List of colonial governors of Mozambique


In 1498 Portuguese ships under Vasco da Gama visited Mozambique Island and several other towns on the East African coast. In 1500, Sancho de Tovar was the first Portuguese captain to sight (but not land) in Sofala. On a return voyage in 1502, Vasco da Gama established a Portuguese factory on Mozambique Island and finally visited Sofala, signing a commercial treaty with the ruling sheikh Isuf of Sofala.

In September 1505 Pêro de Anaia signed a new treaty with sheikh Isuf allowing the establishment of a Portuguese factory and fortress (Fort São Caetano) in Sofala. Pêro de Anaia assumed the title of capitão-mor (captain-major) of the fort in Sofala, thus inaugurating the first colonial government in Portuguese East Africa. In 1507, Sofala captain Vasco Gomes de Abreu established a second Portuguese fort on Mozambique Island, and the colonial title was better known by the expanded 'Captain-Major of Sofala and Mozambique'.

Until 1752 the Capitaincy of Sofala-Mozambique was under the oversight of the Viceroy of Portuguese India.

List of Colonial Heads of Mozambique

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

Term Incumbent Notes
Captaincy of Sofala under Viceroy of IndiaPortuguese Administration
September, 1505 to March 1506Pêro de Anaia, Captain-Major Died in office.
March 1506 to December 1506Manuel Fernandes de Meireles, acting Captain-Major Factor. Elected to temporarily replace Anaia.
December 1506 to 8 September 1507Nuno Vaz Pereira, Captain-Major Appointed by D. Francisco de Almeida, viceroy of India.
Captaincy of Sofala and Moçambique under Viceroy of India
8 September 1507 to February 1508Vasco Gomes de Abreu, Captain-Major Died in office.
February 1508 to August 1509Rui de Brito Patalim, acting Captain-Major
August 1509 to 24 June 1512António de Saldanha, Captain-Major
24 June 1512 to June 1515Simão de Miranda de Azevedo, Captain-Major
June 1512 to July 1515Sancho de Tovar, acting Captain-Major1st Term
July 1515 to June 1518Cristóvão de Távora, Captain-Major
June 1518 to July 1521Sancho de Tovar, Captain-Major2nd Term
July 1521 to 1525Diogo de Sepúlveda, Captain-Major
1525 to 1528Lopo de Almeida, Captain-Major
1528 to 1531António da Silveira de Meneses, Captain-Major
1531 to 1538Vicente Pegado, Captain-Major
1538 to 1541Alexio Chicorro, Captain-Major
1541 to 1548João de Sepúlveda, Captain-Major
1548 to 1551Fernão de Sousa de Távora, Captain-Major
1551 to 1553Diogo de Mesquita, Captain-Major
1553 to 1557Diogo de Sousa, Captain-Major
1557 to 1560Sebastião de Sá, Captain-Major
1560 to 1564Pantaleão de Sá, Captain-Major
1564 to 1567Jerónimo Barreto, Captain-Major
1567 to 1569Pedro Barreto Rolim, Captain-Major
Captaincy-general of Moçambique
1569 to June 1573Francisco Barreto, Captain-General
June 1573 to 1577Vasco Fernandes Homem, acting Captain-General
1577 to 1577Fernando Monroi, acting Captain-General
1577 to 1577Simão de Silveira, acting Captain-General
1577 to 1582Pedro de Castro, Captain-General
1582 to 1586Nuno Pereira, Captain-General
1586 to 1589Jorge Telo de Meneses, Captain-General
1589 to 1590Lourenço de Brito, Captain-General
1590 to 1595Pedro de Sousa, Captain-General
1595 to 1598Nuno da Cunha Ataíde, Captain-General
1598 to 1601Álvaro Abranches, Captain-General
1601 to 1604Vasco de Mascarenhas, Captain-General
1604 to 1607Sebastião de Macedo, Captain-General
1607 to 1609Estêvão de Ataíde, Captain-General
Colony of Moçambique, Sofala, Ríos de Cuama, and Monomatapa under Goa
1609 to 1611Nuno Álvares Pereira, Governor1st Term
1611 to 1612Estévão de Ataíde, Governor
1612 to 1612Diogo Simões de Madeira, acting Governor
1612 to 1614João de Azevedo, Governor
1614 to 1618Rui de Melo Sampaio, Governor
1618 to 1623Nuno Álvares Pereira, Governor2nd Term
1623 to 1624Lopo de Almeida, Governor
1624 to 1627Diogo de Sousa de Meneses, Governor1st Term
1627 to 1631Nuno Álvares Pereira, Governor3rd Term
1631 to 1632Cristóvão de Brito e Vasconcelos, acting Governor
1632 to 1633Diogo de Sousa de Meneses, Governor2nd Term
1633 to 1634Filipe de Mascarenhas, Governor
1634 to 1639Lourenço de Souto-Maior, Governor
1639 to 1640Diogo de Vasconcelos, Governor
1640 to 1641António de Brito Pacheco, Governor
1641 to 1642Francisco da Silveira, Governor
1642 to 1646Júlio Moniz da Silva, Governor
1646 to 1648Fernão Dias Baião, Governor
1648 to 1651Álvaro de Sousa de Távora, Governor
1651 to 1652Francisco de Mascarenhas, Governor
1652 to 1657Francisco de Lima, Governor
1657 to 1661Manuel Corte-Real de Sampaio, Governor
1661 to 1664Manuel de Mascarenhas, Governor
1664 to 1667António de Melo e Castro, Governor
1667 to 1670Inácio Sarmento de Carvalho, Governor
1670 to 1673João de Sousa Freire, Governor1st Term
1673 to 1674Simão Gomes da Silva, Governor
1674 to 1674André Pinto da Fonseca, Governor
1674 to 1676Manuel da Silva, acting Governor
1676 to 1682João de Sousa Freire, Governor2nd Term
1682 to 1686Caetano de Melo e Castro, Governor
1686 to 1689Miguel de Almeida, Governor
1689 to 1692Manuel dos Santos Pinto, Governor
1692 to 1693Tomé de Sousa Correia, Governor
1693 to 1694Francisco Correia de Mesquita, acting Governor
1694 to 1695Estêvão José da Costa, Governor
1695 to 1696Francisco da Costa, Governor
1696 to 1699Luís de Melo Sampaio, Governor
1699 to 1703Jácome de Morais Sarmento, Governor
1703 to 1706João Fernandes de Almeida, Governor1st Term
1706 to 1708Luís de Brito Freire, Governor
1708 to 1712Luís Gonçalves da Câmara, Governor
1712 to 1714João Fernandes de Almeida, Governor2nd Term
1714 to 1716Francisco de Mascarenhas, Governor
1716 to 1719Francisco de Souto-Maior, Governor
1719 to 1722Francisco de Alarcão e Souto-Maior, Governor
1722 to 1723Álvaro Caetano de Melo e Castro, Governor
1723 to 1726António João Sequeira e Faria, Governor
1726 to 1730António Cardim Fróis, Governor
1730 to 1733António Casco de Melo, Governor
1733 to 1736José Barbosa Leal, Governor
1736 to 1740Nicolau Tolentino de Almeida, Governor
1740 to 1743Lourenço de Noronha, Governor
1743 to 1746Pedro do Rêgo Barreto da Gama e Castro, Governor
1746 to 1750Caetano Correia da Sá, Governor
1750 to 1752Francisco de Melo e Castro, Governor
Colony of Moçambique, the Zambezi and Sofala
1752 to March 1758Francisco de Melo e Castro, Governor
March 1758 to April 1758João Manuel de Melo, Governor
April 1758 to 28 May 1759David Marques Pereira, Governor
28 May 1759 to January 1763Pedro de Saldanha e Albuquerque, Governor1st Term
6 January 1763 to 1765João Pereira da Silva Barba, Governor
1765 to June 1779Baltasar Manuel Pereira do Lago, Governor
June 1779 to 1780Provisional Administration, Governor
1780 to 1781José de Vasconcelos e Almeida, Governor
1781 to 4 January 1782Vicente Caetano da Maria e Vasconcelos, acting Governor
4 January 1782 to 21 August 1782Pedro de Saldanha e Albuquerque, Governor2nd Term
21 August 1782 to 1786Provisional Administration
1786 to 1793António de Melo e Castro, Governor
1793 to 1797Diogo de Sousa Coutinho, Governor
1797 to September 1801Francisco Guedes de Carvalho Meneses da Costa, Governor
September 1801 to August 1805Isidro de Sousa e Sá, Governor
August 1805 to December 1807Francisco de Paula de Albuquerque do Amaral Cardoso, Governor
December 1807 to 14 August 1809Provisional Administration
14 August 1809 to August 1812António Manuel de Melo e Castro de Mendonça, Governor
August 1812 to February 1817Marcos Caetano de Abreu e Meneses, Governor
February 1817 to September 1818José Francisco de Paula Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Governor
September 1818 to November 1819Provisional Administration
November 1819 to June 1821João da Costa M. Brito-Sanches, Governor
June 1821 to June 1824Provisional Administration
June 1824 to January 1825João Manuel da Silva, Governor
January 1825 to August 1829Sebastião Xavier Botelho, Governor
August 1829 to January 1832Paulo José Miguel de Brito, Governor
January 1832 to March 1834Provisional Administration
March 1834 to March 1836José Gregório Pegado, Governor
Moçambique Colony/(Portuguese East Africa)
March 1836 to March 1837Provisional Administration
March 1837 to October 1837António José de Melo, Governor-General
October 1837 to March 1838João Carlos Augusto de Oeynhausen e Gravenburg, marquês de Aracaty, Governor-General
March 1838 to 25 March 1840Juiz A. de Ramalho de Sá, President of the Governing Council
25 March 1840 to May 1841Joaquim Pereira Marinho, Governor-General
May 1841 to 15 February 1843João da Costa Xavier, Governor-General
15 February 1843 to May 1847Rodrigo Luciano de Abreu e Lima, Governor-General
May 1847 to October 1851Domingos Fortunato de Vale, Governor-General
October 1851 to April 1854Joaquim Pinto de Magalhães, Governor-General
April 1854 to September 1857Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses, acting Governor-General
September 1857 to February 1864João Tavares d'Almeida, Governor-General
February 1864 to April 1864Cândido M. Montes, President of Governing Council
April 1864 to October 1867M. António do Canto e Castro, Governor-General
October 1867 to September 1868António Augusto de Almeida Portugal Correia de Lacerda, Governor-General
September 1868 to February 1869M.N.P. de Ataíde e Azevedo, President of Governing Council
February 1869 to April 1869António Tavares de Almeida, Governor-General
April 1869 to December 1869Fernão da Costa Leal, Governor-General
December 1869 to June 1870Juiz E. K. da Fonseca e Gouveia, President of Governing Council
June 1870 to August 1870Inácio A. Alves, acting Governor-General
August 1870 to December 1873José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral, Governor-General
December 1873 to August 1874Juiz J. M. Crispiniano da Fonseca, President of Governing Council
August 1874 to December 1877José Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses, Governor-General
December 1877 to January 1880Francisco Maria da Cunha, Governor-General
January 1880 to August 1881Augusto César Rodrigues Sarmento, acting Governor-General
August 1881 to February 1882Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva, visconde de Paço d'Arcos, Governor-General
February 1882 to April 1882J. d'Almeida d'Avila, acting Governor-General
April 1882 to April 1885Agostinho Coelho, Governor-General
April 1885 to July 1885D. Henrique Real da Silva, President of Governing Council
July 1885 to March 1889Augusto Vidal de Castilho Barreto e Noronha, Governor-General
March 1889 to July 1889José Joaquim d'Almeida, acting Governor-General
July 1889 to July 1890José António de Brissac das Neves Ferreira, Governor-General
July 1890 to 2 July 1891Joaquim José Machado, Governor-General1st Term
2 July 1891 to May 1893Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade, Governor-General
May 1893 to 13 January 1894Francisco Teixeira da Silva, Governor-General
January 1894 to July 1894J. Correia e Lança, acting Governor-General1st Term
July 1894 to January 1895Fernão de Magalhães e Meneses, Governor-General
January 1895 to December 1895António José Enes -Commissioner, Governor-General
January 1896 to March 1896J. Correia e Lança, acting Governor-General2nd Term
March 1896 to November 1897Joaquim Mousinho de Albuquerque, Governor-General
November 1897 to August 1898Baltasar Freire Cabral, acting Governor-General
August 1898 to December 1898Carlos Alberto Schultz Xavier, Governor-General
December 1898 to March 1900Álvaro António Ferreira, Governor-General
March 1900 to May 1900Júlio José, marqués da Costa, Governor-General
May 1900 to October 1900Joaquim José Machado, Governor-General2nd Term
October 1900 to December 1902Manuel Rafael Gorjão, Governor-General
December 1902 to February 1905Tomás António Garcia Rosado, Governor-General
February 1905 to October 1906João António de Azevedo Coutinho Fragoso de Sequeira, Governor-General
October 1906 to November 1910Alfredo Augusto Freire de Andrade, Governor-General
November 1910 to May 1911José de Freitas Ribeiro, acting Governor-General
May 1911 to February 1912José Francisco de Azevedo e Silva, Governor-General
February 1912 to March 1913Alfredo Afonso Meneses de Magalhães, Governor-General
March 1913 to April 1914Augusto Ferreira dos Santos, Governor-General
April 1914 to May 1915Joaquim José Machado, Governor-General3rd Term
May 1915 to October 1915Alfredo Baptista Coelho, Governor-General
October 1915 to April 1918Álvaro Xavier de Castro, Governor-General
April 1918 to April 1919Pedro Francisco Massano do Amorim, Governor-General
April 1919 to March 1921Manuel Juiz Moreira da Fonseca, acting Governor-General1st Term
March 1921 to September 1923Manuel de Brito Camacho, High Commissioner and Governor-General
September 1923 to November 1924Manuel Juiz Moreira da Fonseca, acting High Commissioner and Governor-General2nd Term
November 1924 to May 1926Víctor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho, High Commissioner and Governor-General
May 1926 to November 1926Artur Ivens Ferraz, acting High Commissioner and Governor-General
November 1926 to April 1938José Ricardo Pereira Cabral, High Commissioner and Governor-General
April 1938 to 1941José Nicolau Nunes de Oliveira, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1941 to 1946João Tristão de Bettencourt, High Commissioner and Governor-General
May 1947 to December 1948Luís de Sousa e Vasconcelos e Funchal, High Commissioner and Governor-General
December 1948 to 11 June 1951 Gabriel Mauricio Teixeira, High Commissioner and Governor-General
Overseas Province of Portugal
11 June 1951 to 1958 Gabriel Maurício Teixeira, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1958 to 1961Pedro Correia de Barros, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1961 to 1964Manuel Maria Sarmento Rodrigues, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1964 to 1968José Augusto da Costa Almeida, High Commissioner and Governor-General
12 July 1968 to 1970Baltazar Rebelo de Sousa, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1970 to 1972Eduardo Arantes e Oliveira, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1972 to 27 April 1974Manuel Pimentel Pereira dos Santos, High Commissioner and Governor-General
27 April 1974 to 11 June 1974David Teixeira Ferreira, acting High Commissioner and Governor-General
11 June 1974 to 17 August 1974Henrique Soares de Melo, High Commissioner and Governor-General
19 August 1974 to 12 September 1974Jorge Ferro Ribeiro, acting High Commissioner and Governor-General
12 September 1974 to 20 September 1974Vítor Crespo, High Commissioner and Governor-General
local administration
20 September 1974 to 25 June 1975Vítor Crespo, High Commissioner and Governor-General
25 June 1975Independence as Republic of Mozambique

For continuation after independence, see: Presidents of Mozambique

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