT system at Plurinational State of Bolivia] (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  11. TeleSemana (2010-08-10). "Nicaragua opta por la noma brasileña-japonesa para TV digital".
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  14. ボツワナ共和国における地上デジタルテレビ放送日本方式採用の決定-アフリカで初となる日本方式採用の決定 [Botswana decided to adopt Japanese DTT (ISDB-T) system, first ISDB-T adopt in African countries] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Japan. 2013-02-27. Retrieved 2013-03-18.
  15. JEITA、地デジのコンテンツ保護策として暗号方式 EPN を提案:ニュース - CNET Japan
  16. Software B-CAS Conditional Access Module with MULTI2 decoder
  17. "B-CAS*各種手続き*" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-09-01.
  18. (Japanese) uniden
  22. 1 2
  25. Julian Clover DVB-T far superior to ISDB, DVB-T2 beats them both, in broadbandtvnews November 2, 2010
  26. 1 2
  32. Ecuador adopta estándar japonés para televisión digital
  33. Decreto presidencial 4483 de Paraguay
  34. NTC Philippines
  35. Uruguayan government news (in spanish)
  36. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Japan
  37. "Japan regulators favor ISDB-Tmm, not MediaFLO, for mobile TV". FierceWireless. 2010-09-08. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
  38. "Japan chooses ISDB-Tmm over MediaFLO for new mobile TV network, KDDI pouts". Engadget. 2010-09-09. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
  39. "207.5 MHz以上222 MHz以下の周波数を使用する特定基地局の開設計画の認定" [The licence approval of the plan to use specific broadcasting station for 207.5–222 MHz band usage] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2010-09-09. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
  40. "MediaFLO陣営、携帯次世代放送の認定結果に「極めて残念」" ["Too much disappointed" for approval of next generation mobile broadcasting — MediaFLO team] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Impress Watch. 2010-09-10. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
  41. "スマートフォン向け新放送局名称を「NOTTV(ノッティーヴィー)」に決定" [Decided new broadsacsting station is named to be NOTTV for Smartphone] (in Japanese). Tokyo: mmbi. 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
  42. "サービス名は「モバキャス」、mmbiがマルチメディア放送の具体像を説明" [Service is named モバキャス (Mobakyasu), mmbi, Inc explained concrete form of multimedia broadcasting] (in Japanese). 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2011-09-11.
  43. Japan appoints sole operator for mobile media, Rapid TV News, 2010-12-01.

External links

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