Hudson Strait links the Atlantic Ocean to Hudson Bay in Canada. This strait lies between Baffin Island and the northern coast of Quebec, with its eastern entrance marked by Cape Chidley in Quebec and Resolution Island off Baffin Island. The strait is about 450 mi (720 km) long. Its width varies from 150 mi (240 km) at its largest point, to a minimum of 40 mi (64 km).
The entrance to Hudson Strait was discovered in 1578 by Sir Martin Frobisher, the English navigator, who named a tidal rip at the entrance the Furious Overfall, and called the strait Mistaken Strait, since he felt it held less promise as an entrance to the Northwest Passage than the body of water that was later named Frobisher Bay. The name was changed to Hudson Strait in honor of the first European to sail beyond the Furious Overfall in 1610: English explorer Henry Hudson in the English ship Discovery. Hudson was followed by Thomas Button in 1612, and a more detailed mapping expedition led by William Baffin in 1615.
Hudson Strait links the northern seaports of Manitoba and Ontario with the Atlantic Ocean. It could be an eastern entrance to the Northwest Passage were it not for ice in the Fury and Hecla Strait south of western Baffin Island.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Hudson Strait as follows:
- On the North. The South coast of Baffin Island between Lloyd Point and East Bluff.
- On the East. A line from East Bluff, the Southeast extreme of Baffin Island (61°53′N 65°57′W / 61.883°N 65.950°W), to Point Meridian, the Western extreme of Lower Savage Islands, along the coast to its Southwestern extreme and thence a line across to the Western extreme of Resolution Island, through its Southwestern shore to Hatton Headland, its Southern point, thence a line to Cape Chidley, Labrador (60°24′N 64°26′W / 60.400°N 64.433°W).
- On the South. The mainland between Cape Chidley and Nuvuk Point.
- Allard, Michel, Baolai Wang, and Jean A Pilon. 1995. "Recent Cooling Along the Southern Shore of Hudson Strait, Quebec, Canada, Documented from Permafrost Temperature Measurements". Arctic and Alpine Research. 27, no. 2: 157.
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- Payne, F. F. Eskimo of Hudson's Strait. Toronto?: s.n.], 1889. ISBN 0-665-09301-2
- 2005. "A Sentry at the Atlantic Gateway – An Experimental Mooring Monitors Water Flow Through Strategic Hudson Strait". Oceanus. 44, no. 3: 30.
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