|Type||Jewish Labour Zionist youth movement|
Habonim was founded in 1929 in the United Kingdom and over a period of years, spread to all English-speaking countries. Each country developed its own independent version of the original movement whilst sharing the core ideology of being a Jewish Socialist-Zionist cultural youth movement.
Dror was founded in Poland in 1915 out of a wing of the Tze'irei Tziyon (Zion Youth) study circle. The majority of Tze'irei Tziyon had merged with a group called Hashomer in 1913 to form Hashomer Hatzair, and those who remained outside of the new group formed Dror. The group was influenced by the teachings of the Russian Narodniks.
Dror was aligned with the HaKibbutz Hameuhad network, while Habonim was aligned with the Ichud kibbutzim. When the two kibbutz movements merged in 1980 to form the United Kibbutz Movement (TaKa"M), so did their respective youth movements.
Habonim Dror's sister movement in Israel is Hanoar Haoved Vehalomed, the Working and Studying Youth.
Habonim Dror is a Jewish Socialist-Zionist cultural youth movement, which exists to educate and bring Jewish culture to its members, both within Israeli society and in the Jewish Diaspora. One of the main concepts of the movement's ideology is that of tikkun olam, a Hebrew phrase that means "mending the world" which originated in the early rabbinic period of Judaism. The Movement ideology falls into different categories. They are Hagshama Atzmit (Self-realisation), Socialism/Social Justice, Zionism, Judaism and Chalutziut (Pioneering). These categories are not independent ideologies, each platform helps to integrate one of them with the others. Every chaver/a/ol (member) embodies the spirit of Habonim Dror, based on their shared experiences and values gained in the movement. Habonim Dror's ideology is an attempt to represent that spirit in words.
The expression of these ideals involves various kinds of meetings and outdoor activities including scouting, camping, rambling, map reading as well as the education of the geography and history of Eretz Yisrael (the land of Israel). Jewish history is given attention, as are songs and dances taken from the pioneer days of the present State. The socialist ideal extends to both the kibbutz and the modern "irbutz," or urban communal living spaces movements, some of which were founded by Habonim Dror members.
Origins in the United Kingdom
Quoting the official history of Habonim Great Britain, "a certain mystique surrounded the question of who founded the Habonim Movement but there is little doubt that the major personality behind the idea was Wellesley Aron". He acknowledges that he could not have succeeded without Chaim Lipshitz who organized the first model Gedud (group) and Norman Lourie, whose enthusiasm helped generate other volunteer leaders. Lourie went on to found Habonim South Africa. Encouraged by them, Aron wrote the outline for the first Handbook and by April 1929 their organization was given the name Habonim. This was followed the next month,May 1929, by the first group, "Gedud Trumpeldor" led by Lipschitz. This date is acknowledged as the official founding date of Habonim.
According to Aron, he modeled Habonim after Baden-Powell's Boy Scouts. The idea soon spread to other English-speaking countries and ex-colonies where Jews resided. In 1930 Norman Lourie founded Habonim Southern Africa, with the first camp taking place at Parys in 1931.
Initially the idea was a "Jewish Youth Cultural Movement" for children aged between 12 and 18. Unlike other organizations abroad, the movement was initially intended to be of a non-Zionist (non-political) kind.
Lipschitz was the natural person to lead the first group since he had already organized meetings of boys at his father's Cheder (school room) and they were well established by December 1928. (Incidentally this Cheder was one of the few more-progressive of these establishments, many were unattractive places that taught only traditional Hebrew and Torah (Biblical law).) The new group was where Chaim taught Modern Hebrew along with songs and dances of the Jewish settlers in Palestine, Jewish history and various games. Chaim was assisted by Norman Lourie, a visitor from South Africa who had previously visited Palestine. The aim of these group meetings was to attract and better educate the Jewish children of immigrants from Poland and Russia (mostly pre 1905, when immigration to the U.K. was severely limited), about their Jewish history and about the progress of the Jews presently living in Palestine. These children had somewhat dismal lives in the slums of the East-End, (Stepney and Whitechapel) which were not lightened by the mostly poor Cheder education system then available.
The first meeting of leaders of the Jewish youth community as reported by Wellesley Aron, was in a letter to Dr. S. Brodetsky (of the Zionist Foundation) on 11 January 1929. Wellesley mentioned that only 5 people attended, but that Norman Lourie (the third founder) called a larger meeting for the following week (10 January) where representatives from at least 7 Jewish youth organizations were present. This meeting was in London at 77 Great Russel Street EC1. England at this time was the center of political Zionism, after the Balfour Declaration in 1917 had stated that "His Majesty's Government favourably viewed the establishment of a Jewish National Home in Palestine" (then under British mandate).
The new youth movement Habonim (The Builders) was deliberately non-Zionist in ideology. The first Gedud Trumpeldor was built on Lipschitz's existing youth group in Stepney with Lipshitz as Rosh (leader) assisted by Norman Lourie. In May 1929 the first 27-page hand-booklet detailing how Habonim was to function was published by Aron with help in the mimeographing from Norman Lourie and his lady friend Nadia, who he later married.
Habonim UK & Ireland 1929–1955
The Movement grew very rapidly. In London alone there were 21 groups by 1932. The Movement had at least 2,500 members by the time of their ten-year "Jamboree Camp" in 1939. The various gedudim or groups were initially single sex (like the Scouting Movement) but were soon were changed for boys and girls together. Associated but not part of the Movement were training farms, called Hachshara farms, for the older members to learn about agriculture and life on kibbutz, to which their aliyah (or "going-up" to Eretz Yisrael) would eventually lead.
During the Second World War the senior members of Habonim helped to organize and take care of the many refugee children who escaped from the Nazis through special Kindertransporten. Their parents had agreed to this tragic life-time separation, which was arranged through some of the more future-minded Jewish organizations remaining in Europe. Other members whose aliyah was delayed due to the war, helped the war-time food shortage to be met by working as groups of laborers on various farming communities.
Graduates of British Habonim contributed significant manpower to the establishment of many kibbutzim in Israel, among others, Kfar Blum, Kfar Hanasi, Beit HaEmek, Mevo Hama, Tuval and Amiad of these the most British is Kfar Hanassi.
Famous graduates of the two movements include:
- Sacha Baron Cohen
- Ron Bloom
- Leonard Fein
- Stanley Fischer
- Jonathan Freedland
- Ira Glass
- J.J. Goldberg
- Chaim Herzog
- Tony Judt
- Mike Leigh
- Doron Losky (stage name Lostkeyz)
- Jack Markell
- Golda Meir
- Michael Oren
- Dan Patterson and Mark Leveson (producers of Whose Line Is It Anyway?)
- David Rakoff
- Mark Regev
- Mordechai Richler
- Seth Rogen
- Guy Spigelman
- Toba Spitzer
- David Twersky
- Jaques Wagner
Today, Habonim Dror exists in seventeen countries worldwide. It is aligned with the United Kibbutz Movement, which recently merged with the Kibbutz Artzi Federation aligned with the Hashomer Hatzair youth movement.
Countries in which Habonim Dror operates
Habonim Dror operates in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Hungary, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States and Uruguay.
Habonim in North America was founded in April 1935 by the youth arm of the Poale Zion Party at a convention in Buffalo, NY. At its height, the movement had over 2,000 campers attending eleven summer camps throughout the US and Canada. Today, Habonim Dror North America (HDNA) runs many programs during the year, including a biannual veida (a mass meeting with representatives from around the movement), local events in central cities, kibbutzim in Israel, a year-long program in Israel (called Workshop), and many other ideology-focused gatherings. The Movement membership currently exceeds 1,700 youth and has been growing steadily over the past decade.
HDNA also runs six summer camps (called Machanot) across the continent. These have become a large part of the movement and in most cases are more important to members than local meetings (called ken meetings) since they play a key role in involving and recruiting new members to the movement. The six camps are as follows:
- Camp Galil (Ottsville, Pennsylvania, USA)
- Camp Gesher (Cloyne, Ontario, Canada)
- Camp Gilboa (San Bernardino County, California, USA)
- Camp Miriam (Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada)
- Camp Moshava (Maryland) (Street, Maryland, USA)
- Camp Tavor (Three Rivers, Michigan, USA)
Some now defunct camps and Habonim hachshara farms are:
- Camp Amal (Vermont 1948–49, Na'aleh 1950, Cream Ridge 1951, Moshava 1952, Galil 1953)
- Camp Bonim (Dallas, Texas)
- Camp Ein Harod (Ellenville, NY; Originally: Liberty, NY)
- Camp Kinneret (Chelsea, Michigan)
- Camp Kvutzah Gimli (Gimli, Manitoba)
- Camp Kvutzah Montreal (St. Faustin, Quebec)
- Camp Tel Ari (Hunter, New York)
- Camp Tel Hai (New Buffalo, Michigan)
- Camp Tel Natan (Troy, Missouri)
- Camp Yad Ari (Waupaca, Wisconsin)
- Cream Ridge Farm (Upper Freehold, New Jersey)
- Smithville Farm (Smithville, Ontario)
- Camp Na'aleh (Red Hook, New York; Elizaville, New York; Sidney, New York; Windsor, New York; and other locations)
Additionally, a five-week trip, named Machaneh Bonim in Israel (MBI) is a summer tour of Israel for 16-year-olds (summer after 10th grade). Students from the seven camps spend time together and learn about Israel and the movement.
HDNA publishes B'tnua, the regular movement magazine.
Habonim Dror collaborated with Ameinu, Hashomer Hatzair, and Meretz USA to form the Union of Progressive Zionists campus network, which has now become J Street U, to which Habonim Dror North America only has an affiliation.
The first steps of the TNUA in Argentina from the year 1934, when installation occurs in Buenos Aires Hejalutz Dror, by European influence. Several years later, in 1945 in Argentina hajsará arises from the hand of the other branch that later integrate what is currently moviemiento we are talking about Ichud Habonim. By 1980 there is the merger and Ichud Habonim Dror, forming what is now known as Habonim Dror. This unification occurs after the formation of the Kingdom of the Kibbutz Movement, Takam. Remember that before this event Dror was aligned with the network "Meiujad" (Meuhad) while Kibbutz Habonim was integrated with the kibbutzim of "Ichud." Today our TNUA has keinim in 8 provinces, with over 300 active chaverim. Through the Shnat Hajshara, encouraging continuing to live their bogrim significant experience in the State of Israel, seeking to strengthen identification with Jewish culture.
Aotearoa New Zealand
There are 3 main centres; Auckland being the largest, then Wellington and Christchurch. Each Ken runs weekly meetings. The movement come together for various seminars during the year as well as winter and summer camps. The summer camps run for ten days and are always in tents and on a farm, winter camps are shorter and run in cabins due to New Zealand's climate. Habo ANZ celebrated its 60th anniversary in 2008. Habonim Dror Aotearoa New Zealand is a member of the Australasian Zionist Youth Council (AZYC).
Habonim Dror has three kenim (branches) around Australia. They are in Sydney, Melbourne and Perth. Habonim Dror Australia runs weekly meetings for students from years three to twelve as well as biannual camps. Each state runs independent winter camps and a summer camp for junior students (years three to eight), while annually in January all state movements come together for a federal camp for years nine to twelve, which runs for ten days. Habonim Dror Australia is a member of the Australasian Zionist Youth Council (AZYC).
Every year chanichim (members) who have just finished high school travel to Israel for a year on Shnat Hachshara Ve'Hadracha le'Aliyah, commonly referred to as Shnat, where they go on an extensive experiential and educational process and actively carry out movement aims and discuss group issues.
Habonim was first brought to Australia in 1940, when seven new Australians decided to create a Zionist youth movement along similar lines to those that already existed in Europe. In March of that year the first meeting was held in Melbourne's Herzl Hall, and later in December, Habonim's first summer camp.
After a brief union with Betar in 1942, Habonim grew into an Australia-wide movement in May 1944. The following year, Habonim Australia's first hachshara (preparation, in Hebrew: הכשרה) farm was established in Springvale, about 25 km out of Melbourne's centre. The next year five Habonim graduates made aliyah settling on Kibbutz Kfar Blum.
In 1957, the first organised group of Habonim graduates made aliyah in a garin to Kibbutz Yizre'el. Six garinim would ultimately be formed with the intention of making aliyah. It is unclear how many succeeded.
At an Australia-wide level (federal), there is an executive secretariat (mazkirut, in Hebrew: מזכירות) which includes a Secretary-General (mazkir, in Hebrew: מזכיר), Treasurer (gizbar, in Hebrew: גיזבר), a Head of Education (rosh chinuch, in Hebrew: ראש חינוך) and a Shnat co-ordinator ("rakaz shnat", in Hebrew: רכז שנת). The current executive secretariat is made up of Zachary Jonathan Freund, Jonathan Epy Epstein, Thomas Lesley Broons and Russell Guss Goldblatt. Similarly, each individual branch has a mazkir, gizbar and rosh chinuch executive position, along with an external community liaison ("meta'em", in Hebrew: מתאם) and an additional position for a representative from the year level returning from shnat.
Each shichvah (year level) has a tzevet (team) of madrichim (leaders) responsible for their educational process and general wellbeing. These madrichim will prepare and run peulot (activities) on a weekly basis for their chanichim, as well as biannual camps and other extra events such as shabbatonim (sleepover on shabbat). Tzvatim are made up of bogrim (madrichim who have returned from shnat) and madatzim (year 11 chanichim). Senior tzvatim are made up solely of bogrim, while junior tzvatim are primarily madatzim leading alongside bogrim who help guide them through their first year of leading. There is also a tzevet that is responsible for running peulot for bogrim themselves, ensuring that there is a continued educational process among the educators.
Additionally, there are other tafkidim (roles) that allow for madrichim to take responsibility for various aspects of the movement such as Judaism, Zionism, gender education, gardening, equipment and politics and social action.
The movement arrived in Brazil by influences of the Argentine activists, and began in Porto Alegre (Southern Brazil) in 1945. Within a few years, Habonim reached Curitiba, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Some time later, it arrived in Recife, Salvador and Belo Horizonte. And, more recently, it reached Manaus and Fortaleza.
At these nine branches across the country, Habonim runs weekly activities for children, teenagers and young adults from 7 to 22 years old, as well as weekly-long Machanot (camps) in Summer and Winter. Also twice a year is held the National Machaneh.
Once in a two-year cycle, a Veidah Artzit (National Convention) is held, comprising a meeting of all the senior members of the National Movement. The Veidah has powers to modify HD Brazil's ideological platform, as long as it doesn't oppose to the World Movement's principles.
Habonim Dror Southern Africa (HDSA) was founded in 1930 by Norman Lourie. HDSA draws its membership from the Southern African region. However the vast majority of its membership comes from South Africa. HDSA's two primary centres are based in Cape Town and Johannesburg, although the movement is active across the country.
HDSA defines itself as a Jewish Zionist Youth movement (See Constitution 2009). HDSA classifies itself as a left-wing movement. Unlike other Habonim Dror movements, HDSA does not classify itself as socialist but rather supports economic and social equality.
As a left-wing Zionist movement, HDSA promotes a two-state solution in Israel. It also encourages it members to live in Israel in a manner which positively contributes to Israeli society.
HDSA annually hosts one of the largest summer camps in the Southern Hemisphere at their campsite in Onrus outside Cape Town. During the year, consistent activities are run for its members who range from the ages of 9–22. The ideological tenets of the movement such as Zionism, Socialism and Service to Humanity inform many of these activities. Additionally, HDSA runs an annual tour to Israel for 16-year-olds and sends many of its members on a ten-month post school program to Israel.
The Belgian ken is one of the biggest in Europe. Every Saturday afternoon, 130 chaverim and madrichim get together in Brussels.
- Habonim, Great Britain. 1929–1955, Yad Tabenkin, 1999
- Silman-Cheong, Helen, Wellesley Aron, Rebel with a Cause, Valentine Mitchell, 1992, p.50
- taken from various sources in the archives of Habonim at Yad Tabenkin, Ramat Efer, near Ramat Gan/Tel Aviv, Israel.
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- Habonim Dror Camp Association registration data 2013
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- Habonim Olami – World Habonim
- Habonim Dror Aotearoa New Zealand
- Habonim Dror Argentina
- Habonim Dror Australia
- Habonim Dror Brazil
- Habonim Dror Holland
- Habonim Dror North America
- Habonim Dror Paris
- Habonim Dror Southern Africa
- Habonim Dror United Kingdom