Graeco-Phrygian // is a hypothetical branch of the Indo-European language family with two branches in turn: Greek and Phrygian. Greek has also been variously grouped with Armenian (Graeco-Armenian; Graeco-Aryan), Ancient Macedonian (Graeco-Macedonian) and, more recently, Messapian. Multiple or all of these, with the exception of Armenian, are sometimes (tentatively) classified under "Hellenic"; at other times, Hellenic is posited to consist of only Greek. Blažek (2005, p. 6) says that, in regard to the classification of these languages, their surviving texts—because of their scarcity and/or their nature—can't be quantified.
Brixhe (2008) points to these features Greek and Phrygian are known to have in common and in common with no other language:
- a certain class of masculine nouns in the nominative singular ending in -s;
- a certain class of denominal verbs;
- the pronoun auto-;
- the participial suffix -meno-;
- the stem kako-;
- and the conjunction ai.
- Blažek, Václav (November 2005). "On the internal classification of Indo-European languages: survey" (PDF). Linguistica Online. ISSN 1801-5336.
- Brixhe, Claude (2008). "Phrygian". In Woodard, Roger D. The Ancient Languages of Asia Minor. Cambridge University Press. p. 72.
- Blažek, Václav (2005). "Paleo-Balkanian Languages I: Hellenic Languages" (PDF). Sborník prací Filozofické fakulty brněnské univerzity. 10. Brno: Masarykova univerzita. pp. 15–33. ISBN 80-210-3784-9.
- Brixhe, Claude (2002). "Interactions between Greek and Phrygian under the Roman Empire". In Adams, J. N.; Janse, Mark. Bilingualism in Ancient Society: Language Contact and the Written Text. Oxford University Press. pp. 246–266.
- Fortson, Benjamin W. (2011). Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Blackwell. pp. 203, 252.
- Masson, Olivier (1991). "Anatolian Languages". In Boardman, John; Edwards, I. E. S. The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 668–9.
- Woudhuizen, Fred C. (2008–2009). "Phrygian & Greek" (PDF). Talanta, Proceedings of the Dutch Archaeological and Historical Society. 40–41. pp. 181–217. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2014.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Graeco-Phrygian". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.