For other uses, see Homicide (disambiguation).

Homicide occurs when one human being causes the death of another.[1] Homicides can be divided into many overlapping types, including murder, manslaughter, justifiable homicide, killing in war, euthanasia, and execution, depending on the circumstances of the death. These different types of homicides are often treated very differently in human societies; some are considered crimes, while others are permitted or even ordered by the legal system.

Criminal homicide

Criminal homicide takes many forms including accidental or purposeful murder. The crime committed in a criminal homicide is determined by the mental state of the committing person and the extent of the crime. Murder, for example, is usually a godly crime. In many cases, homicide may in fact lead to life in prison and or even capital punishment,[2] but if the defendant in a capital case is sufficiently mentally disabled in the United States he or she cannot be executed. Instead, the individual is placed under the category of “insane”.

In some jurisdictions, a homicide that occurs during the commission of a crime may constitute murder, regardless of the actor's intent to commit homicide. In the United States, this is known as the felony murder rule. Much abbreviated and incomplete, the felony murder rule says that one committing a felony may be guilty of murder if someone, including the felony victim, a bystander or a co-felon, dies as a result of his acts, regardless his intent—or lack thereof—to kill.

Criminal homicides also include voluntary and involuntary manslaughter. An example of voluntary manslaughter is hitting someone with an intent to kill them, whereas involuntary manslaughter is unintentionally causing their death. The perpetrator does not receive the same legal action against them as a person convicted of murder.

While most homicides by civilians are criminally prosecutable, a right of self-defense (often including the right to defend others)[3] is widely recognized, including, in dire circumstances, the use of deadly force.[4]

State-sanctioned homicide

Main article: Justifiable homicide

Homicides may also be non-criminal when conducted with the sanction of the state. The most obvious examples are capital punishment, in which the state punishes a criminal with death. Homicides committed in action during war are usually not subject to criminal prosecution either. In addition, members of law enforcement entities are also allowed to commit justified homicides within certain parameters which, when met, do not usually result in prosecution (see Deadly force)

Homicide in the USA in 2015

Since 2015, homicide rates in 2015 rose by almost 11%. Figures released by the FBI carried out the study, they also found that violent crimes rose by 4% to that of previous years. Street violence was considered to be one of the main causes of the rise in homicides in cities such as Baltimore, Chicago, and Washington D.C. The study also showed how gun violence related crimes were one of the main causes for the rise of homicides. However crime rates were nothing in comparison to those of 30 or 40 years ago in the 1980’s or 1990’s. In Chicago alone in 2015 there was 478 homicides, while LA had 282 and New York had 352.[5]

Global statistics

A 2011 study by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime brought together a wide variety of data sources to create a worldwide picture of trends and developments.[6] Sources included multiple agencies and field offices of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and national and international sources from 207 countries.

The report estimated that in 2010, the total number of homicides globally was 468,000. More than a third (36%) occurred in Africa, 31% in the Americas, 27% in Asia, 5% in Europe and 1% in Oceania. Since 1995, the homicide rate has been falling in Europe, North America, and Asia, but has risen to a near “crisis point” in Central America and the Caribbean. Of all homicides worldwide, 82% of the victims were men, and 18% were women.[7] On a per-capita scaled level, "the homicide rate in Africa and the Americas (at 17 and 16 per 100,000 population, respectively) is more than double the global average (6.9 per 100,000), whereas in Asia, Europe and Oceania (between 3 and 4 per 100,000) it is roughly half".[7]

UNODC, in its 2013 global report, estimated the total number of homicides worldwide dropped to 437,000 in 2012. Americas accounted for 36% of all homicides globally, Africa 31%, Asia 28%, Europe 5% and Oceania 0.3%.[8] The world's average homicide rate stood at 6.2 per 100,000 population in 2012, but Southern Africa region and Central America have intentional homicide rates four times higher than the world average. They are the most violent regions globally, outside of regions experiencing wars and religious or sociopolitical terrorism.[8] Asia exclusive of West Asia and Central Asia, Western Europe, Northern Europe, as well as Oceania had the lowest homicide rates in the world. About 41% of the homicides worldwide occurred in 2012 with the use of guns, 24% with sharp objects such as knife, and 35% by other means such as poison. The global conviction rate for the crime of intentional homicide in 2012 was 43%.[9]

[W]here homicide rates are high and firearms and organized crime in the form of drug trafficking play a substantial role, 1 in 50 men aged 20 will be murdered before they reach the age of 31. At the other, the probability of such an occurrence is up to 400 times lower.

[H]omicide is much more common in countries with low levels of human development, high levels of income inequality and weak rule of law than in more equitable societies, where socio-economic stability seems to be something of an antidote to homicide.

Women murdered by their past or present male partner make up the vast majority of [female] victims.[6]
A comparison of homicide rates, per 100,000 population, for some countries. Terror and war-related deaths are not included. Chinese homicide data is not available.

References and footnotes

  1. "Homicide definition". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  2. "Federal Laws Providing for the Death Penalty | Death Penalty Information Center". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. 2003-01-02. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
  3. See, e.g., California Constitution, Art. 1, Sec. 1
  4. See, e.g., California Penal Code, Sec. 197.
  5. Williams, Timothy; Davey, Monica (2016-09-26). "U.S. Murders Surged in 2015, F.B.I. Finds". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
  6. 1 2 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2011 Global Study on Homicide. Accessed December 2, 2011.
  7. 1 2 "United Nations 2011 Global Study on Homicide". Journalist's Resource.
  8. 1 2 UNODC, Global Study on Homicide 2013 Report
  9. UNODC, Global Study on Homicide 2013 Report, page 18
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