Geometric modeling kernel

A geometric modeling kernel is a 3D solid modeling software component used in computer-aided design packages[1] .[2] Available modelling kernels include:

Kernel market

The kernel market is currently dominated by Parasolid and ACIS, which were introduced in late 1980s. The latest kernels to enter the market are C3D and Convergence Geometric Modeler, which were developed in 1995 and 1998 respectively; they were introduced as standalone products in 2013 and 2011 respectively. ShapeManager has no presence in this market and in 2001 Autodesk clearly stated they were not going into this business.

The world's newest geometric modeling kernel is Russian Geometric Kernel owned by the Russian government, and it is not clear if it is going to be commercially available. However, it has superior features over the other kernels on the market.[13][14][15][16]

On July, 2016 Kubotek Corporation announced that it would no longer develop the KCM modeler for the CAD industry.[17]

Kernel developers

In the table below you can see a representative list of developers that belong to companies developing their own kernel or licensing the kernel from third-party[18] .

Application Developed by Country Platforms Domain Kernel
4MCAD IntelliCAD 4M S.A. Greece Windows CAD, AEC Open CASCADE Technology
KeyCreator Kubotek USA, Inc. United States Windows MCAD ACIS
KOMPAS-3D ASCON Group Russia Windows MCAD ACIS
KOMPAS-Builder ASCON Group Russia Windows AEC C3D
K3-Furniture Center GeoS Russia Windows CAD C3D + K3 kernel
Renga Architecture[19][20] ASCON Group Russia Windows AEC C3D
KOMPAS:24 ASCON Group Russia Android MCAD C3D
nanoCAD NanoSoft Russia Windows CAD C3D kernel
T-FLEX Top Systems Russia Windows MCAD Parasolid
APM Studio APM Russia Windows MCAD APM Engine
TECHTRAN NIP-Informatic Russia Windows CAM C3D
PASSAT NTP Truboprovod Russia Windows CAD C3D
Rhinoceros 3D Robert McNeel and Associates United States Windows, Mac CAD, CAM Own Kernel
ESPRIT Extra CAD LO CNITI, Rubius Russia Windows CAD C3D
BAZIS System BAZIS Center Russia Windows CAD C3D
Adams MSC Software United States Windows CAE Parasolid
ADEM ADEM Group Russia Windows CAD, CAM, CAPP ACIS
ADINA Modeler ADINA R&D Inc. United States Windows CAE Parasolid
AutoCAD Autodesk United States Windows CAD, AEC, GIS ShapeManager
Autodesk Inventor Autodesk United States Windows MCAD ShapeManager
BricsCAD Bricsys Belgium Windows, Linux, Mac MCAD, AEC ACIS
Siemens NX Siemens PLM Software United States, Germany Windows, Mac CAD, CAM, CAE Parasolid
SolidFace SolidFace United States, Brazil Windows MCAD Parasolid
Solid Edge Siemens PLM Software United States, Germany Windows MCAD Parasolid (previous versions used ACIS)
SolidWorks Dassault Systèmes United States, France Windows MCAD Parasolid
MicroStation Bentley Systems United States Windows AEC Parasolid (previous versions used ACIS)
CATIA Dassault Systèmes France Windows, Unix CAD, CAM, CAE, AEC CGM
PTC Creo Elements/Pro Parametric Technology Corporation United States Windows CAD GRANITE [21]
PTC Creo Parametric Parametric Technology Corporation United States Windows CAD GRANITE [22]
PTC Pro/ENGINEER Parametric Technology Corporation United States Windows CAD GRANITE [23]
GstarCAD Suzhou Gstarsoft Co., Ltd China Windows CAD ACIS
ArchiCAD Graphisoft Hungary Windows, Mac AEC, BIM Own Kernel
ZWCAD ZWCAD Software China Windows, Linux, Mac MCAD, AEC ACIS
Cimatron 3D Systems (Cimatron Ltd.) Israel Windows MCAD ACIS
SpaceClaim ANSYS Inc United States Windows MCAD ACIS [24]


  1. Tyrka, Katherine (2001-12-01). "Kernel strategies". Design News.
  2. Shah, Jami (2004-06-27). Parametric and Feature-Based CAD/CAM. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 449. ISBN 0-471-00214-3.
  3. Yares, Evan. "Spatial, ACIS, CGM, and the future of geometric modelers". 3D CAD World. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  5. "GRANITE Interoperability Kernel FAQ". PTC Inc. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  6. Levin, David. "Geometric Kernels and Irremovability of Presidents from Office". LEDAS Ltd. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  7. Yares, Evan (April 2013). "Russian CAD". Design World. WTWH Media, LLC. 8 (4). ISSN 1941-7217.
  8. "About the developer". Innovation and research center "GeoS". Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  9. "SOLIDS++". IntegrityWare, Inc. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  10. "APM Studio". Research and Software Development Centre APM. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  11. "Геометрическое ядро APM Engine". sapr. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  12. "На ядре". isicad. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  13. "Russian 3D-kernel RGK: Functionality, Advantages, and Integration". 2013-05-24. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
  14. "Does the CAD world need another geometry kernel?". 2013-06-06. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  15. "Features of RGK". RGK. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  16. "Вопрос распараллеливания в разработке ядра геометрического моделирования" (PDF). Singularis Lab. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  17. "Important Notice". Kubotek USA. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  18. Ushakov, Dmitry. "Russian National 3D Kernel". LEDAS Ltd. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
  19. "Renga Architecture". ASCON Group. 2015-03-17.
  20. "Renga Architecture is brand-new AEC software by an MCAD vendor". WorldCAD Access. 2015-03-13.
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