The Harvard-Kyoto Convention is a system for transliterating Sanskrit and other languages that use the Devanāgarī script into ASCII. It is predominantly used informally in e-mail, and for electronic texts.
Anusvāra and visarga
Normal Sanskrit text encoded in the Harvard-Kyoto convention can be automatically translated to Devanāgarī Unicode, with two exceptions. Harvard-Kyoto cannot distinguish अइ (a followed immediately by i, in separate syllables) from ऐ (the diphthong ai); and it cannot distinguish ल l with chandrabindu followed by a normal l from a double ll with chandrabindu. However, both cases are uncommon.