Ginza (agency)

Ginza (Ginza) is a designation given to the place that played a buying and selling of casting and silver bullion coin in the middle early modern period of Japan's regime.


Ginza begin that Toyotomi Hideyoshi Sakai towards the unification of silver coins, is provided with the normal Shi seat (Joze locus) in Osaka attracted Kyoto silver Fukiya 20 people.[1] Others, Kane-ya is moneychangers and silversmith who appeared from the Warring States period (Kaneya) is casting a hallmark silver in various places, Ginza was established from these skilled in the art.For example, was casting the hallmark silver is and early Ryogoku monetary There Edo era Ginza Kanazawa is a silversmith population in Kaga clan.Azuchimomoyama than around age, cupellation silver that is produced in the silver mine of around is now distributed as weighing money, that got to do a hallmark stamped as a guarantee of quality is the beginning of Ginza, as this in many places Ryogoku money has been manufacturing such.Ginza by the Edo Shogunate had the aim to achieve a smooth unified trading variations of such silver grade constant quality.On the other hand, reason that around Ginza lasted until the early Edo period, the Keicho silver is due to the fact that did not spread sufficiently to local by such as silver overseas outflow.

Ginza mainly Edo shogunate Tokugawa Ieyasu is opened is known Speaking of Ginza, this was the organization by the purveyor townspeople that have been patented by the Tokugawa family. That silver coins casting of one of the main currency in circulation at the time have been made, that the coinage of the outside of this place was policed strictly, I think that the name of "silver-seat" was given due.

Broad Ginza casting, normally Shi office to perform a hallmark hitting and encapsulated it (Joze hall), and the seat people consisting of Ginza office (Ginza hall) that meeting.But Tsuneze is not included in the Ginza in a narrow sense, of silver bullion and purchases and may also be referred to as only the Ginza population by Ginza have found to perform the efforts of bullion based on quality.Atmospheric Shi office is Kyoto Daikoku is the eldest son of Sakube Yuasa SakumigiEmon, Edo Saemon Daikoku length is a second son became thereafter hereditary become a silver breaks Auditors.[2][3]

Silver casting of Tsuneze, Ginza person was also carried out in other than the Ginza and business trip.Meireki conflagration April 15, 1658 was dubbed the burning gold and silver by the (1658) Keicho in from Edo Castle Sannomaru Chogin, and吹所from September 1695 to Daikonbatake nearby Reiunji Hongo Vertical Genroku Chogin is, August 1714 from the silver-copper吹分plant was built in Suwa town mansion of timber Shotsuga-ya good six Asakusa has been sentenced to 闕所, the Masanori Chogin The cast was.[3][4]

Keio two years (1866), Shogunate Britain by reforming tax hall, France, the US, received a commitment of freedom Mint establishment was signed with orchid four ~Ka-koku, Keio 4 April 17 (1868), Restoration government Kinza and took over the Ginza, the same month 21, money Tsukasa (Kahei Shi.), which was founded in daijō-kan old Kinza, is cast and two-minute-size and one minute silver in Ginza, February 5, 1869 (1869). It was abolished in the same year.

Fushimi Ginza cho

Fushimi Ginza trace monument Fushimi-ku, Kyoto

Tokugawa Ieyasu who won the Battle of Sekigahara, and conscious of the Japan domestic hegemony, May 1601, established a mint under Fushimi Castle Fushimi Kyoto, Sakai of moneychangers, Yuasa Sakube to the ordered was Torishikira, the head auditor, Settsu Sumiyoshi-gun Hiranogo Sueyoshi interest how the Sueyoshi's wealthy merchant of (Osaka Hirano-ku) (plain (Sueyoshi) Kanbei interest how) and the child of Sueyoshi YoshiYasushi (Jian) (Suekichimago Saemon YoshiYasushi) of and cognate plain Tojiro, KyumigiEmon et al. made plain.

Hallmark side of Yuasa Sakube is given the first and last name that than Daikoku Tsuneze (Daikoku Joze) Tokugawa, after this Daikoku Tsuneze-ka are engraved abbreviation of "normal Shi" to cast silver coin silver hallmark - of I was in charge of the packaging.For this reason, it was called Tsunezetsutsumi the silver coins of the package that was issued in Ginza.

Daikoku Tsuneze and Ginza have found is referred to as a currency exchange town in communion the Yon-machi Machiyashiki, was built Ginza Kaisho and the seat's house and Tsuneze 吹所.The cupellation silver name that is produced from the silver mine of countries that exchange town attached to this around Ginza location, Ginza was called to exchange Nanryo that purchase drives out Chogin Lee Duke (What Exchange) derived from particular,[5] Ginza have discovered that there was also a kind of moneychangers.

Edo shogunate also Sumpu accordance with the central moves of is provided Ginza, further 1608 in Fushimi Ginza exchange the town today, is followed by Suruga Ginza Edo new exchange town in 1612 Ginza all coinage function was moved.

Sumpu Ginza

Sumpu Ginza trace monument Shizuoka Aoi-ku

1606 Tokugawa Ieyasu retirement of the earth, is consecrated the four towns out of there exchange cho six chome Ginza that are established at the same time progression and sunpu castle fortification, Kyoto than in 1611 that seat people and Tsuneze officials packed in Kinban change than Ginza.Ginza your mansion is provided on the southwest side (the center of the block of the current one-chome and 3 blocks) Old-chome, between Table frontage Kyoma 10, it was between the depth 22.Weight silver as accumulated wealth of mainly sunpu castle, it is the it was for the purpose of casting a Chogin.Keicho 17 years (1612) to Sumpu Ginza function was moved to Edo, the land currently Shizuoka Aoi-ku, exchange-cho, one has a relic as a two-chome.

Kyoto Ginza

Kyoto Ginza trace monument Kyoto Nakagyo-ku Exchange-dori

1608, it moved from Ginza Fushimi, Kyoto Muromachi and Karasuma of intermediate, four town to Sanjo from Article (Article under Lumpur, Oshikoji Shitaru, Oike Shitaru, Anekoji Shitaru) over the Founded in communion, it became this land as referred to as the exchange town.Located on the northeast side angle of the ordinary Shi mansion Oike exchange town in Ginza Kyoto, Ginza office adjacent to the north side, were those Ginza town split Edo also equivalent thereto.Kinza is I had done the casting of adjacent oval is on the north side of the Ginza office.Atmospheric Shi mansion Table frontage 23 between 5 feet 5 suns, depth is there 379 tsubo 8 Go area at 5 feet 7 cun between 15,[6][7] the Ginza office is between the table frontage 13 6 cun, depth 15 between 3 scale 6 cun (north) to 15 between 5 feet 1 cun in the (south),[6] between the then expanded table frontage 26, between the depth 30, became the area 834 square meters.[8]1674 ordinary Shi mansion in Yon-machi exchange-cho According to Satoshi-cho of (1672), was lined with 59 hotels of the mansion, including the Ginza office.[6]

Ginza this land before the transfer is dye shop had been staying many collections, it was vacated given Kaechi near Nishinotoin Takoyakushi.Nakai main water-Chaya kimono plant also was in this land, were these also marked elevation the Kaechi transfer.

Become the center of Chogin cast from that it is above the silver diction, Suruga, responsible for the coinage with Edo after, this lasted until Ginza reform of 1800.[3] Ginza reform later, is reduced scale to Sou office of exchange-cho Oshikoji angle, 7000 pyeong excess of the site that is no longer necessary became Uege-chi.

Osaka Ginza

1608 (non-deterministic There is also a theory of the 1606) Ginza, which was founded in Osaka Koraibashi east chome exchange town, primarily in Ikuno silver mine and Iwami cupellation silver and Osaka copper from the silver mine Fukiya by integrating Shibogin from the blister copper played a role to be sent to the Ginza of Kyoto.Although normally Shi mansion is the coinage not provided was not carried out,吹所that appraisal silver bullion, which is integrated by Cupellation is provided.Meet in the heart of the commercial is a silver diction was served as Kyoto Ginza out show (in Branch).[3]

Ginza office is between the table frontage 9, is between the depth 22, Genroku 14 years Doza is provided as Ginza pressurized auditors from (1701), Doza office is between the table frontage 8, it was between the depth 8.[8]

Edo Ginza Kyobashi

Keicho 17 years moved from Ginza Sumpu in (1612), and communion until Yon-machi south than Tori-machi Kyobashi, since it had already Edo Kinza is called the exchange town, this land new Kinza called exchange the town was now referred to as the present exchange town.[9] Seat people than Ginza Kyoto to Edo Ginza was Kinban change every year.Atmospheric Shi mansion and Ginza government office Upon current Ginza, Chuo-ku, Tokyo chome, "Ginza" has become synonymous with downtown.Atmospheric Shi mansion between the table frontage 15, 35 between the two feet 5 cun depth (north) to 37 between the two feet 5 cun (south side), 545 square meters 7 Go 6 Shaku area, Ginza those public office was between the original table frontage 10 There is extended to the middle of the Edo period, between the table frontage 19, depth 32 between half (north) to 35 between the two feet 5 cun (south side), it became an area 644 Tsubo-yo.[10] 1715 to the Samurai Shiro Goto to chome new exchange town house has been relocated.

Meiwa year previously but Ginza was cast exclusively Chogin and Kodama silver That weighed silver coins, Nanryo two Zhu starting in September 1772 the five momme silver issue of September 1765 (1772) silver issued after casting counting silver coins has become mainstream.In addition Meiwa from five years (1768) to undertake the casting of Kanei TsuTakara brass當four sentences Qian, after this, the casting of four sentences Qian through to Fumihisa EiTakara is a thing to be done under the supervision of Ginza It was.

Subsequent transfer of 1800, Ginza site of Kyobashi was built a number of houses will be Uege-chi.

Nagasaki Ginza

1614 Nagasaki芊(light) on (Date of establishment is not deterministic theories) Hara, Omura-machi after, Ginza, which was established in Shimabara Machikita Nyukomi, mainly of unauthorized taking out of the silver overseas monitoring, plays the role of prevention of high quality cupellation silver exports, silver saw officers and Ginza assistant manager than Ginza of Kyoto has been replaced dispatched every year.Ginza office is between the table frontage 9, between the depth 12, lock Fukiya for the Ru dubbed in Ginjo the Dutch to export Chogin in China Table frontage 13 between 3 feet 9 cun, depth 3 between 4 feet to 4 between the two It was a long 2 cun.[8]

Cupellation silver that has been bumpkin from silver mine in principle Ginza purchase, but was supposed to be cast in Chogin, those who benefit is sent to Nagasaki directly without Uriwatasa the cupellation silver in Ginza was one after another.Therefore, shogunate prohibited cupellation silver exports in 1609, has established to settlement in Keicho silver, strengthened monitoring.However containing copper 20%, those that must be settled in more quality low Keicho silver, are merely exceedingly annoying for foreigners, must be re-refining on silver, and forgery in good quality cupellation silver of the beat the hallmark of Keicho silver to create a "fake Daikoku", also done things like export, cupellation silver considerable amount flowed out is taken out illegally to escape the watchful eye.[3]

Kansei With the Ginza reform of the 12-year (1800) I was abolished.

Edo-Kakikara cho Ginza

June 1800 (1800), the machine that the fraud came to light, such as arrears of payment to the government silver in Edo Ginza, Daikoku length Saemon eight generation Tsunebo of silver breaks auditors on the house positions release, ordered the permanent keeping house is, is bid from then Kyoto Ginza to Daikoku SakumigiEmon ten generation Tsuneaki Edo, it was decided to concurrently serve as silver reforming role of Kyoto and Edo both seat.After this Ginza enforcement, seat who was over 50 people is reduced to 15 people, that is transferred to Kakikara-cho (now Nihonbashi Ningyo-cho) is Moshiwatasa in the same year in November, is Nanryo two Shugin casting It was resumed.Transfer was completed on the next ToruKazu first year in July (1801).[3] Atmospheric Shi mansion between the table frontage 15, between the depth 35 5 feet, was consecrated almost the same land and the area 537 square meters - 5 people and Ginza Kyobashi [11]

After this, Kyoto and coinage that had been done in Kyobashi is aggregated to Kakikara cho Ginza, it became under the direct control business of virtually shogunate from contracting business by purveyor townspeople are enhanced control by the shogunate.The Kyoto, Ginza Osaka became the thing to stay Ri old silver recovery, redemption, purchase and silver coins roles, such as packaging seal of silver bullion in the case of money dubbing.

Ginza organization

Ginza office Ginza people are meeting, procurement of silver bullion, efforts of bullion in accordance with the grade when Chogin casting, and was responsible for the shogunate government patronage, such as payment to the government of the silver coins of the shogunate.Also I was called Ginza Shu or Ginza fellow called seat who those involved in the management of Ginza.Seat people aged role that was called Ginza founding head auditors, large account officer, had been constructed from officials and flat seat role of cupboard account officers and cabinet officers.The silver look auditors to perform a bare metal appraisal of as long as one generation was a position as a quasi-seat people.Furthermore, headborough and a number of assistant manager, I had the servant.

On the other hand, Tsuneze had called Sonaka Ginza itself makes a clear distinction from the Ginza people.The Kyoto and Edo Ginza Ginza office and Tsuneze吹所and Tsuneze mansion has been juxtaposed.[3]

Ginza of revenue

There are two ways can be broadly divided into the Ginza operating system, one is self-operating system paid to the shogunate some as carrying up to cast a Chogin by buying up cupellation silver to be produced from such as I territory silver mine or Tenryo silver mine, the imperial court cupellation silver is produced Ginza there was a purveyor method to receive part by casting to custody Chogin as minute one silver (site regional banks) from.Minute one silver originally, but that was one of the personality to be paid as a necessity, such as expenses related to casting, Shinsan silver Genroku period later reduced self-operating system has become difficult and the main source of income became.

Minute one silver rate in Keicho silver had been defined as 3% of casting high, because this time the production of silver was a golden age, was often proceeds from the more highly profitable self-operating system.In the early Edo period and it says that there was a preferred silver also 16000 consistent year.[3] However Genroku silver later Shinsan silver production sales casting becomes mainstream by dubbing of the old silver, which is decline was recovered, which was intended to conform to the Warrant system.Minute one silver Genroku silver 4%, Hoei silver 7%, Eijigin and Santsutakaragin 10%, further Yontsutakaragin was raised 13%.Especially Age silver later of the high partial one silver rate, since those Ogihara Shigehide went to confidentially without obtaining the generals of approval upon the new silver issue, it is assumed that there is speculation that embrace the Ginza.Genroku, bulging eyes that has been paid to the shogunate by the dubbing of silver Stage Hoei climb to 270,000 consistent excess, but Ginza of the obtained minute one silver also climbed to 120,000 consistent extra.Ginza have found extremely wild merrymaking by this enormous revenue, it was also called "exchange-cho-style".On the other hand, four Tsu treasure various colors lead to the issuance of silver were significantly soared in September 1714 (1714) to reach the US one stone has reached the silver 230 eyes.[12] Ginza enforcement of such excessive silver dubbing Masanori period, there is also a view that led to the downfall of Shigehide Ogihara.[13]

However, the minute one silver rate is dubbed to Masanori silver are lowered to 3% of par Keicho silver, further Ginza that without that outcome can be obtained because it is dubbed to raise the quality is referred to as the needy.for further exchange for Masanori silver 1 Kanme is 80% 2 Kanme Yontsutakaragin containing 20% of the silver was a mainstream at the time of distribution, the shortfall is not must to silver plus Shogunate to pay, dub High also had to become small.

Of the minute profit by one silver or self-operating system 0.5% of the 吹高 receives is always Shi, profit excluding the expenses have been distributed as seat worth dividends in Ginza human et al. (Zab Ito).Distribution system of seat worth dividend those that are apportioned at a constant rate by convention, Ginza elderly, et al. This was a one minute as a reference, the child of less than flat seat auditors found that elderly auditors as one minute = ten steps nine-ten steps, the general of the flat seat Auditors six steps or five steps (semi-seat) from the two-step and a half (Konakara) about, seat fraction of total height is 1665 was 455 steps.The silver saw officers in the quasi-seat's position was about two steps and a half from the six steps.

Kanei communication TakaraShin 鍮當 four sentences Qian

Although the character silver and Nanryo two Zhu silver minute one silver ratio was pulled up to 7%, Ginza, which began to face a lot of seat people management is deteriorated, gradually payment to the government Todokogin accumulate 1766. The 1766 year was reached in 8396 consistent silver.[1] Kawai HisaTakashi of account magistrate Although Ginza devised a Kanei TsuTakara brass four sentences Qian in 1768 was decided that undertake this cast, this was also the purpose of Seshimeru repayment to shogunate a payment to the government Todokogin.[13]

Kansei Ginza amendment after silver casting of the 12-year (1800) becomes your account Supplementary switching the control of the Shogunate has been strengthened, the minute one silver Sashioki to the original Ginza office of the account office official management, half of the 7% The KDB purchase, paid to such necessity at the officials, Ginza worth one silver has become the de facto 3.5%.Directly from the shogunate to seat people, et al., It was decided that the allowance is paid.Tempo will be the minute one silver rate of 2.5% in the casting of one minute silver, casting resume later in 1843 was reduced to 1.6%.

Ginza purge

Hirofumi period

Conflagration by Edo Castle your Kinzo of burning gold and silver of meireki is, Edo Castle gathered oversized seat in Sannomaru, Kinza and Ginza by artisans from re blow but has been carried out, Sei-kin and Uegin eyes obtained by Fukiwake gold and silver Because it is intended to obtain an illegal profit and cheating people, December 25, 1663 in five of Ginza have found has been sentenced to distant island exile.

We met at a time when high self-operating system margin to decline due to a decrease in production from the silver mine, was the first of the scandal came to light.[3]

Masanori period

Various colors of soaring by silver dubbed Genroku and Hoei while to enjoy the enormous benefits Ginza, or economy was confused by the distribution of different Ding silver with multiple of quality.

Arai Shiraishi is aiming to return to the monetary system of Keicho to organize such an evil silver, on May 13, 1714 (1714) is FukaeSho Saemon from Ginza elderly are called to patronized from the magistrate, immediately It was Moshiwatasa the us perfect distant island exile and 闕所 become Meshitori.In addition to the your role召放Mr. Edo fifth generation Daikoku length Saemon Tsuneei the Ogihara Shigehide is Genroku 15 years by the trick of Kyuemon Seki was the Ginza people (1702), and behalf Kyuemon Seki silver吹役While served, Kyuemon Seki by this purge is ordered to return to the ousted long Saemon always flourished in May 1714, with the silver 吹役.

Kansei period

Masanori, a decrease in minute one silver revenue than Motobun-ki, Ginza, which has been distressed by the increase in Ginza person payment to the government Todokogin to the shogunate is increased, in 1780 I was inheritance under such circumstances Edo eight generation length Saemon Tsunebo are blamed the non-payment of 3900 both extra in terms of gold as payment Todokogin, is under investigation from around April 1799 home to the July 2, 1800 on top of the job Mr. 召放, it was ordered to permanent keeping house.The same year in June Ginza have found To ordered to Hikiharai unification, a new 15 people Ginza people are mercenary troops to Kakikara cho, Ginza has started.

However, payment to the government Todokogin by punishment is merely to direct factors, as part of the reform of the shogunate Kansei in the background, silver coins make a fundamental revision as chronic payment to the government Todokogin occurs in Ginza regime of conventional It was those aiming to be under the direct control business of the shogunate the casting business from contract format that is "your account Supplementary cutting".[3]

Cast of localization silver coins

August 14, 1772 (1772), Kawai HisaTakashi is Meshidashi Ginza individuals and Tsuneze, I Moshiwatashi per 吹方 of Nanryo two Shugin.But Nanryo is Tsuneze and that the revised of quality refers to the above silver is useless became be responsible only Mekata revised by decline the silver revised.So normally Shi since become a thing to hit the hallmark of the "constant" in the localization silver coins you have changed the Mekata, Nanryo two Shugin, one minute silver, Ichishugin constant of hallmark is struck all.The conventional Tsutsumigin is always Shi was in charge, it became twenty-five both hull of Ginza follicles and become 200 sheets each time Ginza is responsible from Nanryo two Zhu silver.Normally Shi role after this was reduced.

Localization silver coin is cast in exclusively Edo Ginza, gradually casting amount is increased Bunsei, the Tempo year I came in to overwhelm the casting of Chogin.

Localization silver coins has been in charge of casting Ginza from be a material of silver, these are of the currency unit of the original oval as "gold instead-class of silver", so that the casting process is also the bullion to a certain amount eyes was cut into, such as a hallmark stamped by extension, it became a process equivalent to gold casting, such as the one-minute-size.[1]

Chogin of casting process

吹元 silver silver casting, and purchasing the cupellation silver and Sejo distribution cupellation silver is produced from my territory silver mine of countries, self-sales format of purchase cupellation silver to make blow to Chogin (Abolition Fukigin) (Yadorikigin) and, Iwami, Ikuno, is payment to the government from Silver Mine in Tenryou such as Sado, public affairs cupellation silver (protest IfuKigin) there is (your silver).[1]

Ginza 釻場 and (precocious any)

As 吹元 silver, cupellation silver to pass than shogunate your Kinzo, old silver that has been recovered, and the like cupellation silver Ginza was purchased.The 釻 is the meaning of cupellation silver.吹元silver and changed the Mekata is in釻場(if precocious) in the Ginza office, quality is amended by silver saw officers, is used as it is more than a grade of five minutes put (95% silver), less things It re-refining, is a one percent put the most significant, is sealed put in place are boxes efforts and weighed a combination of copper to the proportion of provisions, to take over from the silver look officers to the normal Shi assistant manager.

Normal Shi 吹所 (Fukisho)

吹立 was held in Tsuneze吹所.The pouring bullion that have been made of efforts to Chogin and Kodama silver type stretched the hot water pumped in and put吹鎔However Tsuneze assistant manager hot water input auditors iron ladle to Tomehachi (crucible) 12 consistently as Ichi吹I.It is selected by the quality of the form, which was passed after the quantity and Mekata has been revised, to take over the normally Shi hallmark auditors.

Normal hallmark stamped by Shi hallmark role is performed and after it was made is further annealed, it is attached to the vinegar was trimmed is silver by dissolving the copper surface.Chogin one by 200 sheets, Kodama silver wrapped by 500 momme, we turn to the Ginza in a sitting person sealed.

Ginza Tadas 吹所 (but Fukisho)

Since silver quality cast Chogin it is checked whether correct or not, under normal Shi assistant manager witnessed, content of silver amount was changed by Cupellation back blown by the addition of lead.This called Tadasu吹 (but wipe).Tadasu吹 Although the goal is to maintain a constant silver quality Chogin, also intended to examine whether the silver quality is addressed correctly in Ginza office, was also meant the normally Shi to check the Ginza .

Tolerance of the content on the silver Chogin per 100 momme is Keicho silver and Masanori silver 0.3 momme, Genroku silver 0.8 momme, Takarajigin 1.11 momme, Eijigin 1.33 momme, Santsutakaragin 1.51 momme, Yontsutakaragin 1.7 momme, and was a character silver 1.5 momme.Kansei 12 years by the Ginza reform (1800) has been enhanced control by account magistrate "your account Supplementary cutting" and, later, Tadasu吹from new character silver is determined that there is no need were discontinued.

Tailoring field and (wing was)

Finish was immersed in the vinegar, which is heated to Chogin, after removal, it was polished washing.The finished Chogin and Kodama silver are combined into every 500 momme, always Shi was encapsulated.


  1. 1 2 3 4 Takizawa Takeo, Nishiwaki Yasushi "Japanese History Abridged Encyclopedia" money "," Tokyo-do Publishing, 1999
  2. Bank of Japan survey stations Tsuchiya Takashi Yuhen "pictorial record of the Japanese currency," "establishment of early modern monetary system," Volume 2 Toyo Keizai, 1973
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Taya Hirokichi "study of early modern Ginza" Yoshikawakobunkan, 1963
  4. small Hada Atsushi "Japanese money" Shibun-do, 1958
  5. Mitsui high維編"new draft exchange annals Sekikagi winding two documented Hen" Iwanami Shoten, 1933
  6. 1 2 3 "house number frontage并裏Gyoaratame Satoshi-cho" (Hasegawa Iekyuki), 1672
  7. "Kyoto exchange-cho Communion mansion notice", 1764
  8. 1 2 3 "Ginza registered mail"
  9. Mikami Ryuzo "Edo money Story" Toyo Keizai, 1996
  10. "patronized distillate Handbook"
  11. "Daikoku Tsuneyasu memorandum"
  12. Kusama rectangular "three貨図vocabulary" 1815
  13. 1 2 Takizawa Takeo "History of Japan's money" Yoshikawakobunkan, 1996

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