Group of 77

The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.[1] There were 77 founding members of the organization, but by November 2013 the organization had since expanded to 134 member countries.[2]

Thailand holds the Chairmanship for 2016.

The group was founded on 15 June 1964, by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).[3] The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun. There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Geneva (UN), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).


The group has been credited with common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament.[4] It has been supportive of the New International Economic Order.[4][5] It has however been subject to criticism for its lackluster support, or outright opposition, to pro-environmental initiatives, which the group considers secondary to economic development and poverty-eradication initiatives.[4][6][7]


As of 2015, the group comprises all of UN members (along with the Palestinian Authority) – excluding the following:

  1. All members of the Council of Europe (but with the exception of Bosnia Herzegovina);
  2. All members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (but with the exception of Chile);
  3. All members of the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area (but with the exception of Tajikistan);
  4. Two Pacific microstates: Palau and Tuvalu.

On the map, members as of 2013 are shown in green.

Group of 77 countries as of 2013

Member nations are listed below. The years in parenthesis represent the year/s a country has presided. Countries listed in bold are also members of the G-24. See the official list of G-77 members.

Current founding members[8]

  1.  Afghanistan
  2.  Algeria (1981–1982, 1994, 2009, 2012)
  3.  Argentina (2011)
  4.  Benin[9]
  5.  Bolivia (1990)
  6.  Brazil
  7.  Burkina Faso[10]
  8.  Burundi
  9.  Cambodia
  10.  Cameroon
  11.  Central African Republic
  12.  Chad
  13.  Chile
  14.  Colombia (1992)
  15.  Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa)
  16.  Congo (Brazzaville)
  17.  Costa Rica (1996)
  18.  Dominican Republic
  19.  Ecuador
  20.  Egypt[11] (1972–1973, 1984–1985)
  21.  El Salvador
  22.  Ethiopia
  23.  Gabon
  24.  Ghana (1991)
  1.  Guatemala (1987)
  2.  Guinea
  3.  Haiti
  4.  Honduras
  5.  India (1970–1971, 1979–1980)
  6.  Indonesia (1998)
  7.  Iran (1973–1974, 2001)
  8.  Iraq
  9.  Jamaica (1977–1978, 2005)
  10.  Jordan
  11.  Kenya
  12.  Kuwait
  13.  Laos
  14.  Lebanon
  15.  Liberia
  16.  Libya
  17.  Madagascar (1975–1976)
  18.  Malaysia (1989)
  19.  Mali
  20.  Mauritania
  21.  Morocco (2003)
  22.  Myanmar[12]
  23.    Nepal
  24.  Nicaragua
  1.  Niger
  2.  Nigeria (2000)
  3.  Pakistan (1976–1977, 1992, 2007)
  4.  Panama
  5.  Paraguay
  6.  Peru (1971–1972)
  7.  Philippines (1995)
  8.  Rwanda
  9.  Saudi Arabia
  10.  Senegal
  11.  Sierra Leone
  12.  Somalia
  13.  Sri Lanka[13]
  14.  Sudan (2009)
  15.  Syria
  16.  Tanzania[14] (1997)
  17.  Thailand (2016)
  18.  Togo
  19.  Trinidad and Tobago
  20.  Tunisia (1978–1979, 1988)
  21.  Uganda
  22.  Uruguay
  23.  Venezuela (1980–1981, 2002)
  24.  Vietnam
  25.  Yemen (2010)

Other current members

  1.  Angola
  2.  Antigua and Barbuda (2008)
  3.  Bahamas
  4.  Bahrain
  5.  Bangladesh (1982–1983)
  6.  Barbados
  7.  Belize
  8.  Bhutan
  9.  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  10.  Botswana
  11.  Brunei
  12.  Cape Verde
  13.  Comoros
  14.  Ivory Coast
  15.  Cuba
  16.  Djibouti
  17.  Dominica
  18.  Equatorial Guinea
  19.  Eritrea
  1.  Fiji
  2.  Gambia
  3.  Grenada
  4.  Guinea-Bissau
  5.  Guyana (1999)
  6.  Kiribati
  7.  Lesotho
  8.  Malawi
  9.  Maldives
  10.  Marshall Islands
  11.  Mauritius
  12. Federated States of Micronesia Micronesia
  13.  Mongolia
  14.  Mozambique
  15.  Namibia
  16.  North Korea
  17.  Nauru
  18.  Oman
  19.  Palestine
  20.  Papua New Guinea
  1.  Qatar
  2.  Saint Kitts and Nevis
  3.  Saint Lucia
  4.  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  5.  Samoa
  6.  São Tomé and Príncipe
  7.  Seychelles
  8.  Singapore
  9.  Solomon Islands
  10.  South Africa (2006)
  11.  South Sudan
  12.  Suriname
  13.  Swaziland
  14.  Tajikistan
  15.  Timor-Leste
  16.  Tonga
  17.  Turkmenistan
  18.  United Arab Emirates
  19.  Vanuatu
  20.  Zambia
  21.  Zimbabwe

Former members

Presiding countries of the G77 since 1970. Colors show the number of times a country has held the position. Yellow = once; orange = twice; red = thrice. Countries in grey are yet to hold the position.
  1.  New Zealand signed the original "Joint Declaration of the Developing Countries" in October 1963, but pulled out of the group before the formation of the G77 in 1964 (it joined the OECD in 1973).
  2.  Mexico was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1994. It had presided over the group in 1973–1974, 1983–1984; however, it is still a member of G-24.
  3.  South Korea was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1996.
  4.  Yugoslavia was a founding member; by the late 1990s it was still listed on the membership list, but it was noted that it "cannot participate in the activities of G77." It was removed from the list in late 2003. It had presided over the group in 1985–1986. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the only part of former Yugoslavia that is currently in G77.
  5.  Cyprus was a founding member, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004.
  6.  Malta was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004.
  7.  Palau joined the Group in 2002, but withdrew in 2004, having decided that it could best pursue its environmental interests through the Alliance of Small Island States.
  8.  Romania was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2007.

Group of 77 and China

 China has never officially joined the G77 but provides consistent political support (usually in the name of "the Group of 77 and/plus China") and financial donation (since 1994) to the G77.[15]

Group of 24

Main article: Group of 24
G-24 countries.
  Member nations
  Observer nations

The Group of 24 (G-24) is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters.

The Group of 24, which is officially called the Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development, is not an organ of the International Monetary Fund, but the IMF provides secretariat services for the Group. Its meetings usually take place twice a year, prior to the IMFC and Development Committee meetings , to enable developing country members to discuss agenda items beforehand.

Although membership in the G-24 is strictly limited to 24 countries, any member of the G-77 can join discussions (Mexico is the only G-24 member that is not a G-77 member, when it left the G-77 without resigning its G-24 membership). China has been a "special invitee" since the Gabon meetings of 1981. Naglaa El-Ehwany, Minister of International Cooperation, Egypt, is the current chairman of the G-24.

See also


  1. About the Group of 77:Aims
  2. Members of the Group of 77
  3. About the Group of 77:Establishment
  4. 1 2 3 Satpathy (2005). Environment Management. Excel Books India. p. 30. ISBN 978-81-7446-458-3.
  5. Malgosia Fitzmaurice; David M. Ong; Panos Merkouris (2010). Research Handbook on International Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 567–. ISBN 978-1-84980-726-5.
  6. Jan Oosthoek; Barry K. Gills (31 October 2013). The Globalization of Environmental Crisis. Taylor & Francis. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-1-317-96895-5.
  7. Howard S. Schiffman (3 May 2011). Green Issues and Debates: An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE Publications. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-4522-6626-8.
  9. Formerly known as Dahomey.
  10. Formerly known as Upper Volta.
  11. Formerly known as the United Arab Republic.
  12. Formerly known as Burma.
  13. Formerly known as Ceylon.
  14. Formerly known as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
  15. "七十七国集团(Group of 77, G77)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. July 2016. 中国不是77国集团成员,但一贯支持其正义主张和合理要求,与其保持良好合作关系,在经社领域一般以“77国集团加中国”的模式表达共同立场。中国自1994年开始每年向其捐款,2014年起捐款每年5万美元。
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