Gaudencio B. Cardinal Rosales
|Cardinal-Archbishop Emeritus of Manila|
Gaudencio Rosales as a young bishop
|Appointed||September 15, 2003|
|Installed||November 21, 2003|
|Term ended||October 13, 2011|
|Successor||Luis Antonio Tagle|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Priest of Santissimo Nome di Maria in Via Latina|
March 23, 1958|
by Alejandro Olalia
October 28, 1974|
by Bruno Torpigliani
March 24, 2006|
by Pope Benedict XVI
August 10, 1932|
Batangas, Batangas, Philippine Islands
Auxiliary Bishop of Manila (1974–1984) |
Bishop of Malaybalay (1984-1991)
Archbishop of Lipa (1991–2003)
|Motto||SI MORTUUM FUERIT FRUCTUM AFFERT (If it dies, it bears fruit)|
|Coat of arms|
Gaudencio B. Cardinal Rosales
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
Gaudencio Borbon Rosales (Latin: Gaudentius Rosales; born August 10, 1932) is a Roman Catholic Cardinal who was Archbishop of Manila, succeeding Jaime Sin in 2003, and followed by Luis Antonio Tagle in 2011. He was also Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical province of Manila and Archpriest of Manila Cathedral.
He was the 31st Archbishop of Manila and the fourth native Filipino to hold the post, following centuries of Spanish, American, and Irish prelates. During his last year as archbishop, he was concurrently named Apostolic Administrator of the Diocese of Pasig from December 21, 2010 to April 20, 2011, a post he accepted after the resignation of Pasig's first bishop, Francisco San Diego.
Early life and ordination
Rosales was born in Batangas City, Batangas. Rosales' grandfathers were Julián Rosales, a former mayor of the town of Batangas and Pablo Borbon, a former governor of Batangas province. Rosales' father, Dr. Godofredo Dilay Rosales, was one of the first Filipino physicians to acquire his medical school and residency training exclusively in the United States of America, after which he returned home to practice in Batangas City. Rosales' mother, Remedios Mayo Borbón, was a first cousin of the nationalist, Claro M. Recto. He is the third of seven siblings, the others being Rosie, Guillermo (deceased), Gabriel, Tessie, Gilbert and Mary Grace.
As a boy, he wanted already to be a priest. He studied theology at the San José Seminary, and had as classmates two other future bishops: Bishop Severino Pelayo, former bishop of the Military Ordinariate, and Bishop Benjamin Almoneda, former Bishop of Daet. On March 23, 1958, he was ordained priest by Bishop Alejandro Olalia, and then assigned to teach for 11 years in the seminary of the Diocese of Lipa.
In 1970, he was given his first parish assignment, the obscure barrio of Banay-banay. He was told by the other priests not to stay long there because there was nothing much to do there, to which he replied “I will look for something to do.” He visited practically every house in his parish, meeting with everyone in the process. Up to now, the people in the place which he served for two-and-a-half years remember the tall, kindly priest.
His performance and reputation must have impressed the bishop, for he was transferred to the biggest parish of the diocese in Batangas City.
Ricardo Vidal was his archbishop, and soon afterwards, Rosales was named auxiliary bishop of Manila, the first Batangueño to be so named. Bishop Rosales received his crosier from the Vicar General of Lipa Servant of God Alfredo María Obviar (later Bishop Lucena, and has used it ever since.
At the request of Rufino Jiao Santos, Cardinal Archbishop of Manila, Rosales was appointed by Pope Paul VI on August 12, 1974 to become auxiliary bishop in the national capital. He took care of the ecclesiastical district of Antipolo, as well as San Juan, Mandaluyong, and Grace Park in Caloocan. Rosales was consecrated bishop of the titular see of Oescus in a ceremony on October 28, 1974, and in 1980, was appointed rector of the archdiocesan major seminary, San Carlos Seminary.
|Ordination history of Gaudencio Rosales|
|Ordained by||Alejandro Olalia|
|Date of ordination||March 23, 1958|
|Principal consecrator||Bruno Torpigliani|
|Date of consecration||October 28, 1974|
|Date of elevation||March 24, 2006|
|Mylo Hubert Claudio Vergara||April 30, 2005|
|Pablo Virgilio Siongco David||July 10, 2006|
|Broderick Soncuaco Pabillo||August 19, 2006|
|Elenito de los Reyes Galido||September 8, 2006|
|Leopoldo Corpuz Jaucian, S.V.D.||March 26, 2007|
|Francisco Mendoza de Leon||September 1, 2007|
His term as rector was brief, though, for on June 9, 1982, he was appointed coadjutor bishop to the then controversial and prophetic Bishop Francisco Claver, of Diocese of Malaybalay, Bukidnon. In this moment of difficulty, Rosales recalled that a stampita (holy picture) dropped from his breviary (liturgy of the hours). It was from Mother (now Blessed) Teresa of Calcutta. When he picked it up, he saw the writing at the back. It read: “Allow God to use you without first consulting you.” These words brought peace to his soul. On September 14, 1984, Rosales succeeded the Bishop of Malaybalay taking complete authority over the diocese. He started his ministry in Malaybalay by forming with his people, especially the priest and religious there, a vision of the diocese: that of the total development of every person and all persons, brought about by Jesus Christ. In that difficult assignment, he was able to bring about the unity of the clergy as they struggled especially for justice, peace and environmental protection. He often looks back to his days there as the golden moments of his ministry.
Archbishop of Lipa and Manila
When Archbishop Mariano Gaviola of Lipa retired, Rosales was appointed his successor on December 30, 1991, bringing the latter back to the diocese where he began his ministry.
With the announced retirement of Cardinal Jaime Sin, one of the beloved architects of the People Power Movement of the EDSA Revolution, the Papal Nuncio told Archbishop Rosales of his impending appointment as archbishop of Manila. He begged the Nuncio with tears not to have him appointed, but the Nuncio did not relent. Appointed by Pope John Paul II on September 15, 2003, Rosales was enthroned in Manila Cathedral on November 21, 2003.
Rosales's elevation to the College of Cardinals was announced on February 22, 2006. Archbishop Antonio Franco, the Apostolic Nuncio, personally made the announcement at Manila Cathedral during a Mass for the 40th anniversary of the Focolare Movement.
Pope Benedict XVI created Rosales Cardinal-Priest of Santissimo Nome di Maria in Via Latina in the consistory of March 24, 2006. Rosales joined 14 others, two of them Asians, as the newest members of the College of Cardinals. Pope Benedict told the new cardinals: “I want to sum up the meaning of this new call that you have received in the word which I placed at the heart of my first Encyclical: caritas. This matches well the color of your cardinal's robes. May the scarlet that you now wear always express the caritas Christi, inspiring you to a passionate love for Christ, for his Church and for all humanity.” A little later, he added: “I am counting on you, dear Brother Cardinals, to ensure that the principle of love will spread far and wide, and will give new life to the Church at every level of her hierarchy, in every group of the faithful, in every religious institute, in every spiritual, apostolic or humanitarian initiative.”
On February 3, 2007, Rosales was appointed for a five-year term on the 15-member Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Concerns of the Apostolic See.
In 2008, Cardinal Rosales offered his resignation from the governance of the archdiocese, as required under canon law on reaching the age of 75, but Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re communicated that the Holy See had not accepted it.
In the same year also, Cardinal Rosales invited Pope Benedict XVI to visit the third largest Catholic nation in the world; however, the Pope declined it due his heavy schedule.
On August 10, 2012, along with the celebration of his 80th birthday, he lost his eligibility to vote on any future conclaves and thus, did not participate in the 2013 conclave that elected Pope Francis.
The Church leader once said that there is no such thing as absolute freedom. Police forces violently dispersed a group of politicians, priests and nuns, including three bishops who planned to go to the San Beda College chapel to hear mass. He expressed support for charter change but condemned politicians pushing their personal agenda in amending the constitution.
When the state of national emergency was proclaimed, Rosales asked the Filipinos to pray for peace and unity in the country and expressed hopes that the government will not abuse and curtail the rights of the people.
National Statistics Office
In 2007, Cardinal Rosales argued against the National Statistics Office (NSO) requirement that all solemnizing officers/priests undergo training before conducting wedding ceremonies. He said: "We understand the concern of the National Statistics Office (NSO) because we also know of abuses done by the so-called ministers of the Gospel (not priests), but they should not be like that to us, as if we know nothing."
In 2008, Rosales clashed with Ang Ladlad founder Danton Remoto on the subject of allowing gays to participate, in drag, in the Flores de Mayo celebration. Rosales threatened parishes that permit cross-dressing homosexuals to play Saint Helena, or female saints in the Santacruzan or Flores de Mayo procession with official punishment and removal from mass.
Implementing Summorum Pontificum
The guidelines that Rosales wrote for implementing the 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum were reported to have been criticized by Darío Castrillón Hoyos, President of the Ecclesia Dei Commission, as too restrictive. Rosales denied that he had forbidden use of the "Traditional Latin Mass" in his archdiocese, saying he had only opposed celebration by priests of the dissident Society of St. Pius X.
On September 16, 2010, Cardinal Rosales issued a pastoral letter expressing the Catholic Church’s condemnation of abortion and recalling the excommunication imposed by the Church on those who procure it or help others to do so. "A deliberately procured abortion is a moral evil and the Catholic Church attaches the canonical penalty of excommunication on those who procure it and on those who help obtain abortion", the pastoral letter read.
Below is the list of auxiliary bishops who served during Rosales' term as Archbishop of Manila. The auxiliary bishops are also Vicar-Generals of the archdiocese.
- Most Rev. Teodoro Buhain, D.D. (2003–2004)
- Most Rev. Bernardino Cortez, D.D. (2004–2011)
- Most Rev. Broderick Pabillo, D.D. (2006–2011)
- Most Rev. Socrates Villegas, D.D. (2003–2004) (later installed as Bishop of Balanga)
Aside from the auxiliary bishops, the following priests served as Vicar-Generals of Manila during Rosales' time.
- Miranda, Salvador. "ROSALES, Gaudencio Borbon". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- gmanews.tv/story, Vatican rejects Rosales resignation
- Philippines: Pope too busy to visit, says Manila archbishop
- Cardinal Rosales to NSO: Priests know best in sanctifying marriage
- www.reuters.com, Manila bishop says against gay men in May parade
- manilatimes.net, Cardinal: Gays out of ‘Santacruzans’
- Robert Mickens, "Cardinal accused of disobeying Pope", in The Tablet, 4 April 2009
- Union of Catholic Asian News, "Archbishop denies restricting traditional Latin Mass", 17 April 2009
- Abella, Jerrie M. (September 19, 2010). "Excommunication awaits abortionists — Cardinal Rosales". GMANews.TV. GMA News. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- Cardinal Rosales Concurrently Named Apostolic Administrator of the Suffragan Diocese of Pasig
- Vatican Cardinal Bio
- Welcome to Archdiocese of Manila Official Website
- Biography at Salvador Miranda's "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church" website
- Catholic-Hierarchy – Gaudencio Borbón Cardinal Rosales
- catholic pages
- Rosales Webpage
- Asia News
|Catholic Church titles|
|Rector of San Carlos Seminary
| Succeeded by|
Francisco F. Claver
|Bishop of Malaybalay
| Succeeded by|
Honesto Chaves Pacana, SJ
Mariano Gaviola y Garcés
|Archbishop of Lipa
| Succeeded by|
|Archbishop of Manila
| Succeeded by|
Luis Antonio Tagle
Title last held byPaulos Tzadua
|Cardinal-Priest of SS. Nome di Maria in Via Latina
March 24, 2006 – present