Glossary of string theory
This page is a glossary of terms in string theory, including related areas such as supergravity, supersymmetry, and high energy physics.
Conventions
- -bein
- A suffix indicating a frame, where the first part is a German word indicating the dimension (as in zweibein, vierbein, and so on).
- -ino
- The superpartners of bosons are often denoted by the suffix -ino; for example, photon/photino.
- s-
- The superpartners of fermions are often denoted by adding s- at the beginning; for example, quark/squark.
αβγ
- α
- 1. Fine-structure constant
- 2. Regge slope, or inverse of the string tension
- 3. A Fourier coefficient of a spacetime coordinate.
- 4. α_{s} is the strong coupling constant
- β
- 1. One of the two conformal superghost fields β, γ used in the BRST quantization of the superstring
- 2. Euler beta function
- 3. Beta function describing the change of coupling constant under the renormalization group flow
- γ
- 1. Dirac matrix
- 2. One of the two conformal superghost fields β, γ used in the BRST quantization of the superstring
- 3. World-sheet metric γ_{ab}(σ,τ)
- 4. Photon
- 5. Euler constant .57721...
- Γ
- 1. Lattice
- 2. Euler Gamma function
- 3. Dirac matrix
- 4. Width of some scattering process
- δ
- 1. Kronecker delta function
- 2. An infinitesimal change in something; for example δL is an infinitesimal change in L
- Δ
- 1. Propagator
- 2. Delta baryon, a baryon with 3 light quarks and isospin 3/2
- 3. Laplace operator in Euclidean space or more generally a Riemannian manifold
- ε
- 1. Small positive real number
- 2. Antisymmetric tensor
- η
- 1. Flat Lorentzian metric on spacetime
- 2. Dedekind eta function, a weight 1/2 modular form
- 3. Neutral flavor meson with PC= –+
- θ
- 1. Theta function
- 2. θ_{c} is the Cabbibo angle
- 3. θ_{w} is the Weinberg angle, also called the weak mixing angle
- Λ
- Cosmological constant
- 2. Large energy or large mass cutoff in regularization
- 3. Lambda baryon, a baryon with 2 light quarks and isospin 0
- μ
- 1. Renormalization scale, with the dimensions of mass
- 2. Muon
- ν
- Neutrino
- Ξ
- 1. Xi baryon, a baryon with 1 light quark
- π
- 1. 3.14159...
- 2. Pion
- Π
- The momentum density conjugate to X
- ρ
- Rho meson, a light meson with PC= ––
- σ
- 1. Spacelike coordinate on the world-sheet
- 2. Scattering cross section
- 3. Pauli matrix
- 4. See #sigma model
- Σ
- 1. Sigma baryon, a baryon with 2 light quarks and isospin 1
- τ
- 1. Timelike coordinate on the world-sheet
- 2. Element of the upper half plane
- 3. Tauon
- Υ
- Upsilon meson (bb)
- φ
- Scalar field
- χ
- Neutral-flavor heavy meson with PC= ++
- ψ
- 1. Spinor field
- 2. Psi meson (cc)
- Ω
- 1. Density of something in the universe; for example, Ω_{ν} is the neutrino density
- 2. Omega baryon, a baryon with no light quarks
!$@
- ' (prime)
- X′ means ∂X/∂σ.
- dot above letter
- Ẋ means ∂X/∂τ
- ∇
- 1. A covariant derivative
- 2. The del operator.
- □
- The D'Alembert operator, or non-Euclidean Laplacian.
- [,]
- A commutator: [A,B] = AB–BA.
- {,}
- An anticommutator: {A,B} = AB+BA.
A
- A
- 1. A connection 1-form
- 2. Short for antiperiodic, a boundary condition on strings.
- 3. Short for axial vector
- 4. An asymmetry
- action
- Main article: action (physics)A function S on the space of fields given (formally) by the integral of the Lagrangian density over spacetime, whose stationary points are the solutions of the equations of motion.
- ADE
- Main article: ADE classificationRefers to the ADE classification (A_{n},D_{n}, E_{6}, E_{7}, E_{8}) of simply laced Dynkin diagrams, and to several related classifications of Lie algebras, singularities and so on.
- ADHM
- Initials of Atiyah, Drinfeld, Hitchin, and Manin, as in the ADHM construction of instantons.
- ADM
- Initials of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner, as in ADM energy, a way of defining the global energy in an asymptotically flat spacetime, or ADM decomposition of a metric, or ADM formalism.
- AdS
- Anti-de Sitter, as in anti-de Sitter space, a Lorentzian analogue of hyperbolic space
- AdS/CFT
- Anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory, especially the AdS/CFT correspondence.
- ALE
- Asymptotically locally Euclidean
- ALEPH
- ALEPH experiment at LEP
- AMSB
- Anomaly mediation supersymmetry breaking
- ASD
- Anti self-dual (connection)
- ATLAS
- The ATLAS experiment at CERN, a particle detector.
- axino
- Main article: AxinoA hypothetical supersymmetric partner of an axion.
- axion
- Main article: AxionA hypothetical scalar particle whose mass arises from a coupling rather than from a mass term in the Lagrangian, used to resolve the strong CP problem.
B
- b
- 1. One of the two conformal ghost fields b, c used in the BRST quantization of the bosonic string.
- 2. A bottom quark.
- B
- 1. Baryon number
- 2. Short for boson.
- 3. Short for baryon.
- 4. Short for backward;for example, σ_{B} is the cross section for backward scattering.
- 5. a bottom meson.
- BAO
- Baryon acoustic oscillation
- BB
- Big Bang
- BBN
- Big Bang nucleosynthesis
- bino
- Main article: gauginoA hypothetical supersymmetric partner of the gauge field corresponding to weak hypercharge.
- BIon
- A BPS solution representing an infinite string ending on a D-brane. Named after the Born–Infeld action.
- BPS
- Main article: BPS stateA state related to the Bogomol'nyi–Prasad–Sommerfield bound.
- BR
- Branching ratio
- BRS
- BRST quantization
- Main article: BRST quantizationShort for Becchi, Rouet, Stora and Tyutin, who introduced the BRST quantization of gauge theories.
- brane
- Short for membrane. a higher-dimensional manifold moving in spacetime. See also p-brane, D-brane.
- BTZ
- Initials of Bañados–Teitelboim–Zanelli, as in BTZ black hole, a black hole in 2+1-dimensional gravity.
- BV
- Batalin–Vilkovisky, as in Batalin–Vilkovisky formalism.
C
- c
- 1. The speed of light, when not using units where this is 1.
- 2. A central charge of the Virasoro algebra or similar algebra.
- 3. One of the two conformal ghost fields b, c used in the BRST quantization of the bosonic string.
- 4. A Chern class.
- 5. A charm quark.
- C
- 1. Charge, especially the charge symmetry.
- Calabi–Yau
- Main article: Calabi–Yau manifoldA Kähler manifold with vanishing Ricci curvature, used for compactifying string theories.
- CAR
- Canonical anticommutation relations
- CBR
- Cosmic background radiation
- CC
- 1. Charged current (weak interaction).
- 2. Complex conjugate
- 3. Compatibility condition
- CCR
- Canonical commutation relation
- CCR and CAR algebras
- CDF
- Collider Detector at Fermilab
- CDM
- Cold dark matter
- CERN
- Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire
- chargino
- Main article: charginoA hypothetical charged supersymmetric partner of a gauge boson.
- Chern–Simons
- 1. Main article: Chern–Simons theory
- 2. Main article: Chern–Simons form
- chiral
- 1. Not invariant under the parity symmetry. The word comes from the Greek χειρ meaning "hand"; the terms "left-handed" and "right-handed" are often used to describe chiral objects. Main article: Chirality (physics)
- 2. A chiral multiplet is a type of supermutliplet of a supersymmetry algebra.
- CIPT
- Contour improved perturbation theory
- CKG
- Short for conformal Killing group.
- CKM
- The Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix.
- CKS
- Short for conformal Killing spinor.
- CKV
- Short for conformal Killing vector.
- CFT
- Conformal field theory
- Chan–Paton
- A Chan–Paton charge is a degree of freedom carried by an open string on its endpoints.
- cl
- 1. Short for classical (for example, S_{cl} is the classical action).
- 2. CL is short for confidence limit.
- closed
- A closed string is one with no ends.
- CM
- Center of mass (frame)
- CMB
- CMBR
- Cosmic microwave background radiation
- CMS
- 1. The Compact Muon Solenoid at CERN, a particle detector.
- 2. Short for the Center-of-Momentum System, a coordinate system where the total momentum is 0.
- compactification
- A method for reducing the apparent dimension of spacetime by wrapping the string around a compact manifold.
- cosmological constant
- Main article: cosmological constantThe constant term of the Lagrangian, inducing a term in the action proportional to the volume of spacetime
- CP
- Short for Charge–Parity, as in CP symmetry.
- CPC
- Short for Charge–Parity conservation.
- CPT
- Short for Charge–Parity–Time, as in CPT symmetry or CPT theorem.
- CPV
- Short for Charge–Parity violation.
- critical
- The critical dimension is the spacetime dimension in which a string or superstring theory is consistent; usually 26 for string theories and 10 for superstring theories.
- CVC
- Conserved vector current.
- CY
- Short for Calabi–Yau, as in Calabi–Yau manifold, a Ricci-flat Kähler manifold, often used for compactifying superstring theories.
D
- d
- 1. The exterior derivative of a form.
- 2. A down quark.
- 3. The dimension of spacetime.
- D
- 1. Short for Dirichlet, as in D-brane
- 2. The dimension of spacetime
- 3. A connection or differential operator
- 4. A Dynkin diagram of an orthogonal group in even dimensions.
- 5. A charmed meson.
- D0
- Main article: DØ experiment
- D-brane
- Dp-brane
- Main article: D-braneShort for Dirichlet (mem)brane, a submanifold (of dimension p+1) on which the ends of strings are constrained to lie, so that the strings satisfy Dirichlet boundary conditions.
- D-string
- A D1-brane
- DBI
- Short for Dirac–Born–Infeld, as in the DBI action, an action based on the Born–Infeld action, a modification of the Maxwell action of electrodynamics.
- DDF
- Initials of Del Guidice, Di Vecchia, and Fubini, as in Del Guidice–Di Vecchia–Fubini operator, operators generating an oscillator algebra.
- DELPHI
- DELPHI experiment at LEP.
- DESY
- Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
- DGLAP
- Initials of Dokshitzer–Gribov–Lipatov–Altarelli–Parisi who introduced the DGLAP evolution equation in QCD.
- Diff
- Diffeomorphism or diffeomorphism group.
- dilatino
- Main article: dilatinoA supersymmetric partner of the dilaton.
- dilaton
- Main article: dilatonA massless scalar particle, related to dilations of spacetime.
- Dirichlet
- Dirichlet boundary conditions on an open string say that the ends of the string are fixed (often lying on a D-brane).
- DIS
- Deep inelastic scattering
- DLCQ
- Discrete light-cone quantization
- DM
- Dark matter
- DØ
- Main article: DØ experiment
- Dp-brane
- Main article: D-braneShort for Dirichlet (mem)brane, a submanifold (of dimension p+1) on which the ends of strings are constrained to lie, so that the strings satisfy Dirichlet boundary conditions.
- DR
- 1. Short for dimensional regularization.
- 2. Short for dimensional reduction, a way of constructing theories from simpler theories in higher dimensions, sometimes by making fields invariant under some spacelike translations.
- dS
- de Sitter, as in de Sitter space, a Lorentzian analogue of a sphere
- dS/CFT
- de Sitter/conformal field theory, especially the dS/CFT correspondence.
- dual resonance model
- Main article: Dual resonance modelAn early precursor of string theory.
- duality
- Main article: String dualityA hidden connection between two different theories, such as S-duality, T-duality, U-duality, mysterious duality.
- DY
- Initials of Drell–Yan, as in DY process.
- dyon
- Main article: DyonA hypothetical particle with both electrical and magnetic charge.
E
- e
- 1. Euler's constant
- 2. A frame
- 3. An electron
- E
- Energy
- E₆
- Main article: E6 (mathematics)The exceptional Lie algebra of rank 6 and dimension 78.
- E₇
- Main article: E7 (mathematics)The exceptional Lie algebra of rank 7 and dimension 133.
- E₈
- Main article: E8 (mathematics)The exceptional Lie algebra of rank 8 and dimension 248.
- eff
- Short for effective (field theory).
- EFT
- Effective field theory, a low-energy approximation to a theory.
- einbein
- A frame in 1 dimension
- elfbein
- A frame in 11 dimensions
- energy–momentum tensor
- Main article: Energy–momentum tensorA symmetric tensor T (also called the stress-energy tensor) describing the variation of the action under changes in the metric, whose components give the local energy, momentum and stress densities. In flat spacetimes it can also be given by combining the Noether currents of the translation symmetries.
- EWSB
- Electro-weak symmetry breaking.
F
- F
- 1. A curvature form of a connection
- 2. The world-sheet fermion number.
- 3. Short for fermion
- 3. Short for forward;for example, σ_{F} is the cross section for backward scattering.
- F₄
- Main article: F4 (mathematics)The exceptional Lie algebra of rank 4 and dimension 52.
- FCNC
- Flavor-changing neutral current.
- field
- A section of a fiber bundle
- FOPT
- Fixed-order perturbation theory.
- F-string
- Fundamental string
- F-theory
- Main article: F-theoryPossibly an abbreviation of father theory. A 12-dimensional string theory introduced by Vafa.
- FRW
- Friedman–Robertson–Walker metric on spacetime
G
- g
- 1. A metric
- 2. A coupling constant
- 3. The genus of a Riemann surface.
- 4. A gluon.
- G
- 1. Newton's gravitational constant, sometimes written G_{N}.
- 2. The Fermi coupling constant for weak interactions, sometimes written G_{F}.
- 3. G_{n} is an odd element of the Ramond or Neveu–Schwarz superalgebra.
- G₂
- Main article: G2 (mathematics)The exceptional Lie algebra of rank 2 and dimension 14, or a G2 manifold with G₂ holonomy.
- gaugino
- A spin 1/2 supersymmetric partner of a gauge boson.
- gh
- Abbreviation for ghost; for example, S_{gh} is the ghost action.
- ghost
- A vector of negative norm.
- GKO
- Short for Goddard–Kent–Olive. The GKO construction, also called the coset construction, is a way of constructing unitary discrete series representations of the Virasoro algebra.
- GL
- A general linear group.
- gluino
- Main article: gluinoA hypothetical supersymmetric partner of a gluon.
- gluon
- Main article: gluonA gauge boson associated with the strong force.
- GMSB
- Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking.
- goldstino
- Main article: goldstinoA massless spin 1/2 particle associated with spontaneous breakdown of supersymmetry, analogous to the Goldstone boson.
- GR
- General relativity
- graviton
- Main article: gravitonA conjectural spin 2 massless particle responsible for gravity.
- gravitino
- Main article: gravitinoA supersymmetric partner of the graviton.
- Green
- Named for Michael Green.
- GS
- Green–Schwarz formalism, a way of incorporating supersymmetry into string theory that is supersymmetric in 10-dimensional spacetime.
- GSO
- Short for Ferdinando Gliozzi, Joël Scherk, and David A. Olive, as in the GSO projection, a projection in superstring theory that eliminates tachyons.
- GSW
- The 2-volume work on superstring theory by Green, Schwarz, and Witten.
- GUT
- Grand unified theory, a hypothetical theory unifying the strong and electroweak forces.
- GWS
- Glashow–Weinberg–Salem theory of the electroweak force.
- GZK
- The Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit on the energy of cosmic background radiation from distant sources.
H
- h
- 1. The weight of a field (for example, its eigenvalue for L_{0}).
- 2. Hermitian; for example, h.c. stands form hermitian conjugate.
- H
- 1. The Hamiltonian.
- 2. The Higgs boson.
- 3. The Hubble constant.
- Haag–Lopuszanski–Sohnius theorem
- Main article: Haag–Lopuszanski–Sohnius theoremA theorem describing the possible supersymmetries of a quantum field theory, generalizing the Coleman–Mandula theorem.
- Hagedorn temperature
- Main article: Hagedorn temperatureThe temperature above which the partition function diverges due to the exponentially increasing number of string states.
- h.c.
- hc
- Hermitian conjugate
- HCMS
- Hadronic center of mass (frame)
- HDM
- Higgs doublet model
- HE
- Short for heterotic-E2
8, a heterotic string theory based on the group E2
8. - helicity
- Main article: Helicity (particle physics)The projection of the spin of a massless particle in the direction of its momentum.
- HERA
- Hadron Elektron Ring Anlage
- heterotic
- Main article: heterotic stringNamed after the Greek word heterosis, meaning hybrid vigour. A hybrid of bosonic string theory and superstring theory, introduced by David Gross, Jeffrey Harvey, Emil Martinec, and Ryan Rohm in 1985.
- Higgs boson
- Main article: Higgs bosonA massive scalar particle related to the spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism in the electroweak theory.
- Higgsino
- Main article: HiggsinoA hypothetical supersymmetric partner of a Higgs boson.
- HO
- Short for heterotic-orthogonal, a heterotic string theory based on the orthogonal group O_{32}(R).
- holographic principle
- Main article: Holographic principle
- HQET
- Heavy quark effective theory
- Hyperkähler
- Hyperkaehler
- Main article: Hyperkähler manifoldA Riemannian manifold with holonomy contained in the compact form of the symplectic group.
- Hypermultiplet
- Main article: HypermultipletA type of supermultiplet (representation) of an extended supersymmetry algebra.
I
- i
- √–1
- I
- Isospin.
- IGM
- Intergalactic medium
- inflation
- Main article: Inflation (cosmology)A hypothetical very rapid increase in the size of the very early universe.
- instanton
- Main article: InstantonA self-dual or anti-self-dual connection in a principal bundle over a four-dimensional Riemannian manifold.
- int
- Short for interaction; for example, H_{int} might be an interaction Hamiltonian.
- inv
- Short for invisible; for example, Γ_{inv} is the width for invisible decays (those unobseverd by an experiment).
J
- J
- 1. A current
- 2. A source
- 3. Spin.
K
- k
- A momentum
- K
- A kaon (a strange meson).
- K3
- Main article: K3 surfaceA simply connected compact complex surface of Kodaira dimension 0
- K-theory
- Main articles: K-theory and K-theory (physics)A cohomology theory based on vector bundles.
- Kac–Moody algebra
- Main article: Kac–Moody algebraA central extension of a loop algebra.
- Kähler
- Kaehler
- Named after Erich Kähler
- 1. A Kähler manifold is a complex manifold with a compatible Riemannian metric.
- 2. A Kähler metric is the metric on a Kähler manifold.
- 3. A Kähler potential is a function of superfields used to construct a Lagrangian.
- Kalb–Ramond field
- Main article: Kalb–Ramond field
- KK
- Kaluza–Klein
- KM
- 1. The Kobayashi–Maskawa mechanism for CP violation.
- 2. Kac–Moody algebra.
- KZ
- Initials of Knizhnik and Zamolodchikov, as in KZ equation, a differential equation related to the primary fields of a current algebra.
L
- L
- 1. A Lagrangian
- 2. L_{n} is an element of the Virasoro algebra.
- 3. An abbreviation for left (moving modes).
- 4. Lepton number
- 5. Short for lepton
- L3
- L3 experiment at LEP.
- Lagrangian (field theory)
- Main article: Lagrangian (field theory)A function on the jet space of a fiber bundle.
- landscape
- Main article: String theory landscapeThe (conjectural) moduli space of all (vacuums of) string theories.
- LEP
- The Large Electron–Positron Collider at CERN.
- lepton
- Main article: leptonAn elementary particle of spin 1/2 that is unaffected by the strong force.
- LH
- Left-handed
- LHC
- The large hadron collider at CERN.
- little string theory
- Main article: Little string theory
- LL
- Double logarithmic
- LO
- Leading order (term)
- LQG
- Loop quantum gravity
- LQC
- Loop quantum cosmology
- LSP
- Abbreviation for lightest supersymmetric particle.
- LSS
- Large scale structure (of the universe).
M
- m
- A mass of a fermion. For example, m_{t} is the mass of the top quark t.
- M
- The mass of a boson; for example, M_{Z} is the mass of the Z-boson.
- Majorana fermion
- Majorana spinor
- Main articles: Majorana fermion and Majorana spinorA fermion or spinor with a reality condition, in spacetimes of dimension 2, 3, 4 mod 8.
- Majorana–Weyl fermion
- Majorana–Weyl spinor
- Main articles: Majorana–Weyl fermion and Majorana–Weyl spinorA half-spinor with a reality condition, in spacetimes of dimension 2 mod 8.
- Mandelstam variable
- Main article: Mandelstam variablesA sum or difference of two of the four incoming or outgoing momenta of a 2-particle interaction.
- matrix theory
- M(atrix) theory
- Main article: Matrix string theoryOne of several non-perturbative formulations of string theory or M-theory using infinite matrices.
- M-brane
- membrane
- Main article: Membrane (M-theory)A higher dimensional analogue of a string.
- MC
- Monte Carlo integration
- MCG
- Main article: Mapping class group
- minimal model
- Certain solvable conformal field theories.
- Mirror symmetry (string theory)
- Main article: Mirror symmetry (string theory)A partly conjectural relation between a type IIA superstring theory compactified on a Calabi–Yau manifold and a type IIB superstring theory compactified on a different "mirror" Calabi–Yau manifold.
- MLLA
- Modified leading logarithm approximation.
- MNS
- Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix for neutrino mixing
- monopole
- A hypothetical particle similar to a "magnet with only one pole".
- Montonen–Olive duality
- Main article: Montonen–Olive dualityAn early case of S-duality.
- MS
- minimal subtraction (a renormalization scheme). MS is the modified minimal subtraction scheme.
- MSM
- Abbreviation for minimal standard model.
- MSSM
- Abbreviation for minimal supersymmetric standard model.
- mSUGRA
- Minimal model of supergravity.
- M-theory
- Main article: M-theoryAn 11-dimensional theory introduced in the second string theory revolution to unify the 5 known superstring theories. The letter M has been said to stand for membrane, matrix, magic, mystery, monster, and so on.
- MSW
- Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein effect concerning neutrino oscillations in matter.
- multiplet
- A linear representation of a Lie algebra or group.
- A collection of elementary particles corresponding to a basis of a representation.
N
- N
- 1. The number of times each irreducible real spinor representation appears in the fermionic part of a supersymmetry algebra or super Minkowski space. It is often used in the description of an extended supersymmetry algebra, as in N=2 superconformal algebra and so on.
- 2. A nucleon, a baryon with 3 light quarks and isospin 1/2 (such as a proton or neutron).
- 3. The number of some type of particle.
- Nambu–Goto action
- Main article: Nambu–Goto actionAn action for strings, proportional to the area of the worldsheet.
- NC
- Neutral current (weak interaction).
- Neumann
- Neumann boundary conditions on an open string say that the momentum normal to the boundary of the world-sheet is zero.
- neutralino
- Main article: NeutralinoA hypothetical supersymmetric partner of a gauge boson with zero charge.
- Neveu
- Named for André Neveu.
- Neveu–Schwarz algebra
- Main article: Neveu–Schwarz algebraA supersymmetric extension of the Virasoro algebra, similar to the Ramond algebra.
- NG
- 1. Short for Nambu–Goto, as in Nambu–Goto action.
- 2. Short for Nambu–Goldstone, as in Nambu–Goldstone boson.
- NLL
- Next to leading logarithmic (term).
- NLO
- Next to leading order (term).
- NLSP
- next-to-lightest sypersymmetric particle
- NMSSM
- Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
- NNLL
- Next to next to leading logarithmic (term).
- NNLO
- Next to next to leading order (term).
- NNNLL
- Next to next to next to leading logarithmic (term).
- no-ghost theorem
- Main article: No-ghost theoremA theorem stating that some hermitian form is positive semidefinite, in other words has no ghosts (negative norm vectors). The name is a word-play on no-go theorem.
- NR
- Non-relativistic
- NRQCD
- Non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics
- NS
- Neveu–Schwarz, especially the Neveu–Schwarz algebra
- NS–NS
- A sector with Neveu–Schwarz conditions on left and right moving modes.
- NS–R
- A sector with Neveu–Schwarz conditions on left moving modes and Ramond conditions on right moving modes.
- NUT
- The initials of E. Newman, L. Tamburino, and T. Unti, mainly used in Taub–NUT vacuum, a solution to Einsteins' equations.
O
- O
- An orthogonal group
- OCQ
- Short for old covariant quantization
- OPAL
- The OPAL detector at LEP.
- open
- An open string is one with two ends.
- OPE
- operator product expansion
- Main article: Operator product expansionA description of short-distance singularities of fields.
- orbifold
- Main article: orbifoldSomething that looks locally like a manifold quotiented by the action of a finite group.
- OSp
- A Lie superalgebra.
P
- p
- A momentum
- P
- 1. Parity, especially the parity symmetry.
- 2. Short for periodic, a boundary condition on strings (as opposed to A for antiperiodic).
- 3. Pseudoscalar (current)
- 4. Momentum
- 5. One of the bosonic elements of a supersymmetry algebra.
- p-brane
- A p+1 dimensional membrane, where p is a non-negative integer. The dimension of membranes is often given by their space dimension, which is 1 less than their full spacetime dimension.
- PCAC
- partially conserved axial vector current
- Parton distribution function.
- PDG
- Particle Data Group.
- photino
- Main article: photinoA hypothetical supersymmetric partner of the photon.
- photon
- Main article: photonThe neutral spin 1 gauge boson of the electromagnetic field.
- PMNS
- Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix for neutrino mixing
- Polyakov action
- Main article: Polyakov actionA modification of the Nambu–Goto action for strings that eliminates the square root.
- PQ
- Peccei–Quinn, as in Peccei–Quinn theory.
- pQCD
- PQCD
- Perturbative quantum chromodynamics.
- prepotential
- A function used to construct the vector superfield in supersymmetric gauge theory and Seiberg–Witten theory.
- primary field
- A field killed by the positive weight operators of the Virasoro algebra (or similar algebra); in other words, a lowest weight vector.
- Princeton string quartet
- David Gross, Jeffrey Harvey, Emil Martinec, and Ryan Rohm, who introduced the heterotic string in 1985.
- PSL
- Projective special linear group.
Q
- q
- A quark.
- Q
- 1. The BRST operator.
- 2. A charge
- 3. One of the fermionic generators of a supersymmetry algebra.
- quark
- Main article: quarkA strongly interacting elementary particle of spin 1/2.
- QCD
- Main article: Quantum chromodynamics
- QED
- Main article: Quantum electrodynamics
R
- R
- 1. Short for Ramond, as in Ramond sector.
- 2. A curvature tensor
- 3. An abbreviation for right (moving modes).
- 4. A radius
- 5. R-symmetry is a symmetry of extended supersymmetry algebras.
- Ramond
- Named for Pierre Ramond.
- Ramond algebra
- Main article: Ramond algebraA supersymmetric extension of the Virasoro algebra, similar to the Neveu–Schwarz algebra.
- Rarita–Schwinger
- Main articles: Rarita–Schwinger equation and Rarita–Schwinger fieldRefers to spin 3/2 fermions.
- Regge
- 1. Physicist Tullio Regge.
- 2. Regge trajectory: the squared mass of a hadronic resonance is roughly linear in the spin, with the constant of proportionality called the Regge slope.
- revolution
- Any new idea in string theory. In particular the first superstring revolution refers to the discoveries in the mid 1980s such as the cancellation of gravitational anomalies and the heterotic string, and the second superstring revolution refers to the discoveries in the mid 1990s, such as D-branes, M-theory, and matrix theory and the AdS/CFT correspondence.
- RG
- Renormalization group.
- RGE
- Renormalization group equation.
- RH
- Right-handed
- R–NS
- A sector with Ramond conditions on left moving modes and Neveu–Schwarz conditions on right moving modes.
- RNS
- Ramond–Neveu–Schwarz, as in RNS formalism, a way of incorporating supersymmetry into string theory that is supersymmetric on the world sheet.
- R-parity
- Main article: R-parityA Z_{2} symmetry of supersymmetric models.
- R-R
- Short for Ramond–Ramond sector
S
- s
- 1. A strange quark.
- 2. A Mandelstam variable
- S
- 1. An action
- 2. A scattering matrix.
- 3. The transformation τ → –1/τ of the upper half plane
- 4. Scalar (current)
- 5. Short for super or supersymmetric
- S-brane
- A brane similar to a D-brane, with Dirichlet boundary conditions in the time direction.
- S-duality
- Main article: S-dualityStrong–weak duality, a string duality relating theories with a large coupling constant to theories with a small coupling constant
- SBB
- Standard Big Bang model of the universe
- SCFT
- Superconformal field theory, a supersymmetric extension of conformal field theory
- Schwarz
- Named for John Henry Schwarz
- Seiberg duality
- Main article: Seiberg duality
- SGA
- Abbreviation for Spectrum-generating algebra
- short supermultiplet
- A supermultiplet (representation) related to BPS states
- sigma model
- Main articles: Sigma model and Non-linear sigma modelA classical or quantum model based on the maps from a base manifold to a target manifold.
- SL
- Special linear group
- SLAC
- Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
- SLC
- Stanford Linear Collider
- slepton
- Main article: sleptonHypothetical supersymmetric partner of a lepton
- SM
- Main article: Standard Model
- sneutrino
- Main article: sneutrinoHypothetical supersymmetric partner of a neutrino
- SO
- Special orthogonal group
- Sp
- Symplectic group
- sphaleron
- Main article: SphaleronStatic solution to the electroweak field equations
- squark
- Main article: squarkSupersymmetric partner of a quark.
- SSB
- Spontaneous symmetry breaking
- SSM
- Standard solar model
- stress–energy tensor
- Alternative name for the #energy–momentum tensor.
- string field theory
- Main article: string field theory
- SU
- Special unitary group
- SUGRA
- Short for supergravity
- superconformal algebra
- Main articles: Neveu–Schwarz algebra and Ramond algebraA supersymmetric analogue of the Virasoro algebra of conformal symmetries in 2 dimensions
- superfield
- Main article: SuperfieldA supersymmetric analogue of a quantum or classical field
- supergravity
- Main article: supergravityA supersymmetric extension of general relativity
- supermultiplet
- Main article: SupermultipletA representation of a supersymmetry algebra
- superpotential
- Main article: SuperpotentialA function of chiral superfield not depending on their superderivatives or spacetime derivatives, used to form a Lagrangian.
- superspace
- Main article: superspaceA supersymmetric analogue of spacetime
- superstring
- Main article: superstringA supersymmetric analogue of a string
- supersymmetry
- Main articles: supersymmetry and supersymmetry algebraA generalization of a Lie superalgebra, where the Lie bracket [a,b] is sometimes given by ab+ba rather than ab–ba.
- SUSY
- An abbreviation for supersymmetry.
- SYM
- Supersymmetric Yang–Mills
T
- t
- 1. A top quark.
- 2. A Mandelstam variable.
- 3. Time.
- T
- 1. The energy–momentum tensor.
- 2. Time, especially the time symmetry.
- 3. The transformation τ → τ+1 of the upper half plane.
- 4. A torus.
- 5. The string tension.
- 6. Temperature.
- 7. Tensor (current)
- T-duality
- Main article: T-dualityA string duality relating theories on a large spacetime to theories on a small spacetime. In particular it exchanges type IIA and IIB superstring theory.
- tachyon
- Main article: TachyonA particle of imaginary mass moving faster than light.
- ToE
- TOE
- Theory of everything
- type I
- type II
- type IIA
- type IIB
- Main article: Type I string theoryMain article: Type II string theoryA type of superstring or the corresponding low-energy supergravity theory. The Roman numeral I or II refers to the number of d=10 supersymmetries, and types IIA or IIB are distinguished by whether the supersymmetries of left and right movers have opposite or identical chiralities.
U
- u
- 1. An up quark.
- 2. A Mandelstam variable.
- U
- A unitary group.
- U-duality
- Main article: U-dualityShort for "unified duality". A string duality relating two different string theories.
- UED
- Universal extra dimensions
- UV
- Short for ultra-violet, often referring to short-distance singularities.
V
- V
- 1. A vertex operator.
- 2. Vector (current)
- V-A
- Vector-Axial vector
- vector superfield
- A type of superfield related to vector supermultiplets.
- VEV
- Vacuum expectation value of an operator.
- vielbein
- A frame
- vierbein
- A frame in 4 dimensions. Sometimes used for a frame in an arbitrary number of dimension by authors who do not care that "vier" means four in German.
- Veneziano amplitude
- Main article: Veneziano amplitudeThe Euler beta function interpreted as a scattering amplitude.
- vertex operator
- Main article: vertex operator
- Virasoro algebra
- Main article: Virasoro algebraA central extension of the Witt algebra of polynomial vector fields on a circle.
W
- w
- A complex number
- W
- A W-boson
- W-algebra
- Main article: W-algebraA sort of generalization of the Virasoro algebra
- Weyl
- 1. Named after Hermann Weyl
- 2. A Weyl transformation is a rescaling of the world-sheet metric.
- 3. Weyl spinor, an element of a half-spin representation in even spacetime dimensions.
- WIMP
- Weakly interacting massive particle
- wino
- Main article: wino (particle)A hypothetical supersymmetric partner of the W-boson.
- Witten
- Named for Edward Witten.
- WMAP
- Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe
- world sheet
- The 2-dimensional subset of spacetime swept out by a moving string.
- world-volume
- The p+1-dimensional spacetime volume swept out by a p-brane, as in world-volume action.
- WZNW
- WZW
- Initials of Wess, Zumino, (Novikov), and Witten, as in the WZW model, a σ-model with a group as the target space.
XYZ
- x
- A real number
- X
- Used for coordinates in Minkowski space.
- y
- A real number
- YBE
- Yang–Baxter equation
- YM
- Yang–Mills
- z
- A complex number
- Z
- 1. A partition function
- 2. The Z boson.
- An element of the center of an extended supersymmetry algebra.
- ZEUS
- Main article: ZEUS (particle detector)
- zino
- Main article: gauginoA hypothetical supersymmetric partner of the Z-boson.
- zweibein
- A frame in 2 dimensions
See also
References
- Becker, Katrin, Becker, Melanie, and John H. Schwarz (2007) String Theory and M-Theory: A Modern Introduction . Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-86069-5
- Binétruy, Pierre (2007) Supersymmetry: Theory, Experiment, and Cosmology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-850954-7.
- Dine, Michael (2007) Supersymmetry and String Theory: Beyond the Standard Model. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85841-0.
- Paul H. Frampton (1974). Dual Resonance Models. Frontiers in Physics. ISBN 0-8053-2581-6.
- Michael Green, John H. Schwarz and Edward Witten (1987) Superstring theory. Cambridge University Press. The original textbook.
- Vol. 1: Introduction. ISBN 0-521-35752-7.
- Vol. 2: Loop amplitudes, anomalies and phenomenology. ISBN 0-521-35753-5.
- Kiritsis, Elias (2007) String Theory in a Nutshell. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12230-4.
- Johnson, Clifford (2003). D-branes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80912-6.
- Polchinski, Joseph (1998) String Theory. Cambridge University Press.
- Vol. 1: An introduction to the bosonic string. ISBN 0-521-63303-6.
- Vol. 2: Superstring theory and beyond. ISBN 0-521-63304-4.
- Szabo, Richard J. (Reprinted 2007) An Introduction to String Theory and D-brane Dynamics. Imperial College Press. ISBN 978-1-86094-427-7.
- Zwiebach, Barton (2004) A First Course in String Theory. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83143-1. Contact author for errata.
External links
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