House of Iturbide
|House of Iturbide|
|Founded||19 May 1822|
|Founder||Don Agustín I|
|Final ruler||Don Maximilian I|
|Current head||Don Maximilian von Götzen-Iturbide|
|Deposition||19 July 1867|
The House of Iturbide (Spanish: Casa de Iturbide), is the former Imperial House of Mexico. It was founded by Don Agustín de Iturbide in 1822 when the newly independent Mexican congress confirmed his title of Agustín I, Constitutional Emperor of Mexico. He was baptized with the names of Saints Cosmas and Damian at the cathedral there.
Mexican Empire (1822–1823)
After Mexico was declared and recognized as an independent state, Iturbide was backed and influenced by Mexico's conservatives who favored an independent Mexico with a monarch from one of the European royal families as head of state. When no European royals accepted Mexico's offer (as Spain still had hopes of taking Mexico back), Iturbide was persuaded by his advisers to be named Emperor in the manner of Napoleon I.
On 11 May 1823, the ex-emperor boarded the English ship Rawlins, en route to Livorno, Italy (then part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, accompanied by his wife, children and some servants. There he rented a small country house and began to write his memoirs. However, Spain pressured Tuscany to expel Iturbide, which it did, and the Iturbide family moved to the United Kingdom. Here, he published his autobiography "Statement of Some of the Principal Events in the Public Life of Agustín de Iturbide" When he was exiled, Iturbide was given a government pension, but Congress also declared him a traitor and "outside of the law," to be killed if he ever returned to Mexico. Whether he was aware of this second part is in dispute.
After his departure, the situation in Mexico continued to worsen. Reports of a probable Spanish attempt to retake Mexico reached Iturbide in the U.K. He continued to receive reports from Mexico as well as advice from supporters that if he returned he would be hailed as a liberator and a potential leader against the Spanish invasion. Iturbide sent word to congress in Mexico City on 13 February 1824 offering his services in the event of Spanish attack. Congress never replied. More conservative political factions in Mexico finally convinced Iturbide to return."
Iturbide returned to Mexico on 14 July 1824, accompanied by his wife, two children, and a chaplain. He landed at the port of Soto la Marina on the coast of Nuevo Santander (the modern-day state of Tamaulipas). They were initially greeted enthusiastically, but soon they were arrested and escorted by General Felipe de la Garza, the local military commander, to the nearby village of Padilla. The local legislature held a trial and sentenced Iturbide to death. When a local priest administered last rites, Iturbide supposedly said, "Mexicans! I die with honor, not as a traitor; do not leave this stain on my children and my legacy. I am not a traitor, no." He was executed by firing squad on 19 July 1824.
Mexican Empire (1864–1867)
In 1863 the Mexican Congress, with the support of Napoleon III of France, attempted to establish a monarchy under Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian as Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. Maximilian adopted two grandsons of the first Mexican emperor, Agustín de Iturbide y Green and Salvador de Iturbide y Marzán, as his heirs. In 1867, Maximilian was deposed and executed on the orders of Benito Juárez.
Mexico has been a Federal presidential constitutional republic since 1868. According to article 12 of the Mexican Constitution of 1917, the Mexican state does not have a peerage and cannot confer a title of nobility upon any person.
Genealogy of Agustín I
- Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide y Huarte (1807–1866) Titular Emperor of Mexico (1824-1864)
- Sabina María de Iturbide y Huarte (1810–1871)
- Juana María Francisca de Iturbide y Huarte (1812–1828)
- Josefa de Iturbide y Huarte (1814–1891)
- A large issue of which descends the Mexican families Icaza y Aurrecoechea, Aurrecoechea Acereto, Icaza Mota, Orvañanos Martínez del Río, Mancera de Arrigunaga, etc.
- Ángel María José de Iturbide y Huarte (1816–1872)
- María Jesús Juana de Iturbide y Huarte (1818–1849)
- María de los Dolores de Iturbide y Huarte (1819–1820)
- Salvador María de Iturbide y Huarte (1820–1856)
- Maria Josepha Sophia de Iturbide (1872–1949) Titular Empress of Mexico (1925-1949)
- Baroness Maria Anna Tunkl-Iturbide (1909-1962) Titular Empress of Mexico (1949-1962)
- Baroness Maria Gisella Tunkl-Iturbide (1912-1999) Titular Empress of Mexico (1962-1999)
- Count Maximilian von Götzen-Iturbide (1944) Titular Emperor of Mexico (1999-)
- Ferdinand von Götzen-Iturbide (1992)
- Emmanuella von Götzen-Iturbide (1998)
- Countess Emmanuella von Götzen-Iturbide (1945)
- Nicholas McAulay (1970)
- Edward McAulay (1973)
- Augustin McAulay (1977)
- Patrick McAulay (1979)
- Phillip McAulay (1981)
- Camilla McAulay (1982)
- Gisella McAulay (1985)
- Maria Gisella de Iturbide (1874-1875)
- Maria Theresa de Iturbide (1876-1915)
- Felipe Andrés María Galupe de Iturbide y Huarte (1822–1853)
- Agustín Cosme de Iturbide y Huarte (1825–1873)
Flags and heraldry
Flag of Mexico (1822–1823)
Flag of Mexico (1864–1867)
Coat of arms of Mexico (1822–1823)
Coat of arms of Mexico (1864–1867)
Personal coat of arms of Iturbide Family (by decree of Emperor Maximilian in 1865)
- "Casa Imperial - Don Agustin de Iturbide" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-11-10.
- House of Habsburg-Iturbide
- Hamue-Medina, Rocio Elena. "Agustin Iturbide". Archived from the original on 23 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-10.
- "Agustin de Iturbide (1783-1824)". Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-10.
- Rosainz Unda, Gorka. "Agustín de Iturbide, Libertador de México" (in Spanish). Euskonews. Retrieved 2008-11-10.
- Raggett, Kari. "Iturbide, Agustin de". Historical Text Archive. Retrieved 2008-11-10.
- Vazquez-Gomez, Juana (1997). Dictionary of Mexican Rulers 1325-1997. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated,. ISBN 978-0-313-30049-3.
- Kirkwood, Burton (2000). History of Mexico. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-313-30351-7.
- Ibañez, Alvaro (2005-02-12). "Mexico en sus Banderas/Bandera del Imperio de Iturbide" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Reforma. Notimex.
- Manfut, Eduardo P. "Coleccion de Documentos Historicos – Don Agustin de Iturbide" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-11-10.
- Haslip, Joan, Imperial Adventurer – Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, London, 1971, ISBN 0-297-00363-1
- José Manuel Villalpando, Alejandro Rosas (2011), Presidentes de México, Grupo Planeta Spain, ISBN 9786070707582
- Ridley, Jasper (1993). Maximilian and Juárez. London: Constable. ISBN 0094720703. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- "Casa Imperial - The Genealogy of the House of Iturbide" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-11-10., originally from book The Imperial House of Mexico: the House of Iturbide. David Williamson, Teodoro Amerlinck y Zirion, Charles Mikos de Tarrodhaza. 1994.
- Imperial House site
- Dolores Gámez, José. "XVII". Historia de Nicaragua, Sucesos del Siglo XVII serie histórica. Coleccion de Documentos Historicos (in Spanish). 3. Retrieved 2010-01-23.
- The Last Prince of the Mexican Empire, a novel based on the true story by C.M. Mayo
- Library of Congress lecture (podcast) by C.M. Mayo about research in the Emperor Iturbide and Iturbide Family archives, July 2009
— Imperial House —
House of Iturbide
|First Empire declared||Ruling House of Mexico
19 May 1822 – 19 March 1823
|Second Empire declared||Ruling House of Mexico
10 April 1864 – 19 June 1867