Helmut Schmidt

For other people named Helmut Schmidt, see Helmut Schmidt (disambiguation).
Helmut Schmidt
Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany)
In office
16 May 1974  1 October 1982
President Gustav Heinemann
Walter Scheel
Karl Carstens
Deputy Hans-Dietrich Genscher
Egon Franke
Preceded by Willy Brandt
Succeeded by Helmut Kohl
Minister for Finance
In office
7 July 1972  16 May 1974
Chancellor Willy Brandt
Preceded by Karl Schiller
Succeeded by Hans Apel
Minister for Economics
In office
7 July 1972  15 December 1972
Chancellor Willy Brandt
Preceded by Karl Schiller
Succeeded by Hans Friderichs
Minister for Defense
In office
22 October 1969  7 July 1972
Chancellor Willy Brandt
Preceded by Gerhard Schröder
Succeeded by Georg Leber
Personal details
Born Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt
(1918-12-23)23 December 1918
Hamburg, Weimar Republic
Died 10 November 2015(2015-11-10) (aged 96)
Hamburg, Germany
Political party Social Democratic Party
Spouse(s) Loki Glaser (1942–2010)
Domestic partner Ruth Loah (2012–2015)
Children 2
Alma mater University of Hamburg
Religion Lutheranism

Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (German pronunciation: [ˈhɛlmuːt ˈha͡ɪnʁɪç ˈvaldəmaːɐ ˈʃmɪt]; 23 December 1918 – 10 November 2015) was a German statesman and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1974 to 1982.

Before becoming Chancellor, he had served as Minister of Defence (1969–1972) and as Minister of Finance (1972–1974). In the latter role he gained credit for his financial policies. He had also served briefly as Minister of Economics and as acting Foreign Minister. As Chancellor, he focused on international affairs, seeking "political unification of Europe in partnership with the United States".[1] He was an energetic diplomat who sought European co-operation and international economic co-ordination. He was re-elected chancellor in 1976 and 1980, but his coalition fell apart in 1982 with the switch by his coalition allies, the Free Democratic Party.

He retired from Parliament in 1986, after clashing with the SPD's left wing, who opposed him on defence and economic issues. In 1986 he was a leading proponent of European monetary union and a European Central Bank.

Background, family, early life and education

Helmut Schmidt was born as the eldest of two sons of teachers Ludovica Koch (1890–1968) and Gustav Ludwig Schmidt (1888–1981) in Barmbek, a rough working-class district of Hamburg, in 1918.[2] Schmidt studied at Hamburg Lichtwark School, graduating in 1937.[3] Schmidt's father was born the biological son of a German Jewish banker, Ludwig Gumpel, and a Christian waitress, Friederike Wenzel,[4] and then covertly adopted, although this was kept a family secret for many years.[5][6] This was confirmed publicly by Schmidt in 1984, after Valéry Giscard d'Estaing revealed the fact to journalists, apparently with Schmidt's assent. Schmidt himself was a non-practising Lutheran.[7]

Schmidt was a group leader (Scharführer) in the Hitler Youth organization until 1936, when he was demoted and sent on leave because of his anti-Nazi views.[8][9] On 27 June 1942, he married his childhood sweetheart Hannelore "Loki" Glaser (3 March 1919 – 21 October 2010). They had two children: Helmut Walter (26 June 1944 – 19 February 1945, died of meningitis), and Susanne (born 8 May 1947), who works in London for Bloomberg Television.[10][11] Schmidt resumed his education in Hamburg after the war, graduating in economics and political science in 1949.[3]

Military service

Schmidt was conscripted into military service in 1937, and began serving with an anti-aircraft battery at Vegesack near Bremen during World War II. After brief service on the Eastern Front during the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, including the Siege of Leningrad, he returned to Germany in 1942 to work as a trainer and advisor at the Ministry of Aviation.[3] During his service in World War II, Schmidt was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class.[12] He attended the People's Court as a military spectator at some of the show trials for officers involved in the 20 July plot, in which an unsuccessful attempt was made to assassinate Hitler at Rastenburg, and was disgusted by Roland Freisler's conduct.[13] Toward the end of the war, from December 1944 onwards, he served as an Oberleutnant in the Flakartillery on the Western Front during the Battle of the Bulge and the Ardennes Offensive. He was captured by the British in April 1945 on Lüneburg Heath, and was a prisoner of war until August of that year in Belgium.[14]

Political career

Early years

Schmidt joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) in 1946, and from 1947 to 1948 was the leader of the Socialist German Student League, the student organisation of the SPD. Upon graduating from the University of Hamburg, where he read economics, he worked for the government of the city-state of Hamburg, working in the department of economic policy. Beginning in 1952, under Karl Schiller, he was a senior figure heading up the Behörde für Wirtschaft und Verkehr (the Hamburg State Ministry for Economy and Transport).[3]

He was elected to the Bundestag in 1953, and in 1957 he became a member of the SPD parliamentary party executive. A vocal critic of conservative government policy, his outspoken rhetoric in parliament earned him the nickname Schmidt-Schnauze ("Schmidt the Lip").[15] In 1958, he joined the national board of the SPD (Bundesvorstand), and campaigned against nuclear weapons and the equipping of the Bundeswehr with such devices. He alarmed some in his party by taking part in manoeuvres as a reserve officer in the newly formed Bundeswehr. In 1962, he gave up his seat in parliament to concentrate on his tasks in Hamburg.[3]


The government of the city-state of Hamburg is known as the Senate of Hamburg, and from 1961 to 1965, Schmidt was the Innensenator: the senator of the interior.[3] He gained a reputation as a Macher (doer) – someone who gets things done regardless of obstacles – by his effective management during the emergency caused by the 1962 flood, during which 300 people drowned. Schmidt used all means at his disposal to alleviate the situation, even when that meant overstepping his legal authority, including employing the federal police and army units (ignoring the German constitution's prohibition on using the army for "internal affairs"; a clause excluding disasters was not added until 1968). Describing his actions, Schmidt said, "I wasn't put in charge of these units – I took charge of them!"[16][17] He saved a further 1,000 lives and swiftly managed the re-housing of thousands of the homeless.

Return to federal politics

In 1965, he was re-elected to the Bundestag. In 1967, after the formation of the Grand Coalition between the SPD and the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), he became chairman of the Social Democratic parliamentary party, a post he held until the elections of 1969. In 1968, he was elected deputy party chairman, a post that he held until 1984. Between 1968 and 1983, Schmidt was deputy chairman of the SPD. Unlike Willy Brandt and Gerhard Schröder, he never became chairman of the party.[3]

In October 1969, he entered the government of Willy Brandt as defense minister.[18] During his term in office, the military conscription time was reduced from 18 to 15 months, while at the same time increasing the number of young men being conscripted.[19] Additionally, Schmidt decided to introduce the Bundeswehr universities in Hamburg and Munich to broaden the academic education of the German officer corps, and the situation of non-commissioned officers was improved.[20] In July 1972, he succeeded Karl Schiller as Minister for Economics and Finances, but in November 1972, he relinquished the Economics department, which was again made a separate ministry. Schmidt remained Minister of Finances and faced the prospect of rising inflation. Shortly before the Oil Shock of 1973, which rattled Britain and United States, Schmidt agreed that European currencies should be floated against the US Dollar. He remained in charge of finance until May 1974.[3]


Schmidt in 1975 in Helsinki

Schmidt became Chancellor of West Germany on 16 May 1974, after Brandt's resignation in the wake of an espionage scandal. The worldwide economic recession was the main concern of his administration, and Schmidt took a tough and disciplined line, reducing public spending.[21] Schmidt was also active in improving relations with France. Together with the French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, he was one of the fathers of the world economic summits, the first of which assembled in 1975.[22] In 1975, he was a signatory of the Helsinki Accords to create the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the precursor of today's OSCE.[23] In 1978 he helped set up the European Monetary System (EMS), known as the "Snake in the Tunnel".

He remained chancellor after the 1976 elections, in coalition with the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP).[24] He adopted a tough, uncompromising line with the indigenous Red Army Faction (RAF) extremists. In October 1977, he ordered an anti-terrorist unit of Bundesgrenzschutz soldiers to end the Palestinian terrorist hijacking of a Lufthansa aircraft named Landshut, staged to secure the release of imprisoned RAF leaders, after it landed in Mogadishu, Somalia. Three of the four kidnappers were killed during the assault on the plane, but all 86 passengers were rescued unharmed.[25][26]

Schmidt was re-elected as chancellor in November 1980.[27][28] Concerned about the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the Soviet superiority regarding missiles in Central Europe, Schmidt issued proposals resulting in the NATO Double-Track Decision, concerning the deployment of medium-range nuclear missiles in Western Europe, should the Soviets not disarm. This decision was unpopular with the German public. A mass demonstration against the deployment mobilized 400,000 people in October 1981.[29]

At the beginning of his period as chancellor, Schmidt was a proponent of Keynesian economics, and pursued expansionary monetary and fiscal policies during his time as chancellor. Between 1979 and 1982, the Schmidt administration pursued such policies in an effort to reduce unemployment. These were moderately successful, as the fiscal measures introduced after 1977, with reductions in income and wealth taxes and an increase in the medium-term public investment programme, were estimated to have created 160,000 additional jobs in 1978–79, or 300,000 if additional public sector employment was included in the figure.[30] The small fall in the unemployment rate, however, was achieved at the cost of a larger budget deficit (which rose from 31.2 billion DM to 75.7 billion DM in 1981), brought about by fiscal expansion.[31]

U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Schmidt in July 1977

During the 1970s, West Germany was able to weather the global financial storm far better than almost all the other developed countries, with unemployment and inflation kept at comparatively low levels. During the 1976 election campaign, the SPD/FDP coalition was able to win the battle of statistics, whether the figures related to employees' incomes, strikes, unemployment, growth, or public sector debts. Amongst other social improvements, retirement pensions had been doubled between 1969 and 1976, and unemployment pay increased to 68% of previous earnings.[32]

While visiting Saudi Arabia in April 1981, Schmidt made some unguarded remarks about the Israel-Palestine conflict that succeeded in aggravating the always-delicate relations between Israel and West Germany. Asked by a reporter about the moral aspect of German-Israeli relations, he stated that Israel was not in a position to criticize Germany due to its handling of Palestinians, and "That won't do. And in particular, it won't do for a German living in a divided nation and laying moral claim to the right of self-determination for the German people. One must then recognize the moral claim of the Palestinian people to the right of self-determination." On 3 May, Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin denounced Schmidt as "unprincipled, avaricious, heartless, and lacking in human feeling", and stated that he had "willingly served in the German armies that murdered millions". Begin was also upset over remarks he (Schmidt) had made on West German television the previous week, in which he spoke apologetically about the suffering Germany inflicted on various nations during World War II, but made no mention of the Jews. While flying home from Riyadh, Schmidt told his advisers that war guilt could not continue to affect Germany's foreign relations.[33]

Schmidt was the first world leader to call upon newly elected French president François Mitterrand, who visited Bonn in July 1981. The two found themselves in "complete agreement" on foreign policy matters and relations with the United States and the Soviet Union, but differed on trade and economic issues.[34]

By the end of his term, however, Schmidt had turned away from deficit spending, due to a deteriorating economic situation, and a number of welfare cuts were carried out,[35] including smaller increases in child benefits and higher unemployment and health contributions.[36] Large sections of the SPD increasingly opposed his security policy, while most of the FDP politicians strongly supported that policy. While representatives of the left wing of the Social Democratic Party opposed reduction of the state expenditures, the FDP began proposing a monetarist economic policy. In February 1982, Schmidt won a motion of confidence; however on 17 September 1982, the coalition broke apart, with the four FDP ministers leaving his cabinet. Schmidt continued to head a minority government composed only of SPD members, while the FDP negotiated a coalition with the CDU/CSU. During this time, Schmidt also headed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. On 1 October 1982, parliament approved of a Vote of No-Confidence and elected the CDU chairman Helmut Kohl as the new chancellor. This was the only time in the history of the Federal Republic that a chancellor was ousted from office in this way.[37]

Life after politics

Schmidt in December 2013

In 1982, along with his friend Gerald Ford, he co-founded the annual AEI World Forum.[38] The following year he joined the nationwide weekly Die Zeit newspaper as co-publisher, also acting as its director from 1985 to 1989.[3][39] In 1985, he became managing director. With Takeo Fukuda he founded the Inter Action Councils in 1983. He retired from the Bundestag in 1986. In December 1986, he was one of the founders of the committee supporting the EMU and the creation of the European Central Bank.[3]

Contrary to the line of his party, Schmidt was a determined opponent of Turkey's bid to join the EU.[40] He also opposed phasing out nuclear energy, something that the Red-Green coalition of Gerhard Schröder supported. In 2007, Schmidt described the climate debate as "hysterically overheated".[41] When asked about social media, Schmidt said he perceived the internet as "threatening". He was particularly concerned about the superficiality of communication on the web.[42]

In 2014, Schmidt said the situation in Ukraine was dangerous, because "Europe, the Americans and also Russia are behaving in a way that Christopher Clark, described in his book The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 that's very much worth reading, as the beginning of World War I: like sleepwalkers."[43]

Schmidt was the author of numerous books on his political life, on foreign policy, and political ethics. He made appearances in numerous television talk shows, and remained one of the most renowned political publicists in Germany until his death.[44]


Schmidt with Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (1977)

Schmidt described the assassinated Egyptian president Anwar Sadat as one of his friends from the world of politics, and maintained a friendship with ex-president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing of France. His circle also included former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, who went on record as stating that he wished to predecease Helmut Schmidt, because he would not wish to live in a world without him.[45]

He was also good friends with former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. At the 4th G7 summit, the two discussed strategies for the upcoming federal election, and Schmidt gave him advice on economic policy.[46] In 2011, Schmidt made a pilgrimage to the Trudeau family vault in St-Rémi-de-Napierville Cemetery, accompanied by Jean Chrétien and Tom Axworthy.[47]

Personal life

Schmidt admired the philosopher Karl Popper, and contributed a foreword to the 1982 Festschrift in Popper's honor.[48]

Schmidt was a talented pianist, and recorded piano concertos of both Mozart and Bach with German pianist and conductor Christoph Eschenbach. Schmidt recorded Mozart's piano concerto for three pianos, K. 242, with the London Philharmonic Orchestra directed by Eschenbach in 1982 with pianists Eschenbach and Justus Frantz for EMI Records (CDC 7 47473 2). In that recording, according to the CD's liner notes, Schmidt played the part written for Countess Antonia Lodron's youngest daughter Giuseppina, "almost a beginner" who commissioned the work. The part brilliantly "enables any reasonably practiced amateur to participate in a performance". The same musical notes also indicate that Schmidt and Frantz had played duets during Frantz's student days. In 1990 Schmidt joined Eschenbach, Frantz, Gerhard Oppitz and the Hamburg Philharmonic Orchestra in Deutsche Grammophon's recording of Bach's Concerto in A minor for four harpsichords, BWV 1065.[49]

Helmut Schmidt smoking

All his adult life, Schmidt was a heavy smoker. He was well known for lighting up during TV interviews and talk shows. In 13 October 1981, Schmidt was fitted with a cardiac pacemaker.[50]

In January 2008, German police launched an inquiry after an anti-smoking initiative charged that Schmidt was defying the recently introduced smoking ban. The initiative claimed that the ex-chancellor had been flagrantly ignoring anti-smoking laws. Despite pictures in the press, the case was subsequently dropped after the public prosecutor's office ruled that Schmidt's actions had not been a threat to public health.[51]

On 6 April 2010, with a lifespan of 33,342 days, he surpassed Konrad Adenauer in terms of longevity, and at the time of his death was the oldest former chancellor in German history.[52]

His wife of 68 years, Loki Schmidt, died on 21 October 2010, aged 91.[53]

At the beginning of August 2012, Schmidt gave an interview on German television and revealed that at 93 years of age, he had fallen in love again. His new life-partner was his long-standing associate Ruth Loah, 79.[54][55]

Death and state funeral

Schmidt's state funeral procession in Hamburg, 23 November 2015

In September 2015, Schmidt underwent surgery for a blood clot in his leg.[56] After initial improvement, his condition worsened again in November, with his doctor saying he "feared for the worst".[57] Schmidt died in his Hamburg home on the afternoon of 10 November 2015, aged 96.[58][59][60]

A state funeral for Schmidt was held on 23 November at the Protestant (Lutheran) St. Michael's Church, Hamburg, where Loki Schmidt's funeral had been held. German Chancellor Angela Merkel, in remarks to mourners, said, "He will be missed. He was an astute observer and commentator, and it was with good reason that he had a reputation for dependability." Others who spoke included former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. Speaking in German, he lauded Schmidt for "vision and courage", based on the principles of "reason, law, peace and faith," and said Schmidt had been "a kind of world conscience."

Among the 1,800 who attended were German President Joachim Gauck, former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and former French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, whose tenure in office paralleled Schmidt's as German chancellor. Other guests included former chancellor Gerhard Schröder, former presidents Christian Wulff, Horst Köhler, Roman Herzog and Hamburg's mayor Olaf Scholz.[61] A flag-draped coffin containing the remains of the former chancellor, also a former German defense minister, was escorted by the German Army's Wachbataillon from St. Michael's to Ohlsdorf Cemetery for a private interment ceremony.[62] Helmut Schmidt's remains were buried there one day later, in the family grave alongside the remains of his parents and his wife, Loki.[63]


Honours and awards

Helmut Schmidt received a number of accolades, among them was the Grand Cross Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, which he chose not to accept in Hanseatic tradition, in order to refuse any decoration presented for merely fulfilling one's duty.[64]

In 2003, the university of Germany's federal armed forces in Hamburg was renamed Helmut Schmidt University – University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg in 2003, in honour of the politician who  as minister of defense  had introduced mandatory academic education for German career officers.[65]

Freedom of the City

Honorary degrees

Throughout his tenure as chancellor, and even thereafter, Helmut Schmidt received 24 honorary degrees. They include degrees from the British universities Oxford and Cambridge, Paris Sorbonne, the American Harvard and Johns Hopkins universities, the Belgian Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, and the Keio University in Japan.[72]




Political books (selection)

Notes and references

  1. Max Otte; Jürgen Greve (2000). A Rising Middle Power?: German Foreign Policy in Transformation, 1989–1999. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 38.
  2. "Ancestry of Henri de Laborde de Monpezat". Wargs. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Helmut Schmidt geb. 1918". Lebendiges Museum Online (in German). Stiftung Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  4. "Sachbücher: Kleiner, großer Mann mit Mütze". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  5. Lehrer, Steven (2000). Wannsee house and the Holocaust. McFarland. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-7864-0792-7.
  6. "Told French President of Jewish Origins – Helmut Schmidt's Revelation Reported". Los Angeles Times. 25 February 1988. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
  7. Walter, Franz (31 December 2006). "Helmut Schmidt: Der deutsche Krisen-Kanzler". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  8. Janzyk, Stephan. Sozialisation in der Hitlerjugend (in German). p. 87. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  9. "Helmut Schmidt has died, aged 96", The Economist, 10 November 2015.
  10. "Ich hatte eine Beziehung zu einer anderen Frau". Die Welt (in German). 4 March 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  11. Gerwien, Tilman; Schönfeld, Gerda-Marie (23 December 2008). "Helmut Schmidts Tochter Susanne: Kein Platz für Befindlichkeiten". Stern (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  12. Woolf, Harry (16 July 1976). "Verleihung der Ehrendoktorwürde der Johns-Hopkins-Universität; Laudatio verlesen von Harry W o o l f bei der Überreichung des Grades eines Doktors der Rechtswissenschaften an Bundeskanzler Helmut Schmidt am 16. Juli 1976:" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved 20 March 2009. Bundeskanzler Schmidt wurde 1918 in Hamburg als Sohn eines Lehrers geboren. Er besuchte die fortschrittliche Lichtwarkschule, wo er auch seine zukünftige Frau Hannelore kennenlernte. Im Zweiten Weltkrieg gehörte er einer Flak-Einheit an, wurde mit dem Eisernen Kreuz ausgezeichnet und geriet gegen Ende des Krieges in britische Gefangenschaft
  13. Wolffsohn, Michael (15 December 2014). "Helmut Schmidt: Vom Oberleutnant zum Soldatenkanzler" (in German). Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  14. The Daily Telegraph, Wednesday 11 November 2015, Obituary [paper only], p.31
  15. The German word Schnauze designates the mouth and nose area of an animal like a dog or a wolf; so the epithet indicates a ready wit and a sharp tongue, suitable for (metaphorically) tearing his opponents' arguments to pieces. In the early years of the Bundestag, it was commonplace to announce a speaker's name followed by his or her electoral district, so Schmidt-Schnauze is also interpreted as a play on words.
  16. "Herr der Flut". Der Spiegel (in German) (10/1962). 7 March 1982. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  17. Bahnsen, Uwe (22 January 2012). "Als der 'Herr der Flut' 40.000 Retter kommandierte". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  18. "Die Erwartungen sind verdammt hoch: Neue Minister für die Reform-Ressorts". Der Spiegel (in German) (44/1969). 27 October 1969. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  19. Becker, Kurt (5 February 1971). "Wer muß unter die Soldaten?". Die Zeit (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  20. "Helmut Schmidt" (in German). Helmut-Schmidt-Universität Hamburg. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  21. "Regierung Schmidt: Schonfrist gibt es nicht". Der Spiegel (in German) (21/1974). 20 May 1974. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  22. von Karczewski, Johannes (2008). Weltwirtschaft ist unser Schicksal Helmut Schmidt und die Schaffung der Weltwirtschaftsgipfel (in German). Bonn. ISBN 9783801241865.
  23. Zannier, Lamberto. "Reviving the Helsinki Spirit: 40 years of the Helsinki Final Act". osce.org. OSCE. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  24. Funk, Albert (1 August 2013). "Zwei Sieger namens Helmut". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  25. "RAF-Terror: Der "Deutsche Herbst"". spiegel.de (in German). Spiegel TV. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  26. di Lorenzo, Giovanni (30 August 2007). "Deutscher Herbst: »Ich bin in Schuld verstrickt«". Die Zeit (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  27. Funk, Albert (1 August 2013). "Wie ein wilder Stier". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  28. "Helmut Schmidt ja, SPD na ja". Der Spiegel (in German) (41/1980). 6 October 1980. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  29. "Historische Debatten (9): NATO-Doppelbeschluss" (in German). Deutscher Bundestag. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  30. Walker, Robert; Townsend, Peter; Lawson, Roger (January 1984). Responses to Poverty: Lessons from Europe. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. pp. 163–170. ISBN 9780838632222. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  31. Taxation, Wage Bargaining and Unemployment by Isabela Mares
  32. Germany in the Twentieth Century by David Childs
  33. "Begin Rebukes Schmidt for Remark on Palestinians", The New York Times, 5 May 5, 1981.
  34. Frank J. Prial. "Paris-Bonn Talks Focus on Security: Mitterrand of France and Chancellor Helmut Schmidt of West Germany", The New York Times, 13 July 1981.
  35. Growth to Limits. The Western European Welfare States Since World War II by Peter Flora
  36. Socialists in the Recession: The Search for Solidarity by Giles Radice and Lisanne Radice, P.129
  37. Jan Eisel (28 September 2012). "Deutscher Bundestag – Das Misstrauensvotum gegen Helmut Schmidt". Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  38. Theakston, Kevin; de Vries, Jouke, eds. (2012). Former Leaders in Modern Democracies. Political Sunsets. Basingstoke. p. 24. ISBN 978-0230314474.
  39. Sommer, Theo (10 November 2015). "Helmut Schmidt: A Life Lived for Germany". Die Zeit. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  40. Schmidt, Helmut (5 December 2002). "Einbinden, nicht aufnehmen". Die Zeit (in German). Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  41. Kai Diekmann and Hans-Jörg Vehlewald (3 June 2007). "Der G8-Gipfel ist nur noch ein Spektakel". Bild. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  42. Helmut Schmidt über neue Medien (german), netzwelt. Retrieved 19 April 2012." 'Drei Dinge fallen mir dazu ein. Erstens: Das Internet gehört kaum zu meiner Welt. Zweitens: Ich empfinde es als bedrohlich. Und drittens: Es hat Zukunft.' Er beklagt insbesondere die Oberflächlichkeit der Kommunikation im Netz."
  43. "Ukraine Crisis Echoes 1914, German Ex-Leader Schmidt Says". Bloomberg. 16 May 2014.
  44. "Helmut Schmidt, former West German chancellor, dies aged 96". The Guardian. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  45. Helmut Schmidt – der deutsche Kanzler, documentary, ZDF 2008.
  46. Martin, Lawrence Chrétien: The Will to Win, Toronto: Lester Publishing, 1995 page 262.
  47. "Chrétien and former German leader visit Trudeau's tomb". The Canadian Press 1 June 2011
  48. Helmut Schmidt, "The Way of Freedom", in In Pursuit of Truth: Essays on the Philosophy of Karl Popper, On the Occasion of his 80th Birthday, ed. Paul Levinson, Humanities Press, 1982, pp. xi–xii.
  49. Alexander Dick (10 December 2008). "Der Klavier-Kanzler". Badische Zeitung (in German).
  50. "Dann rumpelt es in der Brust ...". Der Spiegel (in German) (43/1981). 19 October 1981. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  51. Der Spiegel: "Strafanzeige: Altkanzler Schmidt raucht trotz Verbots – Staatsanwalt ermittelt" (han) 25 January 2008; "Nichtraucher-Debatte: Altkanzler Schmidt ließ die Zigaretten stecken" (flo/dpa) 27 January 2008; "'Ich bin doch nicht verrückt': Helmut Schmidt bleibt Raucher" (pad/AP), 13 February 2008 (German)
  52. "Germany′s Oldest Former Chancellor Helmut Schmidt Turns 90". DW.COM. 22 December 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  53. Loki Schmidt auf Parkfriedhof Ohlsdorf beigesetzt Die Welt; 3. November 2010
  54. "Ex-Chancellor Schmidt, 93, in love again". Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  55. FOCUS Online (4 August 2012). "Altkanzler bekennt sich mit 93 zu Ruth Loah: Helmut Schmidts Neue sieht Loki zum Verwechseln ähnlich". FOCUS Online. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  56. "Helmut Schmidt soll es sehr schlecht gehen". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). 9 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  57. "Bangen um Helmut Schmidt: "Er will und kann nicht mehr"" (in German). FOCUS. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  58. "Altkanzler Helmut Schmidt ist tot" (in German). Tagesschau. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  59. "German ex-Chancellor Schmidt dies at 96". BBC. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  60. "Altkanzler: Helmut Schmidt ist tot". Der Spiegel (in German). 10 November 2015. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  61. "Geladene Gäste nehmen Abschied von Helmut Schmidt" (in German). Radio Hamburg. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  62. "Merkel über den Altkanzler: "Lieber Helmut Schmidt, Sie werden uns fehlen"". Der Spiegel (in German). 23 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
  63. "Helmut Schmidt ist bestattet". NDR (in German). 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  64. "Bundesverdienstkreuz: Das Kreuz mit dem Dank". Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  65. Stiftung Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. "LeMO Bestand: Biografie Helmut Schmidt". Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  66. "Hamburger Ehrenbürger" (in German). City of Hamburg. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  67. "Ehrenbürger der Stadt Bonn" (in German). Stadt Bonn. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  68. "Bremerhaven.de – Ehrenbürger" (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  69. "Abgeordnetenhaus von Berlin – Berliner Ehrenbürger" (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  70. "Ehrenbürger: Barlachstadt Güstrow" (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  71. see List of honorary citizens of Schleswig-Holstein
  72. "Helmut Schmidt". Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  73. "Theodor Heuss Stiftung / 1978" (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  74. 1 2 3 "Preisträger 2005: Helmut Schmidt". trier.de (in German). Stadt Trier. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  75. "Helmut Schmidt Laureate International Four Freedoms Award 1988". Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  76. "Die Preisträger "Das politische Buch" seit 1982" (in German). Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  77. "Friedrich-Schiedel-Literaturpreis der Stadt Bad Wurzach/Allgäu: Preisträger" (in German). Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  78. "1998 Helmut Schmidt" (in German). Carlo-Schmid-Stiftung. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
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Further reading

Primary sources

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Political offices
Preceded by
Wilhelm Kröger
Minister of the Interior of Hamburg
Succeeded by
Heinz Ruhnau
Preceded by
Gerhard Schröder
Minister for Defense
Succeeded by
Georg Leber
Preceded by
Karl Schiller
Minister for Economics
Succeeded by
Hans Friderichs
Minister for Finance
Succeeded by
Hans Apel
Preceded by
Willy Brandt
Chancellor of West Germany
Succeeded by
Helmut Kohl
Party political offices
Preceded by
Fritz Erler
Leader of the Social Democratic Party
Succeeded by
Herbert Wehner
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
James Callaghan
Chairperson of the Group of 7
Succeeded by
Masayoshi Ōhira
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