Grape seed oil

Not to be confused with rapeseed oil.
Grape Seed Oil

Grape seed oil in clear glass vial
Fat composition
Saturated fats
Total saturated Palmitic: 7%
Stearic: 4%
Unsaturated fats
Total unsaturated 86%
Monounsaturated 16.1%
Palmitoleic acid <1%
Oleic acid 15.8%
Polyunsaturated 69.9%
Omega-3 fatty acids α-Linolenic: 0.1%
Omega-6 fatty acids Linoleic: 69.6%
Food energy per 100 g (3.5 oz) 3,700 kJ (880 kcal)
Smoke point 216 °C (421 °F)
Iodine value 124-143
Saponification value 126 (NaOH)
180-196 (KOH)
Unsaponifiable 0.3% - 1.6%
Peroxide value 2.92 mequiv/kg

Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is pressed from the seeds of grapes, and is thus an abundant by-product of winemaking.



Grape seed oil has a moderately high smoke point of approximately 216 °C (421 °F). Due to its clean, light taste, and high polyunsaturated fat content, it may be used as an ingredient in salad dressings and mayonnaise and as a base for oil infusions of garlic, rosemary, or other herbs or spices. It is widely used in baked goods, pancakes, and waffles. It is sprayed on raisins to help them retain their flavor.[1]

The metabolic energy density of grape seed oil is typical of vegetable oils: approximately 3,700 kJ (880 kcal) per 100 g, or 500 kJ (120 kcal) per 15 ml tablespoon.


Grape seed oil is a preferred cosmetic ingredient for controlling moisture of the skin. Light and thin, grape seed oil leaves a glossy film over skin when used as a carrier oil for essential oils in aromatherapy. It contains more linoleic acid than many other carrier oils.

Grape seed oil is also used as a lubricant for shaving and as a growth and strengthening treatment for hair.

Potential medicinal benefits

Further information: Grape seed extract

Grape seed oil may provide some health benefits. A 1993 study supports the claim that grape seed oil increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C or "good cholesterol") levels and reduces LDL levels.[2]

Although grape seeds contain antioxidants and other biologically active compounds,[3] the cold-pressed grape seed oil contains negligible amounts due to their insolubility in lipids.[4] For instance, sufficiently high amounts of resveratrol occur in grape seed for it to be extracted commercially,[5] yet it is almost entirely absent in the grape seed oil.

Potential medicinal complications

Grapeseed oil has occasionally been found to contain dangerous levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons because of direct contact with combustion gases during the drying process.[6]


Grape seeds (numbers 7 and 8) and grapes

The following table lists a typical fatty acid composition of grape seed oil:[7]

Acid Type Percentage
Linoleic acid ω−6 unsaturated 69.6%
Oleic acid ω−9 unsaturated 15.8%
Palmitic acid
(Hexadecanoic acid)
Saturated 7%
Stearic acid
(Octadecanoic acid)
Saturated 4%
Alpha-linolenic acid ω−3 unsaturated 0.1%
Palmitoleic acid
(9-Hexadecenoic acid)
ω−7 unsaturated less than 1%

Grape seed oil also contains 0.8 to 1.5% unsaponifiables rich in phenols (tocopherols) and steroids (campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol).[8] Grapeseed oil contains small amounts of vitamin E, but safflower oil, cottonseed oil, or rice bran oil contain greater amounts.[9] Grapeseed oil is high in polyunsaturates and low in saturated fat.

See also


  1. Bewley, J. Derek; Black, Michael; Halmer, Peter (2006). The encyclopedia of seeds: science, technology and uses. CABI. ISBN 0-85199-723-6.
  2. Nash, DT (2004). "Cardiovascular risk beyond LDL-C levels: Other lipids are performers in cholesterol story". Postgraduate Medicine. 116 (3): 11–5. doi:10.3810/pgm.2004.09.1584. PMID 15460086.
  3. Joshi, SS; Kuszynski C. A.; Bagchi D. (2001). "The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2 (2): 187–200. doi:10.2174/1389201013378725. PMID 11480422.
  4. Nakamura, Y; Tsuji S; Tonogai Y (2003). "Analysis of proanthocyanidins in grape seed extracts, health foods and grape seed oils". Journal of Health Science. 49 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1248/jhs.49.45.
  5. Yilmaz, Y; Toledo, RT (February 2006). "Oxygen radical absorbance capacities of grape/wine industry byproducts and effect of solvent type on extraction of grape seed polyphenols". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19 (1): 41–48. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2004.10.009.
  6. Moret, S.; Dudine, A.; Conte, L.S. (2000). "Processing effects on the polyaromatic hydrocarbon content of grapeseed oil" (PDF). Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 77 (12): 1289–1292. doi:10.1007/s11746-000-0203-5. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
  7. Kamel, B. S.; Dawson H.; Kakuda Y. (1985). "Characteristics and composition of melon and grape seed oils and cakes". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 62 (5): 881–883. doi:10.1007/BF02541750.
  8. Oomah, B. D.; Liang J.; Godfrey D.; Mazza G. (1998). "Microwave Heating of Grapeseed: Effect on Oil Quality" (PDF). J. Agric. Food Chem. 46 (10): 4017–4021. doi:10.1021/jf980412f.
  9. Herting, D. C.; Drury, E. J. E. (1963). "Vitamin E Content of Vegetable Oils and Fats". J. Nutr. 81: 4017–4021. PMID 14100992.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 8/5/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.