Garage rock

"Garage band" redirects here. For other uses, see Garage band (disambiguation).
"Frat rock" redirects here. For the album with a similar name, see Frat Rock! The Greatest Rock 'n' Roll Party Tunes of All-Time.

Garage rock is a raw and energetic style of rock and roll that flourished in the mid-1960s, most notably in the United States and Canada but also elsewhere. At the time it had no specific name and was not recognized as a separate genre, but critical recognition in the early 1970s, and particularly the release of the 1972 compilation album Nuggets did much to define and memorialize the style. The term derives from the perception that groups were often made up of young amateurs who rehearsed in the family garage, though many were professional. The phrase garage band is often used to refer to musical acts in this genre.

The style, a precursor to psychedelic rock, is often characterized by aggressive and unsophisticated lyrics and delivery, sometimes using guitars distorted through a fuzzbox. Surf rock and subsequently the Beatles and the beat groups of the British Invasion motivated thousands of young people to form bands in the US and elsewhere from 1963 through early 1968. Hundreds of acts produced regional hits, and a handful had national chart hits. With the advent of psychedelia, a number of garage bands incorporated exotic elements into the genre's primitive stylistic framework, but after 1968, as more sophisticated forms of rock music overtook the marketplace, garage rock records largely disappeared from the national and regional charts.

In an effort to identify and recognize the music as a distinct genre, certain critics in the early 1970s began to retroactively refer to the style as "punk rock", the first form of music to bear this description; and it is sometimes called "garage punk", "protopunk", or "'60s punk" to distinguish it from the more commonly known punk rock of the mid- and late-1970s that it influenced. Garage rock has experienced various revivals over the last several decades and continues to influence many modern acts who prefer a "back to basics" and "do it yourself" musical approach.

Background and characteristics

The D-Men (later the Fifth Estate) in 1964


Use of the term garage rock stems from the perception that many of its performers were young and amateurish, and often rehearsed in the family garage.[1] While numerous bands were made up of middle-class teenagers from the suburbs, others were from rural or urban areas or were composed of professional musicians in their twenties. [2] The earliest attested use of the term "garage band" dates from March 1971, in a review by John Mendelsohn in Rolling Stone;[3] later the same year, Lenny Kaye also used the term in the same magazine.[4]

Garage bands performed in a variety of venues. Less-established groups typically played at parties, school dances, and teen clubs.[5] For acts of legal age (and in some cases younger), bars, nightclubs, and college fraternity socials also provided regular engagements.[6][7] Occasionally, local groups had the opportunity to open at shows for famous touring acts passing through their cities and towns.[8] Some garage rock bands went on tour, particularly the better-known acts who scored nationwide hits, but also lesser-known groups receiving bookings or airplay beyond their local vicinity.[9][10] Groups often competed in "battles of the bands", which gave musicians an opportunity to gain exposure and, when successful, a chance to win a prize, such as free recording time in a local studio.[11][12] Battles of the bands were held, locally, regionally and nationally, and the most prestigious contest was held annually by the Tea Council of the U.S.A, usually in Lambertville, New Jersey.[5][12]

Stylistic features

Performances often sounded amateurish, naïve or intentionally raw, with typical themes revolving around the traumas of high school life and songs about "lying girls" being particularly common.[1][13] The lyrics and delivery were notably more aggressive than the more polished acts of the time, often with nasal, growled, or shouted vocals, sometimes punctuated by shrieks or screams at climactic moments of release.[1][5][14] Instrumentation was characterized by the use of electric guitars often distorted through a fuzzbox, teaming with bass and drums.[14][15][16] Guitarists sometimes played using aggressive-sounding bar chord riffs, sometimes referred to as power chords.[17][18] Organs such as the Farfisa were commonly used as well as mouth harmonicas or hand-held percussion such as tambourines.[14][19][20] Occasionally, the tempo would be sped up in certain passages sometimes referred to as "raveups".[21]

Garage rock acts were diverse in both musical ability and in style, ranging from crude two- and three-chord music (such as the Seeds and the Keggs) to near-studio musician quality (including the Knickerbockers, the Remains, and the Fifth Estate). There were also regional variations with flourishing scenes, particularly in California, the base of Strawberry Alarm Clock, the Electric Prunes, the Music Machine, the Standells, and Texas, offering bands such as Sir Douglas Quintet, the 13th Floor Elevators, Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs (whose "Wooly Bully" reached number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 and charted for almost four and a half months in 1965), and Fever Tree.[22][14] The north-western states of Idaho, Washington and Oregon had perhaps the most defined regional sound with bands such as the Sonics and Paul Revere & the Raiders.[23][24]

History 1958–68


Early influences

Richard Berry, whose 1957 song "Louie Louie" inspired the Wailers, the Kingsmen, and in turn thousands of other garage bands

In the late 1950s, the initial impact of rock and roll on mainstream American culture waned as major record companies took a controlling influence and sought to market more conventionally acceptable recordings.[25] Electric musical instruments (particularly guitars) and amplification were becoming more affordable, allowing young musicians to form small groups to perform in front of local audiences of their peers; and in some areas there was a breakdown, especially among radio audiences, of traditional black and white markets, with more white teenagers able to hear and purchase R&B records. By the end of the 1950s regional scenes were abundant around the country and influenced much of the music of the 1960s.[26]

Some young people were still inspired by musicians such as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Bo Diddley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, and Eddie Cochran, whose recordings of often self-written and relatively unsophisticated and hard-driving songs from a few years earlier had proclaimed personal independence and freedom from parental controls and conservative norms. Ritchie Valens' 1958 hit "La Bamba" helped jump-start the Chicano rock scene in Southern California and provided a three-chord template for the songs of numerous 1960s garage bands.[27] Guitarist Link Wray, best known for his 1959 instrumental "Rumble", used innovative guitar techniques and effects such as power chords, distortion, and tremolo and is also often cited as an early influence in the development of the garage rock sound.[28][29]

Pacific Northwest 1958–1963

The 10-note riff from "Louie, Louie"

According to Lester Bangs, "the origins of garage rock as a genre can be traced to California and the Pacific Northwest in the early Sixties".[30] The Pacific Northwest, which encompasses Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, played a critical role in the inception of garage rock, hosting the first scene to produce a sizable number of acts, and pre-dated the arrival of the British Invasion by several years. The signature garage sound of the Pacific Northwest is sometimes referred to as "the Northwest Sound" and had its origins in the late 1950s, when a handful of R&B and rock & roll acts sprung up in various cities and towns in an area stretching from Puget Sound to Seattle and Tacoma, and beyond.[31]

There and elsewhere, groups of teenagers were inspired directly by touring R&B performers such as Johnny Otis and Richard Berry, and began to play cover versions of R&B songs.[32] The Playboys were a racially integrated R&B group hailing from Seattle and featured Ron Holden and were one of the popular bands that also influenced later acts.[33] The Frantics from Seattle had several instrumental hits, such as "Werewolf" in 1960.[34] During the late 1950s there were a host of other instrumental groups playing in the region, such as the Ventures, formed in 1958 in Tacoma, Washington, who specialized in a surf rock sound.[35] The Blue Notes from Tacoma, Washington, fronted by "Rockin' Robin" Roberts, specialized in a hard-driving R&B sound and were one of the city's first teenage rock & roll bands.[36] The Wailers (often referred to as the Fabulous Wailers), were one of their chief rivals in Tacoma, and eventually exceeded them in popularity with their national chart hit in 1959, the instrumental "Tall Cool One".[37] After the demise of Blue Notes, "Rockin' Robin" did a brief stint with the Wailers, and with him on vocals in 1962, they recorded a version of Richard Berry's 1957 song "Louie Louie", which became an unofficial anthem for practically every band in the region.[38][39]

It was Portland group the Kingsmen's 1963 off-the-cuff version of "Louie Louie", largely based on the Wailers' arrangement, that took off, first as a regional hit in Seattle, then rising to No. 1 on the national charts and becoming a hit overseas, making it the de facto "big bang" for three-chord rock.[40][41] Berry's song was written as an ode to the lovelorn confessions of a drunken Jamaican sailor, to be sung as if a monologue to a bartender, and displays Latin influences with its "El Loco Cha-Cha" riffs which were subsequently pared down to a more basic and primitive rock arrangement in the Kingsmen's version, providing a stylistic model for countless garage rock bands to come.[42][43] Paul Revere & the Raiders, who also recorded a version of "Louie Louie" around this time, were originally from Boise, Idaho, but relocated to Portland, Oregon, when Revere, a conscientious objector, returned from deferred service in the armed forces in 1962.[44] The Sonics, who formed in Tacoma in 1960, later recorded a rendition of Berry's "Have Love, Will Travel".[45]

Chris Montez's 1962 hit "Let's Dance" contained stylistic elements later associated with garage rock.

Elsewhere 1958–1963

Elsewhere, regional scenes of teenage bands playing R&B-oriented rock, and often competing against each other in "battle of the bands" contests, were particularly well established several years before the British Invasion, in Texas and the Midwest.[46] In Milwaukee, the Nomads were formed in the late 1950s, influenced by rockabilly and blues recordings. A rival band were the Bonnevilles, a band led by guitarist Larry Lynne and based in a newly built middle-class suburb. Lynne said that he was inspired to form a band by the R&B radio stations broadcasting from the South, together with the experience of seeing some of the original rock and roll acts, such as Gene Vincent, perform when he was younger.[47] With its use of "cheesy" sounding Farfisa organ riffs and banging drums, the 1962 hit "Let's Dance" by Chris Montez featured stylistic elements that anticipate the garage sound.[48][49] By 1963 singles by several such bands were creeping into the national charts, including the Trashmen, from Minneapolis,[50][51] and the Rivieras, from South Bend, Indiana.[52]

At the same time, in southern California, bands such as the Nomads (not the Milwaukee band) formed, playing raucous guitar- and saxophone-driven instrumentals.[40] Many bands were heavily influenced by surf rock and hot rod music, and there was a cross-pollination between these influences resulting in an energetic and upbeat sound. This is sometimes referred to as frat rock, which can be viewed as an early subgenre of garage rock, and it is often associated with many Pacific Northwest acts, such as the Kingsmen, but also thrived elsewhere.[26][53][54] Writer Neil Campbell commented: "There were literally thousands of rough and ready groups performing in local bars and dance halls throughout the US prior to the arrival of the Beatles ... [T]he indigenous popular music which functioned in this way ... was the protopunk more commonly identified as garage rock".[55]

Impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion

As the mid-1960s approached, garage rock entered a new period reflecting a different set of influences and circumstances.[26][56] On February 9, 1964, during their first visit to the United States, the Beatles made a historic appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show watched by a record-breaking viewing audience of a nation mourning the recent death of President John F. Kennedy.[56][57][58] For many, particularly the young, the Beatles' visit re-ignited the sense of excitement and possibility that had momentarily faded in the wake of the assassination.[56][59] Much of this new excitement was expressed in music, sometimes much to the chagrin of parents and elders.[60][58][61]

Following the Beatles' first visit, a subsequent string of successful, and increasingly bold, British Invasion acts emerged between 1964 and 1966. These had a profound impact, leading many (often surf or hot rod groups) to respond by altering their style, and countless new bands to form, as teenagers around the country picked up guitars and started bands by the thousands.[58] In many cases, garage bands were particularly influenced by the British "beat groups" with a harder, blues-based attack, such as the Kinks, the Who, the Animals, the Yardbirds, the Small Faces, the Pretty Things, Them,[62][63] and the Rolling Stones, often resulting in a raw and primitive sound. Numerous garage rock bands were formed in countries outside North America, such as England's the Troggs who enjoyed worldwide success with "Wild Thing".[64][65] Another influence was the folk-rock of the Byrds and Bob Dylan on numerous bands such as the Leaves.[66][67] Eventually the effects of psychedelic rock began to permeate the form.[68][69]

Peak of popularity

Count Five – "Psychotic Reaction" (1966)
"Psychotic Reaction" by the Count Five reached #5 in the Billboard charts in 1966.[70]

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Thousands of garage bands were active in the US and Canada and hundreds produced regional hits during the 1960s, and it was not uncommon for a band to cut a record and receive airplay on the local AM radio station.[71][72] Several groups achieved national success. In 1965 the Beau Brummels broke the charts with "Laugh, Laugh", followed by "Just a Little".[73] Certain acts were able to gain national exposure just long enough to have one, occasionally more, hits in an era rife with one-hit wonders[71][74][75] In April 1966, The Outsiders, from Cleveland, had a hit with "Time Won't Let Me.[76][77] In July, the Standells, from Los Angeles, almost cracked the top ten with "Dirty Water".[78] "Psychotic Reaction" by The Count Five went to #5 on Billboard's Hot 100.[70]

The November 12, 1966, issue of Billboard reported that the "96 Tears" single by Question Mark & the Mysterians, a band from Michigan, had attained sales of one million copies. Two months later, "Talk Talk" by the Music Machine broke the top twenty.[79] The Syndicate of Sound's "Little Girl" reached #8 on the Billboard charts.[80] The Remains, from Boston, though unable to Break Billboard's Top 100, had enough of a following to open for the Beatles during their 1966 US tour.[81] When it was unearthed by a Pittsburgh Disc Jockey in 1965, the resulting success of "Hanky Panky" revived the career of Tommy James, who formed a new group, Tommy James and the Shondells, and followed it with twelve more top 40 singles.[82] Other bands enjoyed regional airplay and borderend on wider success such as the Sonics,[83] the Unrelated Segments, from Detroit,[84] the Choir, from Cleveland,[85] and the Haunted, from Montreal.[86] [86]

Female garage bands

The Pleasure Seekers (Suzi Quatro at far right) pictured in 1966

Garage rock was not an exclusively male phenomenon—it fostered the emergence of all-female bands whose members played their own instruments. One of the first such acts was New York's Goldie and the Gingerbreads, who accompanied Chubby Checker on his 1962 European tour,[87] and later toured with the Rolling Stones, the Animals, the Beatles, the Yardbirds, the Hollies and the Kinks, among others.[88] The Pleasure Seekers, from Detroit, later known as Cradle, featured Suzi Quatro and her sisters. Quatro subsequently went on to greater fame as a solo act in the early 1970s.[89] The Luv'd Ones, also from Michigan, signed with Chicago's Dunwich Records, and are best known for the song "Up Down Sue".[90]

San Francisco's the Ace of Cups became a fixture in the Bay Area scene in the late 1960s.[91] The Liverbirds hailed from the Beatles' home city of Liverpool, England, but became best known in Germany, often performing in Hamburg's Star-Club.[92] Other notable female groups were the Daughters of Eve, from Chicago, the Feminine Complex, from Nashville, and The Heart Beats from Lubbock, Texas. In many ways, bands such as these anticipated later all-female acts, such as the Runaways and the Slits, that were associated with the 1970s punk movement.[93][94]

Regional scenes: United States, Canada, and Islands

Pacific Northwest 1964–68

In 1964 and 1965 the impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion shifted the tectonic plates of the musical landscape, presenting, not only a challenge, but also a new impetus for teenagers in the Pacific Northwest to form bands, as many of the more experienced acts adapted to the new climate, often reaching greater levels of commercial and/or artistic success than previously. The Kingsmen went through a significant roster shake-up in 1964, while unwittingly becoming the target of an FBI investigation in response to complaints about the alleged use of profanity in the nearly unintelligible lyrics of their ramshackle hit version of "Louie Louie".[95] With the new lineup featuring former drummer Lyn Eastman on vocals, they continued to be active until the end of the decade, recording a string of singles.[96]

After relocating to Portland, Paul Revere & the Raiders became the first rock & roll act to be signed to Columbia Records in 1963, but did not achieve their commercial breakthrough until 1965 with the song "Steppin Out", which was followed by string of chart-topping hits such as "Just Like Me", originally recorded by the Wilde Knights and "Kicks".[97][98] The Sonics, who formed in Tacoma in 1960, went through several personnel shifts until they achieved their best-known lineup in 1964 when vocalist Gerry Rosalie and saxophonist Rob Lind joined the group.[99] They signed to the Wailers' label, Etiquette Records and proceeded to cut their first single, the overdriven "The Witch" (1964).[100][101] The song was re-issued again in 1965, this time with the even more intense "Psycho" on the flip side.[102][103] They released two albums on Etiquette, Here Are The Sonics!!! (1965) an Boom (1966), followed by Introducing the Sonics (1967) on Jerden Records.[104] They are also known for several other "high-octane" rockers such as "Cinderella" and the power-chorded proto-punk "He's Waitin'".[105]

Prompted by the Sonics, the Wailers entered the mid 1960s with a harder-edged approach as evidenced in fuzz-driven songs such as "Hang Up" and "Out of Our Tree".[102] In 1964 keyboardist Don Gallucci, whose signature electric piano riffs punctuated the hit version of "Louie Louie", left the Kingsmen to start his own combo, Don and the Goodtimes, whose initial lineup briefly included fellow ex-Kingsman Jack Ely, who had sung lead vocal their hit version of "Louie Louie", before he went form Jack Ely & the Courtmen in 1966.[106] Also from the region were Paul Bearer & the Hearsemen[107] the Bootmen,[108] the Liberty Party,[109] the Raymarks,[110] The Velvet Illusions,[111] and the Pastels, who recorded "Circuit Breaker".[112]

Boston and New England

The Remains in 1966

Though Pacific Northwest provided the initial flurry of garage rock bands, other parts of the United States and Canada were soon to follow, particularly in response to the impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion, which resulted in a widespread grassroots rock explosion. One of the next regions to experience a proliferation of bands was Boston and New England. The Barbarians, from Cape Cod, wearing sandals and long hair, and cultivating an image of "noble savages", recorded an album and several singles, such as the partly self-referential, "Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl".[113] Impossible to ignore was the sight of their drummer, Victor "Moulty" Moulton, who played the drums holding one of his sticks with a prosthetic clamp in place of his left hand, worn as the result of an earlier accident.[114] In 1964 the group appeared on the T.A.M.I. Show, on same bill as famous acts such as the Rolling Stones and James Brown, playing the joyfully primitive "Hey Little Bird".[114] In 1966, while the other members of the band were away, Moulton recorded "Moulty", a spoken monologue set to music, in which he recounted the travails of his disfigurement, released under the Barbarians' name, but backed by future members of the Band.[114]

The Remains (sometimes called Barry and the Remains), from Boston, led by Barry Tashian, were also popular in the region, and in addition to touring with the Beatles in 1966, recorded songs such as "Don't Look Back" and "Why do I Cry" and a self-titled album for Epic that year.[115] Also from Boston, the Rockin' Ramrods recorded the distortion-driven protopunk of "She Lied", in 1964.[116] The Squires, from Bristol, Connecticut, released the song, "All the Way" on Atco Records in 1966.[117] Both songs are now regarded as a garage classics.[116][118][119] In the New Haven area, there was a heavy concentration of bands, several of whom, such as the Shags and the Bram Rigg Set, recorded at the Trod Nossel Studios, in Wallingford, owned by music entrepreneur, Thomas Cavaier.[120]


The Seeds in 1966

The garage craze came into full swing in California, particularly in Los Angeles.[121][122][123] The Sunset Strip was the center of the L.A. nightlife, providing bands with high-profile venues to attract a larger following and possibly draw the attention of record executives looking to sign an act.[124] Exploitation films of the period, such as Riot on Sunset Strip, Mondo Hollywood, and the documentary, Mondo Mod, captured the musical and social milieu of life on the strip.[125][126] In Riot on Sunset Strip, several bands make appearances at the Pandora's Box, with the Standells supplying the theme song and a later appearance by the Chocolate Watchband and others.[127][128][129] The Seeds and the Leaves were favorites with the "in-crowd" and managed to score national hits with songs that have come to be regarded as garage classics: the Seeds with "Pushin' Too Hard" and the Leaves with "Hey Joe".[130][131]

Love, a racially integrated band headed by African-American musician Arthur Lee, was one of the most popular bands in the scene.[132] Their propulsive 1966 protopunk anthem, "7 and 7 Is", became a staple in countless other bands' repertoires.[133] The Music Machine, led by Sean Bonniwell, employed innovative musical techniques, sometimes building their own custom-made fuzzboxes.[134] Among their numerous recordings they are best known for their 1966 hit, "Talk Talk". The Sons of Adam were another popular band on the strip.[123] Garage rock was present in the Latino community in East L.A.[135][136] The Premiers, who had a hit in 1964 with "Farmer John", and Thee Midniters are considered notable figures in Chicano rock,[137][138] as are their San Diego counterparts, Cannibal & the Headhunters, who had a hit with Chris Kenner's "Land of a Thousand Dances".[40]

San Jose and the South Bay area had a bustling scene featuring the Chocolate Watchband, the Count Five, and the Syndicate of Sound.[57] From the East Bay in Fremont came Harbinger Complex.[139] Though San Francisco is primarily known for sophisticated acid rock, the garage sound was detectable in a handful of bands such the Great Society, featuring Grace Slick before she joined Jefferson Airplane,[140] the Brogues, some of whose members later to played in Quicksilver Messenger Service,[141] the Charlatans,[142] and the Other Half, whose lead guitarist Randy Holden, had played in the Sons of Adam and later joined Blue Cheer.[123] The Flamin' Groovies, founded in 1965, became a fixture in the Bay area scene, and their career stretched well into the 1970s.[143]

Illinois and Michigan

The Shadows of Knight in 1966

Chicago, known for electric blues, continued to have a strong recording industry well into the 1960s and was also hotbed of activity for garage rock bands, providing hits for the American Breed, the Buckinghams, and the Cryan' Shames.[144][145][146] Chicago blues as well as the Rolling Stones influenced the Shadows of Knight, a band who favored a harder approach, featuring Jim Sohns on lead vocals.[147] In 1966 the Shadows of Knight scored hits with their versions of Them's Van Morrison-penned "Gloria", and Bo Diddley's "Oh Yeah", as well as the less successful but more aggressive "I'm Gonna Make You Mine" – all released on Dunwich Records.[147] The Banshees released the cathartic "Project Blue" on Dunwich Records.[148] The Little Boy Blues, in addition to recording "The Great Train Robbery", also cut a version of Van Morrison's highly covered "I Can Only Give You Everything".[149] The Del-Vetts, who later changed their name to the Pride and Joy, issued the fuzz-driven "Last Time Around" in 1966.[150] The New Colony Six, who like Paul Revere and the Raiders, wore Revolutionary war era suits, released four albums worth of material and enjoyed modest chart success.[151]

Michigan had one of the highest concentrations of bands in the country, and the Detroit scene was a major center. In early 1966, MC5 released a version of "I Can Only Give You Everything" before they went on to greater success at the end of the decade.[152] The Unrelated Segments, whose ranks included lead vocalist, Ron Stults and guitarist Rory Mack, recorded a string of songs beginning with local hit "You Can't Buy Love", followed by others such as "Where You Gonna Go".[153] Jim Osterberg, also from Detroit, later known as Iggy Pop, played drums with the Iguanas.[154] Bob Seger and the Last Heard were also a fixture in the Detroit scene.[155] The Underdogs from Grosse Pointe, were a regular fixture popular nightspot, the Hideout, whose stage was frequented by Seger and the Last Heard, the Pleasure Seekers, as well as Glen Fry's band of the time, the Subterraneans.[156][157][158] Terry Knight and the Pack were from Flint and formed the basis of what later became Grand Funk Railroad.[159] The Rationals, from Ann Arbor and fronted by Scott Morgan, achieved regional success but failed to break nationally.[160] Fenton Records was a "pay-and-record" label owned by Dave Kalmbach[161] that catered to a handful of West Michigan bands, such as the JuJus,[162] the Quests,[163] and the Plagues.[164]

Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Indiana

The Outsiders, from Cleveland, enjoyed a major hit with "Time Won't Let Me" in 1966.

With their 1963 hit, "Surfin' Bird" the Trashmen, from Minneapolis, paved the way for subsequent Minnesota bands.[51] Minneapolis/St. Paul was the home of the Castaways, who had a major hit with "Liar, Liar" in 1965.[165] The Litter, also from Minneapolis, had a harder sound and released the distortion-laden "Action Woman" as a single in 1966—a song which Michael Hann of the Guardian described as "one of garage's gnarliest, snarliest, most tight-trousered pieces of hormonal aggression".[166][167] T.C. Atlantic released six singles, including the psychedelic "Faces".[168] The Electras, from Ely, Minnesota, were prolific and cut a string of singles for Scotty Records, sometimes credited as 'Twas Brilling.[169]

Ohio turned out numerous bands, several of whom managed to make an impact on the national charts, such as the Outsiders from Cleveland.[85] Also from Cleveland, the Choir had a regional hit with "It's Cold Outside". The Human Beinz, from Youngstown, had a smash hit in 1967 with the Isley Brothers' "Nobody But Me".[170] The Music Explosion, from Mansfield, also had a breakout chart success that year with "Little Bit O' Soul".[171][172] In Wisconsin, Cuca Records, out of Sauk City issued records by a handful of bands in the region.[173] Former rockabilly singer, Denny Noie, from Appleton, adopted a garage sound with the 4th of Never.[174] From Indiana came South Bend's The Rivieras'.[175] Union City was the home of the McCoys who scored a major hit wit "Hang on Sloopy" in 1965.[176]

New York and mid-Atlantic

The Vagrants in 1966

Garage bands flourished up and down the Atlantic coast. From the Bronx, New York came the Blues Magoos, who had a hit with the psychedelically tinged garage classic, "(We Ain't Got) Nothin' Yet".[177] The Druids of Stonehenge, from New York recorded "A Garden Where Nothing Grows", followed by the LP, Creation [178] The Vagrants, from Long Island, released a version of the Otis Redding-penned "Respect", made famous by Aretha Franklin, which was later included on the original 1972 edition of Nuggets.[179] Richard and the Young Lions, from Newark, New Jersey, had a hit in 1966 with "Open Up Your Door".[180] The Myddle Class from Berkley Heights, were a popular East Coast band.[8] In 1967 the Beach Nuts from Point Pleasant Beach, New Jersey recorded the garage anthem "My Iconoclastic Life".[181]

Pennsylvania had a large garage scene. From Philadelphia came The Rising Tydes and the Magic Mushrooms.[182][183] The Fantastic Dee Jays from McKeesport, near Pittsburgh released a string of singles including "Get Away Girl".[184][185] Two of their members went on to found the Swamp Rats.[186] The Hangmen were from Rockville, Maryland and had a local hit with "What a Girl Can't Do" and followed with the fuzz-driven, "Faces".[187][188] The Mad Hatters, from Annapolis, recorded several sides including "I Need Love", which was later covered by the Time Stoppers, and "I'll Come Running".[189] The Fallen Angels, from Washington, DC released the single "Bad Woman" in 1966, then went on to record two albums for Roulette Records.[190]


The Lone Star State was home to some of the largest scenes in the country, with much of the action happening in Dallas/Fort Worth, Houston, Corpus Christi, San Antonio, and Austin. Sam the Sam and the Pharaohs were from Dallas and were fronted by Domingo "Sam" Samudio.[191] They had two breakout hits with "Wooly Bully" and "Little Miss Riding Hood".[191] Kenny and the Kasuals were also also from Dallas.[192] Mouse and the Traps were from Tyler and recorded the Dylanesque "A Public Execution", followed by "Made of Sugar Maid of Spice".[193] The Moving Sidewalks, from Houston, featuring Billy Gibbons, later to go on to fame in ZZ Top, recorded the garage classic "99th Floor".[194] Neal Ford and the Fanatics, also from Houston, were one of the most popular bands in the region.[195]

The 13th Floor Elevators, from Austin, featured Roky Erickson on guitar and vocals and are perhaps the best-remembered Texas band of the era.[196] The Golden Dawn were also from Austin.[197] The Zakary Thaks, from Corpus Christi, are best known for the frantic sped-up Kinks-inspired riffs of "Bad Girl".[198] Also from Corpus Christi came the Bad Seeds and the Liberty Bell.[199][200] The Outcasts, from San Antonio, cut five singles including "I'm in Pittsburgh and It's Raining" and "1523 Blair".[201] The Sparkles, from Levelland, in West Texas, had existed in several different configurations since 1959, but it is their lineup between 1963 and 1967 that produced such songs as "Ain't No Friend of Mine".[202]

The Gentlemen, from Oak Cliff, a suburb of Dallas, cut a single featuring a song that has been recognized as one of the greatest garage rock records of all time, the fuzz-drenched anthem "It's a Cry'n Shame".[203] The Penthouse 5 and the WordD were also active in the Dallas scene.[204] Fort Worth had one of the largest scenes in Texas, and was the home to popular venues such as Teen a Go Go and Panther Hall.[205] Larry and the Blue Notes were one of Fort Worth's most popular groups, along with others such as The Novas.[206][207]

Great Plains, Southwest, and Mountain states

The Five Americans were from Durant, Oklahoma and released a string of singles, such as "I See the Light" and their hit "Western Union", which became a huge hit in 1967.[208] From Phoenix, Arizona came the Spiders who featured Vincent Furnier, later known as Alice Cooper, and recorded two singles, most notably "Don't Blow Your Mind", which became a local hit in Phoenix.[209] They ventured to Los Angeles in 1967, in hopes of achieving greater success, though it subsequently materialized not there, but in Detroit, re-christened as Alice Cooper and with a new "shock" image just in time for the success to arrive in the 1970s.[209][210]

The Grodes, from Tucson, Arizona, recorded the original version of "Let's Talk About Girls", later covered by the Chocolate Watchband, and the anthem "Cry a Little Longer".[211] The Dearly Beloved, also from Tucson, began as the Intruders, but later changed their name the Quinstrels, then settled on their best-known moniker where they had a regional hit with "Peep Peep Pop Pop", followed by two more singles, the last of which, "Flight 13" was recorded with Terry Lee in place of their regular vocalist, Larry Cox, who died in an auto accident shortly before the sessions.[212][213]

In 1967 the Chob, from Albuquerque, cut a single featuring the frantic "We're Pretty Quick", now considered a garage classic.[214][215] Also from Albuquerque were the Lincoln St. Exit,[216] and the Kreeg.[217][218] The Burgundy Runn recorded "Stop", which was later covered by the Chesterfield Kings.[219][220] Norman Petty, who had recorded many of Buddy Holly's famous hits at his studio in Clovis, remained active there in the 1960s, cutting records for various garage bands in New Mexico and West Texas.[221] The Fe-Fi-Four Plus 2, from Albuquerque, went there to record "I Wanna Come Back (From the World of LSD)" in late 1966, which featured starkly frank lyrics about a bad LSD trip.[222][223] the Soul Survivors were from Denver, Colorado.[224][225][226] Group members Allen Kemp, Pat Shanahan and John Day moved to Los Angeles and teamed up with Randy Meisner and Randy Naylor to form the Poor.[224][225]

Florida and Gulf States

Florida had one of the South's most populous scenes, particularly on the southern peninsula around Orlando, Miami, and Tampa. We the People, a popular fixture in the Orlando area, came about as the result of a merger between two bands and featured songwriters Tommy Talton and Wane Proctor.[227] They went to Nashville and recorded a batch of self-composed songs for the Challenge and RCA labels, such as primitive rockers, "You Burn Me Upside Down" and "Mirror of my Mind", as well as eclectic pieces such as "In the Past", later covered by the Chocolate Watchband.[227] The Birdwatchers, from West Palm Beach, gained national airplay with "I'm Gonna Love you Anyway", and made an appearance on Dick Clark's TV show, Where the Action Is.[228][229] The Nightcrawlers, from Daytona Beach.[230]

From Miami came the Montells and Evil.[231][232] The Montells, recorded a version of the Pretty Things "Don't Let Me Down" (credited as the H.M. Subjects), then later "You Can't Make Me".[233][234] Evil specialized in an harder, sometimes thrashing sound, in protopunk anthems such as the previously unissued, "I'm Movin' On" and "From a Curbstone".[235] [236][237] They released a single featuring their rendition of the Small Faces' "Whatcha Gonna Do About It", which was picked up by Capitol a few months later.[238] Also from Miami were the Modds and the Echoes of Carnaby Street.[239] The Painted Faces, from Fort Myers, released four singles including "Faces", which Mojo Magazine included in their top 100 psychedelic songs of all time.[240][241] From Tampa came the Tropics and the Rovin' Flames.[242][243][244] The Gants, from Greenwood, Mississippi, were the most popular group in the state and recorded three albums and a string singles.[245][246]

Louisiana had its share of activity. In the New Orleans area, where two of the popular nightspots were the Beaconette and the Hullaballoo,[7][247][248] the Gaunga Dyns recorded "Rebecca Rodifier", a song whose lyrics depict the saga of a fictional female protagonist who dies in the aftermath of a then-illegal abortion.[7][249] Other popular local bands were The Better Half-Dozen and The Palace Guards.[250][251][252] Dr. Spec's Optical Illusion released the single, "Tryin' To Mess With My Mind" b/w "She's the One".[253] The Greek Fountains, from Baton Rouge, were one of the most popular groups in the state.[254][255] The Basement Wall, also from Baton Rouge, were also a popular draw in the region.[256] From Lafayette came the Rogues (sometimes credited as the Dry Grins) and the Persian Market.[257][258] The Bad Roads from Lake Charles released the fuzz-drenched "Blue Girl".[259]

Tennessee, Arkansas, and Carolinas

Memphis, which had already established a strong reputation for its blues and rockabilly, became a major center of soul music in the 1960s, as the home of Stax Records.[260][261][262] The city also had a vibrant garage band scene in the 1960s.[263] The Guilloteens went to Los Angeles, where they recorded the Phil Spector-produced "Hey You" and "I Don't Believe" at the Gold Star Studios then returned to Tennessee to record "Wild Child" in Nashville.[264] The Hombres were another popular Memphis group and had a hit with their song "Let It Out (Let It All Hang Out)", which reached No. 12 on the national charts.[265] The Breakers had a local and regional hit with "Don't Bring Me No Flowers (I Ain't Dead Yet)".[266] Other groups from Memphis were the Escapades,The Jesters, Randy and the Radiants, Lawson and Four More, and Flash & the Memphis Casuals.".[267] The Yardleys were from Pine Bluff, Arkansas.[268]

North Carolina experienced its own garage rock boom. In Charlotte, the Paragons (not to be confused with the Jamaican ska group of the same name) were one of the most popular bands in town, and went to Arthur Smith's studio to record their single "Abba", which became an enormous hit in the local area, reaching No. 1 on the local charts and is now regarded as a garage rock classic.[269][270] The Grifs, also from Charlotte, released the fuzz-drenched "Catch a Ride" and went to Michigan to record "Keep Dreamin'".[271] The Stowaways recorded the self-financed LP In Our Time, whose assortment of blues and folk-inspired tracks included eerie ballads such as "Just A Toy" and "It Won't Be Wrong".[272] Sounds Unlimited, from Winston-Salem, recorded the song, "Cool One".[273][274] The Bojax, from Greenville, South Carolina, specialized in hard-driving numbers such as "Go Ahead and Go" and Hippie Times".[275][276]


The Paupers in 1967

Like the United States, Canada had a large and vigorous garage rock phenomenon. Vancouver, British Columbia, perhaps due to its proximity to the US Pacific Northwest, was one of the principal hotbeds of activity in the 1960s. The Northwest Company from Haney, a suburb of Vancouver, cut a string of singles including, "Hard to Cry".[277] The Painted Ship specialized in a Rolling Stones-influenced brand of proto-punk heard in songs such as "She Said Yes" and "Frustration".[278] The Guess Who, from Winnipeg, Manitoba, began in 1958 and entered the mid-1960s essentially as a garage rock unit, enjoying a hit with Johnny Kidd & the Pirates' "Shakin' All Over", which was later covered by the Who.[279] In 1965 they had a hit in both the US and Canada with a version of British band Johnny Kidd & the Pirates' 1960 UK hit "Shakin' All Over".[279] As the 1960s progressed they evolved to a more sophisticated sound, for which they became better known. The Quid, were another Winnipeg band.[280]

The Shags cut the psychedelic single, "Smiling Fenceposts", in 1967.[281] The Ugly Ducklings, from Toronto, Ontario, had a hard-driving R&B sound, and toured with the Rolling Stones in 1966.[282] They recorded several songs that are highly regarded by enthusiasts of garage including "Nuthin'" and "Just in Case You're Wondering", from 1966 and "Gaslight" from 1967.[282][283] The Haunted, from Montreal, specialized in a gritty blues-based sound influenced by the Rolling Stones and released the single "1–2–5", which has been re-issued in the Pebbles compilation series.[86] Two other bands from Toronto were the Paupers and the Mynah Birds. The Paupers released two albums and various songs, such as "If I told You Baby" and "Think I Care".[284][285] The Mynah Birds featured the combination of Rick James on lead vocals and Neil Young on guitar, who both went on to fame as solo acts, as well as Bruce Palmer who later accompanied Young to California to join Buffalo Springfield in 1966.[286][287] They landed a contract with Motown Records and recorded a number of songs such as "I've Got You In My Soul", "It's My Time" and "It's a Long Time Baby".[286][287] M.G. & the Escorts were from Montreal and recorded "A Someday Fool".[288][289]

Elsewhere in the Americas

Outside of the mainland, garage rock also became a fixture in the islands and territories adjacent to the continent.[290][291] The Savages, from Bermuda, recorded an album which is considered seminal in the genre, Live 'n Wild, which includes the song "The World Ain't Round It's Square", which has been cited as a classic anthem of youthful defiance.[290][291][292][293] In Mike Markesich's Teenbeat Mayhem, according to the polling of a handful of the most preeminent garage rock writers and experts, the song is rated as a ten out of ten, and ranked at number 4 in the list of the 1000 greatest garage rock records, placing it in the top five of all time, according to that poll.

The Gents and the Weads were two other bands from Bermuda who, like the Savages, recorded for Duane Records.[294] The Gents released the 1966 single featuring the proto-punk "If You Don't Come Back" baked with a highly emotional lament, "If I Cry".[295][294] In 1965 the Weads cut a 45 featuring "Don't Call My Name". [295][296] From Honolulu, Hawaii, the Mop Tops recorded "I Tried", "Never Change Your Mind", and a version of the Who's "The Kids are Alright". [297][298][299]

Garage and its counterparts worldwide

The garage phenomenon, though most often associated with North America, was not exclusive to it. Its attributes were present in much of the beat music played in various countries throughout the world, as bands proliferated in the wake of the British Invasion.[300][301][302][303] The particular countries involved had grass-roots rock movements which essentially served as counterparts to what was happening in the North America, several of which are sometimes retroactively referred to as freakbeat, Nederbeat, Uruguayan Invasion, or Group Sounds, or in other cases as "beat" or "garage rock".[301][302][303][304]

Britain and Ireland

Them, featuring Van Morrison (center), in 1965

Although Britain did not develop a distinctly defined garage rock genre in the same way as the United States, some British bands shared characteristics with the American bands who often attempted to emulate them, and are sometimes seen as counterparts to US garage bands, particularly in the subgenre known retrospectively as "freakbeat".[300][305][306][307]

Beat music had emerged in Britain in the early 1960s, as musicians who had originally come together to play rock and roll or skiffle assimilated American rhythm and blues influences and adopted new forms of amplification. The genre provided the model for the format of many later rock groups, based around a lead singer with guitars and drums.[308] Many groups formed to perform this music in local venues – according to Bill Harry, the Liverpool area alone had some 300 performance venues and 500 bands by around 1961,[309] though this intensity was not replicated elsewhere in the country. The Beatles emerged from this beat music boom, and their energetic approach served as a template for the formation of countless groups.[310] Some bands developed a distinctively British rhythm and blues style – there were estimated to be 300 rhythm and blues bands in England at the start of 1964, and over 2,000 by the end of the year.[311] Nationally popular beat and R&B groups included the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds from London, the Animals from Newcastle, the Spencer Davis Group (featuring Steve Winwood) from Birmingham, and Them (featuring Van Morrison), from Belfast in Northern Ireland. From about 1965, bands such as the Who and the Small Faces tailored their appeal directly to the burgeoning mod subculture in London.[312][313][314]

Particularly after the "British Invasion" of the US, musical cross-fertilization developed between the two continents. In their 1964 transatlantic hits "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and All of the Night", the Kinks took the influence of the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" and applied greater volume and distortion, which in turn, influenced the approach of many American garage bands.[17][315] Their influence continued with several more hard-driving, yet increasingly despondent songs, such as "Where Have All the Good Times Gone", as well as "I'm Not Like Everybody Else", later covered by the Chocolate Watchband.[316][317][318] The Pretty Things, who took their name from the title of a Bo Diddley song, were known for their raw approach to blues-influenced rock, as exhibited in songs such as Diddley's "Midnight to Six Man", as well as "Don't Bring Me Down".[319][320] The Downliners Sect were if anything even more brazen in their approach.[321] Northern Ireland's Them, recorded two songs that were widely covered by American garage bands: "Gloria", which became a big hit for Chicago's the Shadows of Knight, and "I Can Only Give You Everything" which was covered by numerous American acts, such as the MC5 and the Little Boy Blues.[322][323] The Wheels, who were also from Belfast, recorded the original version of "Bad Little Woman", which like Them's "Gloria" before it, was covered in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight.[324]

The Troggs in 1966

The Troggs scored a massive worldwide hit with "Wild Thing" (written by American Chip Taylor) in 1966.[300][325] Extolling the virtues of their seemingly unrepentant primitivism and sexually charged innuendo, the Troggs were the British band that Lester Bangs singled out as perhaps the quintessential "punk" (i.e. garage) band of the 1960s.[300][326] The Equals, a racially integrated band from North London featuring guitarist Eddy Grant, specialized in an upbeat style of rock; their 1966 recording "Baby Come Back" was a hit in Europe before becoming a British number one in 1968.[327][328] The Syndicats, whose ranks included Steve Howe, later of Yes, recorded several sides including "Crawdaddy Simone" and the protopunk, "What to Do".[329][330] The Renegades, from Birmingham, never had much success in their native country, but became considerably better known in Finland and Italy.[331] They recorded an album and several singles, including a grinding version of Bill Haley's "13 Women".[331]

In keeping with the popularity of blues-based rock and the onset of psychedelic music in the mid-1960s, some of the harder-driving and more obscure bands associated with the mod scene in the UK are sometimes retroactively referred to as Freakbeat, which is sometimes viewed as the more stylish British parallel to garage rock.[307][332][333] Several bands often mentioned as Freakbeat are the Creation, the Action, the Move, the Smoke, the Sorrows, the Red Squares, Wimple Winch, and the Birds, featuring Ron Wood, later of the Rolling Stones.[334] Rhino Records' 2001 box-set compilation Nuggets II: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire and Beyond, 1964–1969 contains many of the better-known songs performed by obscure British beat and freakbeat acts of this era.[335][336]

Continental Europe

See also: Nederbeat and Beat-Club
Q65 in 1967

The beat boom swept through continental Europe, resulting in the emergence of numerous bands who played in styles sometimes cited as European variants of garage rock.[337] The Netherlands had one of the largest scenes, sometimes retroactively described as Nederbeat.[338] The Outsiders, from Amsterdam, featured Wally Tax on lead vocals, and recorded three albums and a string of singles which included songs such as "Thinkin' About Today" "Sun's Going Down", and "Lying all the Time".[339][340] Q65 from the Hague recorded extensively and lasted well into the 1970s, waxing the highly invective "I Despise You" in 1966.[341][342] Also from the Hague came the Golden Earrings, later to gain greater fame in the 1970s and 1980s as Golden Earring. Cuby and the Blizzards, the Shoes, and the Motions were also fixtures in the Dutch rock scene of the time.[343][344][345]

Having nurtured the Beatles' early development in Hamburg, Germany was well-positioned to play a key role as the beat craze overtook the Continent. Bands from Britain and around Europe traveled there to gain exposure, playing in clubs and appearing on popular German television shows such as Beat Club and Beat! Beat! Beat!.[346][347] The Lords, founded in Düsseldorf in 1959, pre-dated the British Invasion by several years, but adapted their sound and look to reflect the influence of the British groups, even singing in English, but providing a comic twist to the proceedings in their renditions of songs such as "Greensleeves" and "Shakin' All Over".[348] The Rattles, from Hamburg, also had a lengthy history, but were more serious in their approach.[349] The German Bonds were another fixture in the German rock scene and recorded a number of songs such as "We're Out of Sight", but failed to gain traction on the record charts.[350][351]

The Monks were a transplanted band founded by American G.I.s who had been stationed in Germany. They replicated the appearance of monks by donning modified habits and having their heads tonsured. The Monks had an avant-garde garage rock sound, with lyrics often filled with irony, social criticism, and anti-war sentiments, and have been cited as an influence on later acts.[352] Sweden had an active scene with bands such as the Hep Stars, who featured future member of the 1970s pop group ABBA, Benny Anderson, as well as the Merrymen.[353] From Belgium came the Pebbles and John Wooley and the Just Born.[354][355]

Even during the Franco regime there were numerous bands active in Spain, such as Los Bravos, who scored a worldwide hit with "Black Is Black", as well as Los Cheyenes and Los Salvajes.[356][357][358][359] Micky y los Tonys, led by Micky (Miguel Ángel Carreño Schmelter), were known for their sometimes irreverent and satirical approach.[356][357] They recorded "Ya no estás", which appeared in the 1965 film, Megatón Ye Yé 1965, as well as songs such as "El problema de mis pelos", "Jabón de azufre".[360][361] The compilation, Algo Salvaje: Untamed 60's Beat and Garage Nuggets from Spain Vol. 1. features a number of Spanish bands from this period, including Los Hurricanes ("El calcetín"), Los Botines ("Eres un vago"), Los Tomacts ("A tu vera"), Los Polares ("La droga", their version of Pretty Things' "L.S.D."), Los Sírex ("Acto de fuerza"), and Prou Matic ("It's My World").[356][362] The Trans World Punk Rave-Up compilation series is devoted to covering 1960s garage rock and primitive beat music in continental Europe.[337]

Latin America

Los Mockers, from Uruguay in 1965

Latin America had a significant amount of musical activity in the worldwide beat craze. And, Mexico was no exception, creating its own homegrown equivalent of American garage.[363][364] The nation's proximity to the United States was detectable in the raw sounds being produced by a number of groups.[365][366] Mexico had often absorbed American musical influences and trends, and embraced the British Invasion.[365][366] One of Mexico's hottest acts were Los Dug Dug's, who recorded a number of albums and stayed active well into the 1970s.[367] Los Monjes dressed in monk habits, much like the American band, the Monks, who played in Germany.[368][369] Los Sinners, who had been a surf group, were also a popular at the time and known for their 1964 instrumental "Rebel Radioactive", and made an appearance in the riotous finale of director Luis Buñuel's 1965 film, Simon of the Desert.[370] Los Sleepers recorded "Zombie".[363]

The beat boom flourished in Uruguay during the mid-1960s in a period often referred to as the Uruguayan Invasion. Two of the best known acts were Los Shakers and Los Mockers, who essentially played the role of surrogate Beatles and Rolling Stones, with Los Shakers, the more popular of the two bands, playing in the melodic style of the Beatles and Los Mockers playing harder more blues-based fare more akin to the Stones.[371][372] Peru was host to an active scene. Los Saicos were one of the first bands to gain national prominence.[373] Their 1965 song "¡Demolición!" with its humorously anarchistic lyrics was a huge hit in Peru and is today considered a protopunk classic.[373] AllMusic, writing about Los Saicos, noted that "The guitars sound like nothing so much as fountains of sparks, the drums have a tribal post-surf throb, and the vocals are positively unhinged" and "These guys were a punk rock band, even if nobody outside Lima knew it at the time".[374] After the breakup of Los Saicos, Los Yorks became the most popular group in Peru. Colombia had a number of bands. Los Speakers from Bogata recorded several albums of material and recorded "Te Olvidare".[363][375][376] Los Gatos Salvajes, who came from Rosario, Argentina, were one of the country's first beat groups and recorded "la Respuesta" and a handful of other songs.[377] Two of their members went on to form Los Gatos, who became a popular act in Argentina during the late 1960s.[377] The Los Nuggetz compilation series covers Latin American beat and garage rock of the 1960s.[363]


See also: Group Sounds
The Spiders in 1966

The far East was not immune to the beat bug, and Japan was no exception, particularly after the Beatles' 1966 visit, when they played two shows at Tokyo's famed Budokan.[378] The popular rock movement in Japan during the 1960s is often referred to as Group Sounds (or GS). The Spiders were one of the better-known groups.[379] The Out Cast recorded hard-driving songs such as "Everything's Alright"[380] and the Carnabeats, "Chu Chu Chu" and "Sutekina Sandy".[381] The Golden Cups from Yokohama recorded several albums of material and cut a version of the Leaves' "Hey Joe", as well as "I Can't Keep From Crying".[382][383][384] The Tempters and the Tigers were other popular groups.[381][385] Two compilations, GS I Love You: Japanese Garage Bands of the 1960s and its successor GS I Love You Too, feature Group Sounds songs from the period.[380][381]


Despite famine, economic hardship, and political instability, India experienced its own proliferation of garage bands in the 1960s, even persisting into the beginning of the next decade, with the 1960s musical style intact, after it had fallen out of favor practically elsewhere else.[386][387][388][389] As in so many places the Beatles mid-1960s success made a major impact on India's youth and resulted in the formation of numerous groups. [390] Bombay (now known as Mumbai), with its hotels, clubs, and nightlife, had a large beat group scene. The Jets, who were active from 1964 to 1966, were perhaps the first beat group to become popular in Bombay.[391] Also active in Bombay were the Trojans, who became one of the most popular acts there and featured Biddu (full name Biddu Appaiah), originally from Bangalore, who later moved to London and become a solo act, later writing the song "Kung Fu Fighting", which provided a hit for Carl Douglas.[392] The Mascots were another popular act in Bombay, as well as the Savages who played at venues such as Blow Up and the Taj Majal Hotel.[393] Later in the decade, the Combustibles became a popular act and recorded "Watch Her" and "Some Peace of Mind".[394] Calcutta had an active scene. The Flintstones were one of its best-known acts.[395] The Mustangs came from Madras (now known as Chennai).[396]

As the 1960s progressed Junior Statesman, became a popular magazine with India's young and it remained popular well into the 1970s.[397] Its pages were devoted to the latest trends in the ever-changing youth culture, often including articles and interviews with bands.[397] Every year the annual Simla Beat Contest was held in Bombay by the Imperial Tobacco Company to promote their Simla brand of menthol cigarettes.[398][399] Groups from all around India competed for first prize.[397] The Simla Beat 70/71 compilation includes recordings of some of the bands who attended in 1970 and 1971.[388][389] Several of the highlights of the set are "You Can't Judge a Book by the Cover", by the Eruptions from Cuttack and "Voice from the Inner Soul", by The Confusions from Madras, and "Gypsy Girl" by the Mini Beats.[400][388] The Dinosaurs, from Bombay, do a version of the Troggs' "You Can't Beat It", as well as "Sinister Purpose".[401][388] The Genuine Spares perform "Proper Stranger" and "What's Going On".[402][388] The Fentones, from Shillong, won first prize in 1970 are head doing the "Simla Beat Theme" and ballad, "Until the Dawn".[403][388] Other groups included on the set are the Velvet Fog, from Bombay, who won second prize at the contest in 1971.,[404] as well as the Innerlight, Purple Flower, from Ahmedabad, and the Hypnotic Eye.[388] Atomic Forest was another popular band of the time and recorded a proto-punk version of Deep Purple's "Mary Long".[405]

Australia and New Zealand

See also: Australian rock

Australia and New Zealand experienced a huge garage and beat explosion in the mid-1960s.[301] The garage boom in those countries has been the subject of compilations such as Down Under Nuggets: Original Australian Artyfacts 1965–1967.[406][407] Before the British Invasion hit, the land down under had enjoyed a sizable surf rock scene, with popular bands such as the Atlantics, who scored several instrumental hits, as well as the Aztecs, and the Sunsets.[408][409] In late 1963 and early 1964 British Invasion influence started permeating the music scenes of Australia and New Zealand.[409][410] June 1964 the Beatles made an historic visit to Australia and were greeted by a crowd of an estimated 300,000 in Adelaide.[410] In response, many of the prior surf bands adapted by adding vocals over guitars, and a plethora of new bands formed.[410] The first wave of British-inspired bands, such as Billy Thorpe and the Aztecs, from Sydney, and Ray Columbus & the Invaders from Christchurch, New Zealand, tended to be more pop-oriented in the Mersey beat mold.[411][412][413] However, with rise in popularity of bands such as the Rolling Stones and the Animals, a second wave of Australian bands emerged who favored a harder, blues-influenced approach.[411]

In Australia, Sydney was the host to numerous acts during this time. Though the Atlantics had begun as an instrumental surf group, after the advent of the British Invasion, they brought in veteran singer Johnny Rebb, formerly with Johnny Rebb and His Rebels, to supply vocals. "Come On" is the song done during Rebb's tenure for which they are best known.[414][415][416] Also from Sydney, the Easybeats became the most popular group in Australia during the mid-sixties.[417] Most their pre-1967 songs were written by vocalist Stevie Wright and guitarist George Young, the older brother of Angus Young and Malcolm Young later of AC/DC fame.[417] Several of their songs of the period were "I'm Happy" and "Hey Babe".[417] In late 1966, they re-located to London and signed with the Beatles' manager Brian Epstein and his NEMS organization in hopes of gaining an international audience.[417] They had a worldwide hit with "Friday on My Mind", but were unable to duplicate its success.[417] Vince Maloney who had been a member of Billy Thorpe and the Aztecs before starting a duo with Tony Barber which eventually led to the formation of his own band, the Vince Maloney Sect.[418]

One of Sydney's most notorious acts was the Missing Links, who throughout 1965 managed to go through a complete and total lineup change between the release their first single, "We 2 Should Live", in March and the subsequent releases on the Philips label later that year, which included brazenly primitivist anthems such as "Wild About You" and "You're Drivin' Me Insane", as well as their self-titled LP, The Missing Links, which arrived just in time for Christmas.[419][420] They released the EP, Unchained in 1966, but disbanded shortly thereafter, with several of the members going onto other acts such as Running Jumping Standing Still, the Masters Apprentices, and the Richard Wright Group.[419] The Throb had a hit in Australia with their 1966 version of "Fortune Teller", originally recorded by Benny Spellman, then later by the Rolling Stones.[421] Later that year they released a single featuring "Black", a brooding version of a traditional folk ballad b/w "Turn My Head".[421] Though the single failed to chart, their rendition of "Black", with its evocation of mood and use of guitar feedback, has been mentioned as a significant achievement.[421] The Black Diamonds from Lithgow cut "I Want, Need, Love You" that same year.[422] Former surf band the Sunsets from Newcastle released the single "Hot Generation" in 1967.[423]

Originally from Brisbane, though they later relocated to Sydney, the Pleazers featured two lead singers, "brothers" Bob London and Bill London, who later replaced by Shane Hales.[424][425] Also from Brisbane, the Purple Hearts released "Of Hopes and Dreams and Tombstones", in 1966.[426][427][428][429] Toni McCann, originally a native of London, established a career in Brisbane in the 1960s, specializing in a hard-driving brand of R&B-based rock.[430][431] She released the single "My Baby" b/w "No" with Tony Worlsley's support group, the Blue Jay, backing.[430] In 1967, the Elois from Maryborough, Queensland, cut distortion-laden "By My Side".[432]

From Melbourne came the Pink Finks who featured Ross Wilson on vocals and Ross Hannaford on lead guitar.[433] They cut an ad-libbed version of "Louie Louie".[433] Also from Melbourne were the Moods, who released the single "Rum Drunk",[434] the Loved Ones,[435] the Wild Cherries,[436] and Steve and the Board.[437][438] The Chimney Sweeps, who hailed from the suburbs of Melbourne, recorded a set of rehearsal demos that was later released on the Devil Girl album in 2002, featuring the ragged protopunk of "Give Your Lovin' to Me".[439][440] The Creatures, from Mildura, Victoria, were one of the more notorious groups, sometimes dying their hair, which was considered outrageously long for the times.[441][442] The Masters Apprentices were from Adelaide, and had a long career that spanned into the 1970s.[441] While in later years they moved in a more progressive direction, their early sound was largely R&B-influenced garage and psychedelic rock.[443][444] Two of their best known early songs are "Wars or Hands of Time" and the protopunk "Buried and Dead".[444]

After the initial success of Ray Columbus and the Invaders, a number of more aggressive and blues-based groups emerged from New Zealand. Chants R&B, were from Christchurch, and specialized in a raw R&B-influenced sound heard in such songs as "I'm Your Witchdoctor", previously done by John Mayall and "Neighbour Neighbor".[445][446] The Blue Stars from Auckland cut the defiant "Social End Product", that with its line "I don't stand for the queen...", took dead-center aim at social oppression and anticipated some of the anti-royalist sentiments of the Sex Pistols and other 1970s punk rock acts.[447][448] The La De Das from Huapai near Auckland, recorded a version of the Changin' Times' "How is the Air Up There?"[449][450][451]

Psychedelic garage rock

Move towards psychedelia in music and culture

Throughout 1966, but particularly in the later months of the year, partly due to the growing influence of marijuana and other mind-expanding drugs such as LSD, many bands began to expand their sound, sometimes employing eastern scales and various sonic effects to achieve exotic and hypnotic soundscapes in their music.[452][453][454] In the spring of that year, the Byrds had a huge hit with musically innovative John Coltrane-inspired "Eight Miles High".[455][456] The "buzzword" for this exiting new sound was "psychedelic". It was nonetheless the result of a longer musical evolution growing out of folk rock and other forms—with certain early elements detectable even in surf rock, such as the mention of LSD in the title of the Gamblers, 1960 instrumental "LSD-25" and Dick Dale's use of the Phrygian scale in 1962's "Miserlou".[457][458][459] The first musical act to use the term was the New York-based folk group the Holy Modal Rounders on their version of Lead Belly's "Hesitation Blues" (there pronounced as "psycho-delic") in 1964.[460] As the decade progressed, psychedelic influences became increasingly pervasive in much of garage rock.[68][69]

By the mid-1960s numerous garage rock bands began to employ tone-altering devices such as fuzzboxes on guitars often for the purpose of enhancing the music's sonic palate and adding an aggressive edge, using loudly amplified instruments to create a barrage of "clanging" sounds, often expressing anger and defiance.[15][57][461] A certain sense of despondency and restlessness entered the psyche of the youth in the United States (and elsewhere), with a growing rise of alienation creeping into the collective mindset—even in the largely conservative suburban communities which produced so many garage bands.[26][57][462] The garage bands, though generally apolitical, were nonetheless reflective of the tenor of the times.[26][57][463] Nightly news reports entering living rooms across the country had an cumulative effect on the mass consciousness.[57][462][463] Detectable in much of the music from this era is a combination of disparate emotions, particularly in light of President Kennedy's assassination and the ongoing of escalation of troops into Vietnam,[57][462][464][465] yet often displayed an accompanying innocence.[466]

In 1965, the influence of artists such as Bob Dylan, who had already superseded political protest by experimenting with surreal and abstract imagery, plugged in and went electric, became even more pervasive across the musical landscape, affecting a number of genres including garage rock.[26][467][468] The members of garage bands, like so many musicians of the 1960s, were part of a generation that was largely born into the paradigm and customs of an older time, but that with the advent of television, nuclear weapons, civil rights, the Cold War, and space exploration, began to conceive, both individually and collectively, of a higher order of human relations and to reach for a set of transcendent ideals, sometimes experimenting with drugs, in a process that, while set to a backdrop of events that ultimately proved disillusioning, held for a time great promise in the minds of many.[26][57][462][463] While testing the previously uncharted frontiers of what the new world had to offer, 1960s youth ultimately had to accept the limitations of living in the new reality which was for some a painful "crash course" in history, yet often did so while experiencing the ecstasy of a difficult but apparently exalted moment when the realm of the infinite seemed somehow possible and within reach.[57][463][469]

Psychedelic garage rock acts

Tapping into the psychedelic zeitgeist of the times, musicians found ways to push boundaries and explore new horizons. Garage acts, while generally lacking the budgetary means to produce musical extravaganzas on the scale of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band or the instrumental virtuosity of acts such as Jimi Hendrix or Cream, nonetheless managed to combine esoteric elements with basic primitive rock. The 13th Floor Elevators from Austin, Texas, led by Roky Erickson infused their garage sound with psychedelic impulses, and are usually thought of as the first band to use the term "psychedelic" in their promotional literature with the phrase "psychedelic rock" appearing on their business card as early as January 1966.[470][471] On February 10 that year the Austin American Statesman claimed that "Unique Elevators shine with psychedelic rock".[456][470] The band used the term in the title of their debut album released in November, The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators. The album featured the track "You're Gonna Miss Me" which had been a regional hit for the band, along with other numbers such as "Fire Engine" and "Monkey Island".[471][472] The 13th Floor Elevators were not the first band to use the word "psychedelic" in an album title. In August 1966, the Deep, a group of musicians assembled and led by Rusty Evans, traveled from New York to recorded a set of hallucinogenic songs at Cameo-Parkway's recording facility in Philadelphia for the resulting album, Psychedelic Moods: A Mind-Expanding Phenomena released in October 1966, one month before the 13th Floor Elevators' debut LP, and whose all-night sessions produced mind-expanding stream of consciousness ramblings such as "Color Dreams" and "Pink Ether", and "When Rain is Black".[470][473]

The Electric Prunes were one of the most identifiable garage rock bands to incorporate psychedelia into their sound. After the disappointing sales of their first single, they were placed under supervision of producer and recording engineer, David Hassinger, who teamed them with songwriters Annette Tucker and Nancie Mantz and tailored psychedelic soundscapes for the group to fit the new songs, first resulting in a massive hit with "I Had Too Much To Dream (Last Night)", whose opening featured a buzzing fuzz-toned guitar.[474][475] They followed it up with "Get Me to the World on Time", and both songs were included on their self-titled debut album.[476] Their second album, Underground, saw the band exercising a greater degree of creative freedom.[476][477] However, after the album's disappointing sales, the act became increasingly subordinate to the directives of Hassinger on their subsequent outings.[476][478][479]

The Chocolate Watchband's music, while solidly grounded in Rolling Stones-influenced protopunk, occasionally stretched into whimsical flights of fantasy.[480][481] Lead by guitarist Mark Loomis and fronted by charismatic lead singer David Aguilar signed with Capitol's Tower label in 1966 and released several singles in 1967, including "Are You Gonna Be There (at the Love In)", which was also featured on their debut album No Way Out, which came out that same year.[481][482] The album's opening cut was a feverish rendition of "Let's Talk About Girls", written by Manny Feiser and previously recorded by the Tongues of Truth (aka the Grodes).[483] The band briefly broke up but returned with a different lineup and recorded a second LP in 1968 The Inner Mystique, which featured their even more exotic reworking of We the People's "In the Past".[481] The Blues Magoos came from the Bronx and had a breakout hit in 1966 with "(We Ain't Got) Nothin' Yet".[484] They cut several albums, including Psychedelic Lollipop, released in 1966, which featured their extended version of the "Tobacco Road", formerly recorded by England's the Nashville Teens and the follow-up, Electric Comic Book.[485][486]

Strawberry Alarm Clock emerged from the ashes of garage outfit Thee Sixpence, who had recorded several sides for All-American Records, such as the protopunk "My Flash on You", originally written by Arthur Lee and recorded by Love, then as Strawberry Alarm Clock, scored a #1 hit in 1967 with "Incense and Peppermints".[487][488][489] Guitarist Ed King played in both Thee Sixpence and Strawberry Alarm Clock and later re-emerged in the 1970s as a member of Lynyrd Skynyrd.[487][490] There were countless other garage rock acts who incorporated psychedelic influences into their music in the mid to late-1960s, such as The Third Bardo, from New York City, who released a single in 1967 featuring "I'm Five Years Ahead of My Time", which was written by the Deep's Rusty Evans.[491][492] The Mystic Tide cut five singles, including the intensely overdriven "Frustration" in 1967.[493][494]

Avant garde garage/proto-punk 1965–68

The Monks's music imbued garage rock with avant garde elements.

Certain acts of the era conveyed a world view perceptibly removed from the implicit innocence of much psychedelia and suburban-style garage, often infusing their work with subversive political and/or philosophical messages, dabbling in concepts then considered radical such as nihilism and new left ideology.[495][496] Stylistically, such artists shared various characteristics with the garage bands in their use of primitivistic instrumentation and arrangements, as well as proto-punk elements, while displaying psychedelic rock's affinity for exploration—essentially creating a more urbanized, intellectual, and avant garde version of garage rock.[497][498][499]

New York City was the home to several such groups. The Fugs, who formed in 1963, were one of rock's first experimental bands and its core members were singer, poet, and social activist, Ed Sanders, along with Tuli Kupferberg, and Ken Weaver.[500] They specialized in a highly satirical mixture of amateurish garage-sounding rock, jug band, folk, and psychedelic laced with political commentary, as indicated on their 1965 debut, The Fugs First Album, featuring tracks such as "I Couldn't Get High", as well as "C.I.A. Man", which later appeared as a CD bonus track.[498][499][500][501] Their next album, The Fugs (afterward re-titled The Fugs Second Album), was released in 1966 and included the likes of "Kill for Peace", "Dirty Old Man", "Group Grope", and "Frenzy".[500][502] In a 1970 interview, Ed Sanders became the first known musician to describe his music as "punk rock".[503][504] The Godz were another New York group of the time who specialized in a highly experimental mixture of sounds, beginning with their rough-hewn folk-influenced first album, Contact High with the Godz, followed-up by Godz II in 1967, which made greater use of eclectic amplification in songs such as "Radar Eyes", "New Song" and "Soon the Moon", as well as their 1968 LP The Third Testament.[505][506][507][508]

The Velvet Underground, whose best-known lineup consisted of Lou Reed, John Cale, Sterling Morrison, and Maureen Tucker, are now generally considered to be the foremost experimental rock group of this period.[497][509] At the time of recording their first album, they were involved with Andy Warhol, who produced some its tracks, and his assemblage of "scenesters" at the Factory, including model-turned-singer Nico.[510] She briefly accompanied them on the resulting album, which was entitled, The Velvet Underground & Nico.[510] The album's lyrics, though generally apolitical, deal with hard drugs in songs such as "Waiting for My Man" and "Heroin", and other topics considered taboo at the time.[510] Their follow up, White Light/White Heat, saw the group stretching even further into the experimental realm, but after John Cale's subsequent departure from the group, they began to move into a less avant garde direction on their next two albums.[509][511]

Henry Flynt & The Insurrections were another New York-based experimental rock combo headed by philosopher and multi-media artist Henry Flynt, who had spent time working with fluxus artists such as Yoko Ono, and is sometimes credited with coining the phrase "conceptual art" and whose philosophy he has described as "cognitive nihilism".[496][512][513][514][515] Flynt briefly played with the Velvet Underground in 1966 before forming his own group and proceeding record a series of tracks later that year, subsequently released almost forty years later on the retrospective album I Don't Wanna.[512][513][514] Like the Fugs, Henry Flynt & the Insurrections' lyrics were laced with agit prop and antiwar sentiments.[512][513][514] Outside of New York, were the Monks, from Germany, whose members were American and former US servicemen, that chose to remain in Germany, where in 1965 they developed a highly experimental form of garage rock on their album Black Monk Time.[516][517] The group sometimes wore habits and partially shaven tonsures, satirically mimicking the look of Catholic monks and specialized in a style of music featuring chanting and hypnotic percussion, but with nihilistic and anti-war lyrics.[516][517][518]


In the wake of psychedelia, as rock music became increasingly sophisticated, garage rock began to decline in popularity. Though scores of garage bands had been signed to regional and major labels during the period of 1963-1968, most failed to achieve national success, for instance "Going All the Way" by the Squires was issued on a national label under Atco and is now regarded as a genre classic, but was not a hit anywhere.[519] It is generally agreed that garage rock peaked both commercially and artistically around 1966.[14] In the wake of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club and other late-1960s big-production spectaculars, rock albums became increasingly elaborate and were now expected to display maturity, complexity, and sophistication, while the 45 single ceded to the long-play album as the preferred medium.[520]

Progressive album-oriented FM stations eventually overtook AM radio in popularity, and as the large major-label record companies became more powerful and less willing to sign new acts, the once plentiful "mom and pop" independent labels of the mid-1960s began to fold one by one.[520][521] Teen clubs that had served as reliable and steady venues for young groups began to close their doors.[522] The garage sound disappeared at both the national and local level as amateur musicians faced college, work or the Vietnam War draft.[14][523] [524][525] New styles had either evolved out of garage rock or replaced it, such as psychedelic rock, acid rock, progressive rock, heavy metal, country rock, and bubblegum.[14][524][526] By the end of 1968 the style largely disappeared from the national charts.[526] The minor hit "Question of Temperature" by the Balloon Farm was one of the last examples of the form to garnish a degree of airplay around the country.[527]

Later developments

Garage-based proto-punk 1969–1974

See also: Proto-punk
Iggy Pop was a member of the Stooges, who are considered one of the preeminent proto-punk acts.

The garage rock boom fizzled out at the end 1960s, but a handful of maverick acts, carried its torch into the next decade, seizing on its rougher edges, but brandishing them with increased audacity while employing a more aggressive approach to the form.[528][529][530][531] Such acts, often retroactively described as "proto-punk" worked in a variety of rock genres and came from disparate locations, notably Michigan, where in the wake of the mid-1960s garage scene, emerged a handful of hard-rocking bands that specialized in a style that was heavy, yet energetic and primitive, in contrast to the more sophisticated rock sounds coming out at the time, which often relied on long instrumental soloing and jams.[532][533]

In January 1969, MC5 released Kick Out the Jams, recorded live in 1968, which showcased their high-voltage firebrand rock.[528][534] In August that year, the Stooges, fronted by Iggy Pop from Ann Arbor, premiered with their self-titled album.[535][529][536] They recorded their follow-up, Funhouse, in 1970, produced by Don Giulucci, previously in the original lineup of the Kingsmen and later Don and the Goodtimes.[537] In 1973 Iggy Pop reunited with the Stooges (now billed as Iggy & the Stooges) to record the album, Raw Power, which began with the cathartic anthem, "Search and Destroy", and was followed by a set of unrelenting "pounders" in that vein.[538] Also from Ann Arbor came, the Up, who lived with the members of MC5 in White Panther Party founder John Sinclair's commune and recorded a handful of songs including "Like an Aborigine" and " "I Don't Need You" later issued on the Killer Up compilation.[539][540][541] Alice Cooper (a.k.a. Vincent Furnier) and his band of the same name, previously the Spiders, relocated to his home town, Detroit, where they began to take off, sporting a new "shock rock" image, and recorded 1971's Love It to Death, which featured their breakout hit "I'm Eighteen".[209][210][542]

In the waning days of the Detroit scene, a group called the Punks recorded a batch of songs, including "My Time's Comin'", "Q1", and "Drop Dead", that display a thrashing sound indicative of later punk and hardcore, which was posthumously released on their 2003 anthology The Most Powerful Music on Earth.[543][544] In 1974, Death, made up of brothers David, Bobby, and Dannis Hackney, who were African American, recorded a series of demos in their home rehearsal space and went to Detroit's United Sound Studios to record seven tracks to an album that remained unreleased for over 30 years, ...For the Whole World to See, which includes the proto-punk anthems "Freakin' Out" and "Rock n' Roll Victim".[545][546][547] The following year they released single on their own label, Tryangle, taken from the United sessions, "Politicians in My Eyes", pressed in a small run of 500 copies.[548]

In Boston, the Modern Lovers, led by Velvet Underground devotee Jonathan Richman, gained attention with their minimalistic style.[549][550] In 1974, an updated garage rock scene began to coalesce around the newly opened Rathskeller club in Kenmore Square.[551][552] The Real Kids were founded founded by former Modern Lover John Felice and their roster included Willie Alexander and the Boom Boom Band, whose lead singer had been a member of the Velvet Underground for a few months in 1971, as well as Mickey Clean and the Mezz.[553] In the period between 1969-1974, there were other movements further removed from the American garage rock tradition, such as Glam and pub rock in Great Britain, as well as Krautrock in Germany, that nonetheless displayed hallmarks of proto-punk and had an influence on the mid-late 1970s punk movement.[554][555]

Critical identification and recognition

Writer and musician Lenny Kaye, who compiled the tracks and wrote the liner notes for Nuggets, was one of the circle of rock critics in the early 1970s that identified 1960s garage as a genre.

When it was performed and recorded in the 1960s, garage rock was not thought of as a genre, but merely as typical rudimentary rock of the period, and had no name.[556] However, in the early 1970s, certain rock critics began to speak nostalgically of the mid-'60s garage bands (as well bands that they considered as continuing in their line, such as MC5 and the Stooges) as a loosely defined but tangible genre, which they referred to as "punk rock".[557][558] Dave Marsh was the first music critic to employ the term in the May 1971 issue of Creem, when he described ? and the Mysterians as providing a "landmark exposition of punk rock".[559] Later in 1971, in the fanzine Who Put the Bomp, Greg Shaw wrote about "what I have chosen to call 'punkrock' bands—white teenage hard rock of '64–66".[560] Robert Christgau writing for the Village Voice in October 1971 referred to "mid-1960s punk" as a historical period of rock-and-roll.[561] Conjuring up a more innocent time, Lester Bangs in his June 1971 Creem essay, "Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung," remarked about the mid-1960s garage bands: "... then punk bands started cropping up who were writing their own songs but taking the Yardbirds' sound and reducing it to this kind of goony fuzztone clatter ... oh, it was beautiful, it was pure folklore, Old America, and sometimes I think those were the best days ever".[562]

Much of the revival of interest in garage rock can be traced to the release of the 1972 two-disk album Nuggets compiled by rock journalist and future Patti Smith guitarist Lenny Kaye, which drew together both commercially successful and relatively obscure tracks from the mid-1960s.[563][524][525][564] In his general liner notes to Nuggets, Kaye used the term "punk rock," to describe the genre of 1960s garage bands, and in the track-by-track notes, he mentioned the phrase "classic garage-punk" to describe a song recorded in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight.[565][566] In the January 1973 Rolling Stone review of Nuggets, Greg Shaw commented "Punk rock at its best is the closest we came in the 1960s to the original rockabilly spirit of Rock 'n Roll ..."[567] In 1973, Billy Altman launched the short-lived punk magazine, which pre-dated the better-known 1975 publication of the same name, but, unlike the later magazine, was largely devoted to discussion of 1960s garage and psychedelic acts. [568][569]

Though the phrase "punk rock" was the favored generic term in the early 1970s, "garage band(s)" was also occasionally mentioned, mainly in reference to individual groups.[3][4] In John Mendelsohn's March 1971 Rolling Stone review of a Faces album where he alluded to "...every last punk teenage garage band having its Own Original Approach..."[3][4] Since the advent of the New York and London scenes of 1975–78, the term "punk rock" is now most commonly applied to groups emerging after 1974, while sixties garage bands are now most often described as "garage rock", but sometimes as "garage punk", "'60s punk", or along with successors, such as MC5, the Stooges, and others, "protopunk".[4][570][571][572]

Emergence of punk aesthetic and movement

Main articles: Punk rock and Punk subculture
The Ramones (pictured in 1977), who were influenced by garage rock, spearheaded the mid-1970s punk movement in New York.

The 1972 Nuggets compilation exerted a marked degree of influence on the subsequent punk movement of the mid-late 1970s.[525][573][574] As a result of the popularity of Nuggets, and critical attention being paid to primitive-sounding rock of past and present, a self-conscious musical aesthetic began to emerge around the term, "punk",[575][576] that, with the eventual arrival of the New York and London scenes, grew into a subculture, having its own look, iconography, identity, and values.[577][578] Iggy and the Stooges and others of their generation carried garage rock and protopunk into the early 1970s.[16]

But the mid- to late-1970s saw the arrival of the bands most often viewed as the quintessential punk rock acts, most notably the Ramones, from New York, some of whose members had played in 1960s garage bands,[579][580] and who are usually considered the first punk band as the term is now commonly understood,[581] followed by the Sex Pistols, from London, who struck an even more defiant pose and effectively herald the arrival punk as a cause célèbre in the larger public mind.[582] Both bands spearheaded the popular movement from their two respective locations.[581][582] Though garage rock and protopunk influenced many of the bands from the New York and London scenes of this period,[573][574][583] punk rock now emerged as a movement with a subculture all of its own,[577][578] and the garage band era of the 1960s came to be viewed as a distant forerunner.[573][584]

Revivals 1980-present

Main articles: Garage punk and Post-punk revival

In the 1980s a more pronounced garage rock revival saw a number of acts earnestly attempting to replicate the sound, style, and look of the 1960s garage bands, such as the Chesterfield Kings, the Fuzztones, the Pandoras, and the Lyres, in a way that was linked to the underground music scene of the period.[585] This trend coincided with a similar surf rock revival, and both styles fed in into the alternative rock movement and future grunge explosion, which was partly influenced by 1960s garage bands from the Tacoma area such as the Sonics and the Wailers.[586][587][588]

The Black Keys performing in 2011.

The revival movement evolved into an even more primitive form of garage rock that became known as garage punk by the late 1980s, thanks to bands such as the Gories, thee Mighty Caesars, the Mummies and thee Headcoats.[589] Bands playing garage punk differ from the garage rock revival bands in that they do not necessarily attempt to replicate the exact look and sound of 1960s garage bands and their overall approach tends to be even louder and rawer, often infusing elements of Stooges-era protopunk and 1970s punk rock. But, the garage rock revival and garage punk have coexisted throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s, with many independent record labels releasing thousands of records by bands playing various styles of primitive rock and roll all around the world. Some of the more prolific of these independent record labels included Estrus,[590] Get Hip,[591] Bomp!,[592] and Sympathy for the Record Industry.[593]

In the early 2000s, a garage rock or post-punk revival[594] achieved the airplay and commercial success that had eluded garage rock bands of the past. This was led by four bands: the Strokes of New York City, the Hives of Fagersta, Sweden, the Vines of Sydney, and the White Stripes from Detroit, Michigan, christened by the media as the The bands, or "The saviours of rock 'n' roll".[595] Other products of the Detroit rock scene included; the Von Bondies, Electric 6, the Dirtbombs and the Detroit Cobras[596] Elsewhere, other acts such as Billy Childish and the Buff Medways from Chatham, England,[597] the (International) Noise Conspiracy from Umeå, Sweden,[598] the's from Tokyo, Japan,[599] and Jay Reatard and the Oblivians from Memphis, US[600] enjoyed moderate underground success and appeal. A second wave of bands that managed to gain international recognition as a result of the movement included the Black Keys,[601] Black Rebel Motorcycle Club, Death From Above 1979, the Yeah Yeah Yeahs, the Killers, Interpol, and Kings of Leon from the US,[602] the Libertines, Arctic Monkeys, Bloc Party, the Editors, and Franz Ferdinand from the UK,[603] Jet from Australia,[604] and the Datsuns and the D4 from New Zealand.[605]

The mid-2000s saw several underground bands achieve some mainstream prominence. Artists such as Ty Segall, Thee Oh Sees, Black Lips[606] and Jay Reatard,[607] who initially released their records on traditionally garage punk labels such as In the Red Records, began signing to larger, more well-known independent labels.[608] Several bands followed them in signing to larger labels such as Rough Trade[609] and Drag City.[610]

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Garage rock.



  1. 1 2 3 Shuker, Roy (2005). Popular music: the Key Concepts (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 140. ISBN 978-0415598668.
  2. Abbey, Eric James (2006). Garage Rock and Its Roots: Musical Rebels and the Drive for Individuality. McFarland & Company. pp. 74–76. ISBN 978-0786425648.
  3. 1 2 3 John Mendelsohn, Review of Long Player by the Faces, Rolling Stone, March 18, 1971
  4. 1 2 3 4 "etymology – Where did the term "garage band" originate from? – English Language & Usage Stack Exchange". Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  5. 1 2 3 Tupica, Rich (January 4, 2013). "Back to the Garage". City Pulse. Madness, Money and Music: The Legacy of Lansing's 1960s Rock Scene. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  6. Nobles, Mark (2011). Fort Worth's Rock and Roll Roots. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. pp. 89–98. ISBN 978-0-7385-8499-7. - Nobles describes the Celler, a rowdy and popular nightclub in Fort Worth owned by Pat Kirkwood, which was where President Kennedy's Secret Service detail supposedly went the night before the assassination when the Knightbeats were playing a gig. Nobles mentions that the Knightbeats' leader Arvel Strickland later played in the Neurotic Sheep, who also performed at the Cellar. Nobles also mentions other "teen-scene" acts that played there, such as the Warlocks from Irving.
  7. 1 2 3 Dahl, Dahl (August 19, 2013). "Clouds Don't Shine: Psychedelic Teen Garage Insanity by the Gaunga Dyns". Ponderosa Stomp. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
  8. 1 2 Bishop, Chris (July 14, 2005). "The Myddle Class". Garage Hangover. Retrieved January 9, 2016. Source B: Dugo, Mike (November 11, 2007). "An Interview with Tom Violante of the Shags: Its Shagadelic Baby". Music Dish. Retrieved October 3, 2015. Source C: Silverstien, Dave. "Oldies/Band called N.A.I.F.". AllExperts. Retrieved December 8, 2015. Source D: "Biography". George Morgio: Singer Songwriter. Retrieved December 8, 2015. - All of these sources mention instances of local bands opening for major touring acts.
  9. Bishop, Chris (September 5, 2010). "The Standells". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  10. Nobles 2011, pp. 75, 83-88.
  11. Hicks 2000, p. 25.
  12. 1 2 Lemlich, Jeffrey M. (1992). Savage Lost: Florida Garage Bands of the '60s and Beyond (First ed.). Plantation, FL: Distinctive Publishing Corporation. pp. 17–18, 30. ISBN 0-942963-12-1.
  13. Bogdanov, Vladamir; Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2002). All Music Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (3rd ed.). 600 Harrison St., San Francisco, CA 94105: Backbeat Books. pp. 1320–1321. ISBN 0-87930-653-X.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bogdanov, Woodstra, and Erlewine 2002, pp. 1320-1321.
  15. 1 2 Hicks, Michael (2000). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other Satisfactions. University of Illinois Press. pp. 18–22. ISBN 0-226-28735-1.
  16. 1 2 N. E. Tawa, Supremely American: Popular Song in the 20th Century: Styles and Singers and what They Said about America (Scarecrow Press, 2005), p. 179.
  17. 1 2 Hicks 2000, pp. 17-18.
  18. "Garage Rock Sound: Keep it real. Keep it lo-fi.". Garage Rock Sound. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  19. Roller, Peter (2013). Milwaukee Garage Bands: Generations of Grassroots Rock. Charleston, London: The History Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-60949-625-8. - mentions Farfisa organ
  20. "Garage Rock Revival". Retrieved November 11, 2015. Source B: Stiernberg, Bonnie (August 27, 2014). "The 50 Best Garage Rock Songs of All Time". Paste. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  21. Hicks 2000, p. 31.
  22. Hicks 2000, pp. 23-24, 53-54, 60-61, 67.
  23. Hicks 2000, pp. 3, 23-24, 112.
  24. Campbell, Neil (2004). American Youth Cultures (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge by arrangement with Edinburgh University Press. pp. 213–215. ISBN 0-415-97197-7.
  25. Morrison, Craig (2005). "Rock'n'Roll". In Komara, Edward. Encyclopedia of the Blues. Psychology Press. pp. 838–42. ISBN 0-415-92699-8.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Shaw, Greg (September 15, 1998). Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set) - Sic Transit Gloria: The Story of Punk Rock in the '60s (liner notes). UPC 081227546625.
  27. "Ritchie Valens Biography". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
  28. Hicks 2000, pp. 17-21.
  29. "Link Wray Obituary". December 1, 2005. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
  30. Bangs, Lester (1981). "Protopunk: The Garage Bands". In Miller, Jim. The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll. Picador Books. pp. 261–264. ISBN 0-330-26568-7.
  31. Blecha, Peter (2009). Sonic Boom: The History of Northwest Rock, from "Louie Louie" to "Smells Like Teen Spirit (1st ed.). New York: Backstreet Books (a imprint of Hal Leonard Corporation). pp. 6, 26, 159–160. ISBN 978-0-87930-946-6.
  32. Blecha (Sonic boom) 2009, p. 1.
  33. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 23-24.
  34. Planer, Lindsay. "The Frantics: The Complete Frantics on Dolton (Review)". Retrieved June 1, 2016.
  35. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 98–99.
  36. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 28–33.
  37. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 23, 26, 35–37, 64–65, 67–68.
  38. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 78–85, 90, 109–116, 138–140, 189–190.
  39. Morrison 2005, pp. 838–842.
  40. 1 2 3 Bangs (RS Hist. Rock-Garage Bands) 1981, pp. 261–264.
  41. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 119–119, 135–138.
  42. Pareles, Jon (January 25, 1997). "Richard Berry, Songwriter of 'Louie Louie,' Dies at 61". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
  43. Glionna, John M. (January 25, 1997). "'Louie Louie' Writer Shared Little of Limelight". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
  44. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 121–126, 135.
  45. Koda, Cub. "Here Are the Sonics!!! (Review)". Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  46. Hicks 2000, p. 24.
  47. Roller 2013, pp. 22–29.
  48. Viglione, Joe. "The More I See You/Call Me". AllMusic. Retrieved April 3, 2016. – In a review of one of Montez's later albums, Viglione describes his earlier 1962 hit "Let's Dance" as "a proto garage rock song".
  49. Whiteside, Jonny (February 28, 2015). "Rockin' from the Golden Age". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 3, 2016. - According to Whiteside, a Farfisa organ was used on "Let's Dance".
  50. J. Austen, TV-a-go-go: Rock on TV from American Bandstand to American Idol (Chicago Review Press, 2005), p. 19.
  51. 1 2 Unterberger, Richie. "The Trashmen: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  52. S. Waksman, This Ain't the Summer of Love: Conflict and Crossover in Heavy Metal and Punk (University of California Press, 2009), p. 116.
  53. R. Sabin, Punk rock: so what?: the cultural legacy of punk (Routledge, 1999), p. 159.
  54. "Rock & Roll/Roots » Frat Rock". Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  55. Campbell 2004, p. 213.
  56. 1 2 3 Lemlich, Jeffrey M. (1992). Savage Lost: Florida Garage Bands of the '60s and Beyond (First ed.). Plantation, FL: Distinctive Publishing Corporation. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0-942963-12-1. It shouldn't be too difficult to understand why The Beatles arrival in America was such a sociological as well as musical phenomenon. The shooting of president John F. Kennedy just eight weeks or so earlier ... The Beatles not only gave music a much-needed shot in the arm, but also provided a new kind of optimism for young people ... The Beatles as well as their other British and German contemporaries, played American rock 'n roll with an intensity that had sorely been missed on our own shores and provided thousands of American teenagers with the impetus to play rock 'n roll themselves. Source B: Gilmore, Mikal (August 23, 1990). "Bob Dylan, the Beatles, and the Rock of the Sixties". Rolling Stone. No. 585. Retrieved July 9, 2015. The Beatles's first Ed Sullivan appearance and date are mentioned. According to Gilmore: "Within days it was apparent that a genuine upheaval was underway, offering a frenetic distraction to the dread that had set into America after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, and a renewal of the brutally wounded ideal that youthfulness carried our national hope...the Beatles were showing us how style could have the impact of cultural revelation — or at least how a pop vision might be forged into an unimpeachable consensus. Virtually overnight, the Beatles' arrival in the American consciousness announced not only that the music and times were changing but also that we were changing. Everything about the band — its look, sound, style and abandon — made it plain that we were entering a different age, that young people were free to redefine themselves in completely new terms."
  57. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Kauppila, Paul (October 2006). "The Sound of the Suburbs: A Case Study of Three Garage Bands in San Jose, California during the 1960s". San Jose State University SJSU Scholar Works. San Jose, California: 7–8, 10–11. Retrieved August 1, 2015. – On pages 7–8, in the "British Invasion" and "Technology" sections, Kaupilla, in discussing garage rock, mentions the dynamics of a changing society and technology. In the "Alienation" section on page 10, he mentions the Kennedy assassination, along with Viet Nam, the threat of nuclear war and other sociological factors that were part of the sociological milieu of garage rock. On pg. 7-8, Kaupilla discusses garage bands' use of distortion as well as the role of technology on society affecting the sixties generation. In the "Alienation" and "Matters of Taste" (pg. 10–11) the author discusses other sociological dimensions of garage rock. The study discusses San Jose bands such as Chocolate Watchband, the Count Five, and the Syndicate of Sound.
  58. 1 2 3 Dean, Bill (February 9, 2014). "50 Years Ago Today, The Beatles Taught a Young America to Play". Scene. Retrieved October 10, 2015. The article discusses the role of the connection between the JFK assassination and the Beatles' impact. According to Dean, the Beatles "brought a sense of excitement and renewed optimism for baby boomers and the rest of the nation alike". He writes, "It's impossible to say just how many of America's young people began playing guitars and forming bands in the wake of The Beatles' appearance on the Sullivan show. But the anecdotal evidence suggests thousands – if not hundreds of thousands or even more – young musicians across the country formed bands and proceeded to play ..."
  59. Spitz, Bob (2013). Koepp, Stephen, ed. "The Beatles Invasion (TIME Magazine special issue)" (newsstand special issue). 135 West 50th St., New York, NY 10020: TIME Books, an imprint of Time Home Entertainment, Inc. pp. 5–6.
  60. Lemlich 1992, pp. 1–4.
  61. Spitz, Bob (2013). Koepp, Stephen, ed. "The Beatles Invasion (TIME Magazine special issue)" (newsstand special issue). 135 West 50th St., New York, NY 10020: TIME Books, an imprint of Time Home Entertainment, Inc. pp. 55–59.
  62. Hicks 2000, pp. 17-18, 62.
  63. "Them: Gloria", AllMusic. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  64. Hicks 2000, p. 36. Hicks remarks the Troggs are "often considered Britain's first garage band"..
  65. Buckley 2003, pp. 1103
  66. Hicks 2000, pp. 46–48.
  67. R. Unterberger, S. Hicks and J. Dempsey, Music USA: the Rough Guide (Rough Guides, 1999), p. 385.
  68. 1 2 Stiernberg, Bonnie (August 27, 2014). "The 50 Best Garage Rock Songs of All Time". Paste. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  69. 1 2 "Psychedelic/Garage". Retrieved December 23, 2015.
  70. 1 2 "'Psychotic Reaction' – Count Five". Billboard. Archived from the original on July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  71. 1 2 Bogdanov, Woodstra, and Erlewine 2002, pp. 1320–1321.
  72. Szatmary, David P. (2013). Rockin' in Time. New Jersey: Pearson. p. 134. ISBN 978-0205936243.
  73. "The Beau Brummels: Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
  74. "Garage Rock". AllMusic. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  75. Simmons, Rick (January 1, 2015). "One and Done: 1965's Top 10 Songs by "One-Hit Wonders"". Rebeat. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
  76. "Top 100 Hits of 1966/Top 100 Songs of 1966". Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  77. "Cash Box YE Pop Singles - 1966". 1966-12-24. Retrieved 2016-09-29.
  78. "The Standells: Chart History". AllMusic. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
  79. "The Music Machine - Billboard Charts". Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  80. "The Syndicate of Sound: Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
  81. C. Tichi, High Lonesome: The American Culture of Country Music (UNC Press, 1994), p. 222.
  82. R. Shuker, Popular Music: The Key Concepts (Routledge, 2nd edn., 2005), p. 75.
  83. Deming, Mark. "The Sonics: Artist Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
  84. Ankeny, Jason. "The Unrelated Segments: Artist Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
  85. 1 2 Unterberger, Richie. "The Choir: Artist Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
  86. 1 2 3 Unterberger, Richie. "The Haunted: Artist Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
  87. Ravan Lollipop Lounge. p. 63.
  88. Gaar. She's a Rebel. p. 65
  89. "Pleasure Seekers". 60s Garage Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  90. "The Secret History of Women In Rock – The Luv'd Ones ... | Girlsinthegarage's Blog". June 17, 2010. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  91. Lindblad, Peter (September 23, 2008). "Psychedelic '60s bands on DVD". Goldmine. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
  92. Unterberger, Richie (July 6, 2010). "From Merseyside to Hamburg: Complete Star Club – The Liverbirds | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  93. MacLeod, Sean (2015). Leaders of the Pack: Girl Groups of the 1960s and Their Influence on Popular Culture in Britain and America (First ed.). London, UK/Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-1-4422-5201-1.
  94. Brightwell, Eric (March 3, 2014). "All-Female Bands of the 1960s – Happy Birthday Women's History Month". Amoeba. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  95. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 133–138, 151–155.
  96. Markesich, Mike (2012). Teen Beat Mayhem (First ed.). Branford, Connecticut: Priceless Info Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-9856482-5-1.
  97. Hicks 2000, pp. 35–36.
  98. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 124–126, 141, 180–182.
  99. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 172–178.
  100. Hicks 2000, pp. 3, 17.
  101. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 174–178.
  102. 1 2 Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 176–177.
  103. Markesich 2012, p. 219.
  104. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 177, 183–184, 191–193.
  105. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 172–178, 183.
  106. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 149, 156, 166–167, 138.
  107. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 160, 199.
  108. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, p. 169.
  109. Blecha, Peter (2007). Music in Washington, Seattle and Beyond (Images of America) (1st ed.). Charleston, SC, Chicago, IL, Portsmouth, NH, San Francisco, CA: Arcadia Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-7835-4818-0.
  110. Blecha (Images/Illus.) 2009, p. 92.
  111. Blecha (Images) 2009, p. 92.
  112. Bishop, Chris (December 19, 2007). "The Pastels". Garage Hangover. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  113. Unterberger, Richie. "The Barbarians: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  114. 1 2 3 Viglione, Joe. "Victor Moulton: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  115. Unterberger, Richie. "Barry & the Remains: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  116. 1 2 Fitzpatrick, Rob (January 22, 2014). "The 101 strangest records on Spotify: Rockin' Ramrods – She Lied". The Guardian. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  117. Stax, Mike. Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era 1965–1968 (4-Cd Box Set). "Optical Sound: The Technicolor Tales Behind the Various Nuggets" (track-by-track liner notes), pp. 52–53. Rhino Records. Rhino Entertainment. 1998. R2 75466
  118. Markesich 2012, pp. 224, 387.
  119. According to a panel of noted garage rock writers and experts who voted, "All the Way" is rated at a 10 out of 10 and ranked number 3 in the list of 1000 greatest garage rock records of all time.
  120. Deming, Mark. "Various Artists: Don't Press Your Luck! The in Sound of 60's Connecticut (Review)". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  121. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Where the Action Is! Los Angeles Nuggets 1965–1968: AllMusic Review". Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  122. Unterberger, Richie. "Great Moments in Folk Rock: Lists of Author Favorites". Richie Unterberger. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  123. 1 2 3 "The Sons Of Adam | UglyThings Magazine". Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  124. Duff, S.L. (2002). "Sunset Strip as Memory Lane: A Local Reminisces About the 60s Strip". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  125. ""Riot on Sunset Strip" (Review)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  126. ""Mondo Mod" (Review)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  127. "'Riot on Sunset Strip': Watch the Standells and Chocolate Watchband in this exploitation classic". Dangerous Minds. July 17, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  128. Gibron, Bill (October 24, 2011). "Riot on Sunset Strip: Review". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  129. Thorn, Steve (September 2013). "The Standells: From the Sunset Strip to Adams Avenue". San Diego Troubadour. San Diego, CA. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  130. Hicks 2000, pp. 47-48.
  131. Leggett, Steve. "Pushin' Too Hard: The Best of the Seeds (Review)". AllMuisc. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  132. Unterberger, Richie. "Love: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  133. Schinder, S.; Schwartz, A. (2008). Icons of Rock. ABC-CLIO. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-313-33846-5.
  134. Robinson, Sean Michael (October 28, 2014). "The Music Machine: Black Glove and the Loneliest Garage". The Hooded Utilitarian. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  135. Avant-Mier, Roberto (December 2008). "Latinos in the Garage: A Genealogical Examination of the Latino/a Presence and Influence in Garage Rock (and Rock and Pop Music)" (PDF). Popular Music and Society. 31 (5): 555–74. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  136. Stax, Mike (1998). Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era 1965–1968 (4-Cd Box Set) - 'Optical Sound: The Technicolor Tales Behind the Various Nuggets' (track-by-track liner notes). Rhino Entertainment Company. R2 75466.
  137. Cuevas, Steven. "Founding member of '60s LA garage rock band the Premiers to be laid to rest in Riverside". Arts & Entertainment. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
  138. Unterberger, Richie. "Thee Midniters: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 16, 2015.
  139. Montfichet, Stansted. "Artist Biography". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  140. Unterberger, Richie. "The Great Society: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  141. Montfichet, Stansted. "The Brogues:". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  142. Unterberger, Richie. "The Charlatans: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  143. Dougan, John. "Flamin' Groovies". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  144. Ruhlmann, William. "The American Breed: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  145. Dahl, Bill. "The Buckinghams: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  146. Unterberger, Richie. "The Cryan' Shames: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  147. 1 2 Deming, Mark. "Shadows of Knight: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  148. "Banshees". Archived from the original on November 22, 2016. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  149. Ankeny, Jason. "Little Boy Blues : Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  150. Unterberger. "The Del-Vetts: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 26, 2015.
  151. Unterberger, Richie. "New Colony Six : Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  152. Ankeny, Jason. "MC5: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  153. Ankeny, Jason. "The Unrelated Segments: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  154. Ankeny, Jason. "The Iguanas: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 26, 2015.
  155. "Bob Seger System (The Last Heard)". Michigan Rock and Roll Legends. 2011. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  156. Hamilton, Andrew. "The Underdogs: Artist Biography". AllMuisc. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  157. McCollum, Brian (March 12, 2007). "A Definitive Oral History of Seger's Early Years". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  158. McConnell, Mike (January 19, 2016). "Glenn Frey's Musical Sojourn Started at his Royal Oak High School with an $18 Gig". The Oakland Press News. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  159. Viglione, Joe. "Terry Knight & the Pack: AllMusic Review". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  160. Unterberger, Richie. "The Rationals: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  161. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas Erlewine. "Various Artists - Scream Loud!! The Fenton Story (review)". Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  162. Arkeny, Jason. "The Jujus: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 10, 2016.
  163. Dugo, Mike. "Quests". 60s Garage Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  164. Tupica, Rich. "Solid State Sounds: The Plagues & Frightened Trees". CityPulse. 2001 E. Michigan Ave. Lansing, MI 48912. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  165. Ankeny, Jason. "The Castaways: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  166. Unterberger, Richie. "The Litter: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  167. Hann, Michael (June 1, 2012). "Old Music: The Electras - Action Woman". The Guardian. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
  168. Unterberger, Richie. "T.C. Atlantic: AllMusic Biography". Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  169. Unterberger, Richie. "The Electras: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  170. Phares, Heather. "The Human Beinz: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 10, 2016.
  171. Markesich 2012, p. 169.
  172. Unterberger, Richie. "The Music Explosion: Artist Biography".
  173. Unterberger, Richie. "various Artist - Garagemental!: The Cuca Records Story, Vol. 2". Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  174. "Denny Noie: Wisconsin's First 'Teen Idol'". Rockabilly Hall of Fame. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
  175. Koda, Cub. "The Riviera: Artist Biography". Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  176. Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. p. 193. ISBN 0-214-20512-6.
  177. Leggett, Steve. "Blues Magoos: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  178. Thompson, Dave. "The Druids of Stonehenge: Artist Biography". Retrieved November 20, 2015.
  179. Unterberger, Richie. "The Vagrants: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  180. Ankeny, Jason. "Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  181. "Clyde Snyder Recalls the Beach Nuts". Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  182. Ankeny, Jason. "The Rising Tydes: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  183. Bishop, Chris (October 19, 2007). "The Magic Mushrooms". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  184. Markesich 2012, p. 107.
  185. Unterberger, Richie. "The Fantastic Deejays". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  186. Unterberger, Richie. "Swamp Rats: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  187. Bishop, Chris (May 2, 2007). "The Hangmen". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
  188. Dugo, Mike. "Hangmen". 60s Garage Retrieved July 26, 2015.
  189. "The Mad Hatters: artist biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  190. "The Fallen Angels". Psychedelicized. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  191. 1 2 Huey, Steve. "Sam the Sham & the Pharaohs: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  192. Unterberger, Richie. "Kenny & the Kasuals: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  193. Unterberger, Richie. "Mouse & the Traps: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  194. Unterberger, Richie. "The Moving Sidewalks: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  195. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Neal Ford & The Fanatics". Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  196. Deming, Mark. "The 13th Floor Elevators: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  197. Chamy, Michael (August 12, 2005). "George Kinney & The Golden Dawn: Fanning the Flames of Legend". Austin Chronicle. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  198. Unterberger, Richie. "Zakary Thaks: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  199. Eder, Bruce. "The Bad Seeds: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  200. Eder, Bruce. "The Liberty Bell". AllMusic. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  201. Ankeny, Jason. "The Outcasts". Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  202. Ankeny, Jason. "Artist Biography: The Sparkles". Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  203. Markesich 2012, pp. 118, 387. On page 118, the song is given a ranking of 10 out of 10. In the section listing the 1,000 greatest garage rock songs of all time (voted on by a panel of garage rock writers and experts), the song is mentioned in the top two garage rock songs of all time and is listed as number 2 (page 387), second only to "You're Gonna Miss Me", by the 13th Floor Elevators..
  204. Eder, Bruce. "The Penthouse 5: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  205. Nobles 2011, pp. 31-32, 37.
  206. Unterberger, Richie. "Larry and the Blue Notes". Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  207. "The Novas - William Junior (60s Garage Rock US 1966)". Psychedelic Rock 'n' Roll. April 28, 2009. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
  208. Eder, Bruce. "The Five Americans: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  209. 1 2 3 "Alice Cooper Biography". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  210. 1 2 Dominic, Serene (October 8, 2003). "Alice doesn't live here anymore. But he can't forget the Motor City.". Metro Times. Retrieved July 15, 2008.
  211. Powers, Jim. "Review:Let's Talk About Girls! Music from Tucson 1964–1968". Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  212. Zucker, Robert E. (2014). Entertaining Tucson Across the Decades Volume 1: 1950s–1985. P.O. Box 91317 Tucson, Arizona 85752-1317: Entertainment Magazine/BZB Publishing, Inc. pp. 36–41. ISBN 978-1-939050-06-9. Retrieved December 27, 2015. Source B: Joseph, Lee (March 18, 1985). "Dearly Beloved: The Faces of the 60s". Entertainment Magazine. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  213. Ankeny, Jason. "The Intruders: Artist Biography". Retrieved December 27, 2015. Source B:Burch, Cathalena E. (June 28, 2012). "Music died for promising '60s Tucson band, but Dearly Beloved's spirit lives". (Arizona Daily Star). Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  214. Markesich 2012, p. 81, 386 - Song ranked at #12 in the list of 1000 greatest garage rock records, voted on by a panel of noted writers and experts.
  215. Bealmear, Bart (July 28, 2015). "'We're Pretty Quick': Prized 1967 garage punk 45 can be yours for $4,200". Dangerous Minds. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  216. Kazantzakis, Nikos (January 15, 2015). "Lincoln Street Exit - Drive It (1970 us, superb garage psych, 2010 remaster and expanded)". Rockasteria. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  217. Eder, Bruce. "The Kreeg". Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  218. Impressin' (liner notes). 1996. COL-0689. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  219. Markesich 2012, p. 71.
  220. gilesi, n/a (May 5, 2013). "Classic Singles #17: The Burgundy Runn – Stop!/How Far Up is Down (1967)". Cosmic Mind at Play. Retrieved June 26, 2016. Source B": "The Burgundy Runn – "Stop!" (1966)". Beat Patrol. October 26, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  221. Deming, Mark. "Various Artists - Now Hear This! Garage & Beat from the Norman Petty Vaults(Review)". Retrieved June 22, 2016. Source B: Kazantzakis, Nikos (August 23, 2012). "Various Artists - Now Hear This! (1965-70 us, outstanding garage beat from the Norman Petty vaults)". Rockasteria. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  222. Dugo, Mike. "The Fe-Fi-Four Plus 2". Beyond the Beat Generation. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  223. Shaw, Greg (1992). Pebbles, Volume 5 (liner notes). BFD/AIP Records. AIP-CD-5022.
  224. 1 2 Unterberger, Richie. "Soul Survivors: Biography". Retrieved July 12, 2016. Source B:"The Soul Survivors". The Denver Eye. Retrieved July 12, 2016. - reprint of clipping
  225. 1 2 Eder, Bruce. "The Poor- Help the Poor: review". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  226. "Randy Meisner". Nebraska Rocks. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  227. 1 2 Unterberger, Richie. "We the People: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  228. Lemlich 1992, pp. 11-13.
  229. Unterberger, Richie. "Birdwatchers: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  230. Unterberger, Richie. "The Nightcrawlers". Billboard. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  231. Lemlich 1992, pp. 14-17, 29-30, 34-35, 49, 51.
  232. cobwebsandstrange (January 17, 2011). "The Montells and Evil ... A Florida Garage Legacy". Punk Muzik. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  233. Lemlich 1992, pp. 14-17, 29-30, 34-35, 49, 51, 359-371.
  234. Hitomi, n/a. "The Montells: Interview with Carter Regsdale". 60s Punk. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  235. Lemlich 1992, p. 49.
  236. "Music Monday: Evil – "I'm Movin' On"". Barber Ha. August 4, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  237. "Evil – From a Curbstone/Short Life (Florida Archive Recordings)". Down the Line. December 28, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  238. Lemlich 1992, p. 29.
  239. Lemlich 1992, pp. 14, 30, 88, 96-97, 105.
  240. Hicks 2000, p. 9.
  241. "Mojo: 100 Greatest Psychedelic Classics". Over the Tops. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
  242. Markesich 2012, pp. 205, 243.
  243. "The Tropics". Southern Garage Bands. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  244. Bishop, Chris (July 22, 2009). "The Rovin' Flames". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  245. Unterberger, Richie. "The Gants: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  246. "The Gants: Discography". Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  247. Lien, James (March 1, 1998). "A Brief History of New Orleans Rock". Offbeat Magazine. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
  248. Fensterstock, Alison. "New Orleans garage-rock teen stars the Gaunga Dyns reunite at 11th Ponderosa Stomp" (October 2, 2013). (Times-Picayune). Retrieved July 16, 2015.
  249. Woodward, Alex (October 4, 2013). "Meet The Gaunga Dyns at the 2013 Ponderosa Stomp". Best of New Olreans/Gambit. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  250. Lien, James (March 1, 1998). "A Brief History of New Orleans Rock". Offbeat Magazine. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  251. Leggett, Steve. "The Palace Guards: Artist Biography". Retrieved November 8, 2015.
  252. Swenson, John (2012). New Atlantis: Musicians Battle for the Survival of New Orleans. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0199931712.
  253. Markesich 2012, p. 97, 386 - The single is ranked #17 in a list of the 1000 greatest garage records determined by a panel of writers and experts..
  254. Aswell, Tom (2010). Louisiana Rocks!: The True Genesis of Rock and Roll (1st ed.). Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Company. p. 350. ISBN 978-1-58980-677-1.
  255. Stax, Mike (1998). Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era 1965–1968 (4-Cd Box Set) - 'Optical Sound: The Technicolor Tales Behind the Various Nuggets' (track-by-track liner notes). Rhino Entertainment Company. R2 75466.
  256. Markesich 2012, p. 61.
  257. Bishop, Chris (January 13, 2014). "The Rogues & the Dry Grins". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  258. Bishop, Chris (October 27, 2014). "The Persian Market". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  259. "The Bad Roads". Ponderosa Stomp. 828 Royal Street, #830, New Orleans, LA 70116-3119. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  260. Gordon, Robert (August 16, 2013). "Memphis: Where to Find the Blues". The Guardian. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  261. "Memphis Music History: Rockabilly". Memphis Rock n Soul Museum. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  262. "Memphis Soul Music: The Beginnings". Memphis Rock n Soul Museum. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  263. Hall (Memphis) 2001, pp. 9–14.
  264. Hall, Ron (2001). Playing for a Piece of the Door: A History of Garage & Frat Bands in Memphis 1960–1975 (1st ed.). Memphis: Sharngri-La Projects. pp. 71–76. ISBN 0-9668575-1-8.
  265. Hall (Memphis) 2001, pp. 77–79.
  266. Hall (Memphis) 2001, pp. 27–28.
  267. Hall (Memphis) 2001, pp. 57–58, 86–87, 119–120, 59–60.
  268. Bishop, Chris (March 23, 2013). "The Yardleys". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  269. Berger & Coston 2001, pp. 42–47, 49, 52, 110.
  270. Dugo, Mike. "The Paragons". Beyond the Beat Generation. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
  271. Berger and Coston 2014, pp. 29, 31–32, 35, 90–91, 150.
  272. Berger and Coston 2014, p. 36, 73–74, 94, 129, 150, 155, 160.
  273. Markesich 2012, p. 222.
  274. Berger and Coston 2014, p. 75.
  275. Ankeny, Jason. "Bojax: Biography". AllMusic. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  276. "Bojax". Beyond the Beat Generation. Beyond the Beat Generation. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  277. Montfichet, Stansted. "Northwest Company". Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  278. Montfichet, Stansted. "Painted Ship: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  279. 1 2 Sendra, Tim. "Shakin' All Over/Hey Ho/It's Time: All Music Review". Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  280. Ankeny, Jason. "The Quid". Retrieved March 3, 2012.
  281. Bishop, Chris (November 23, 2007). "The Shags". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  282. 1 2 "The Ugly Ducklings Discography". Canadian Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  283. Unterberger, Richie. "Artist Biography". The Ugly Ducklings. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  284. Bush, John. "Artist Biography". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  285. Bishop, Chris (October 9, 2009). "The Paupers". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  286. 1 2 Campbell, Marc (May 13, 2013). "James' Garage Band, the Mynah Birds, 1965". Dangerous Minds. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  287. 1 2 Jones, Josh (May 1, 2014). "When Neil Young & Rick James Created the 60's Motown Band, The Mynah Birds". Open Culture. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  288. Bishop, Chris (August 10, 2007). "M.G. and the Escorts". Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  289. "Artist: M.G. & The Escorts". The Canadian Pop Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  290. 1 2 Unterberger, Richie. "The Savages: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  291. 1 2 "The Savages – Live 'n Wild (Crude 60s Garage Bermuda 1966)". Psychedelic Rock 'n' Roll. December 4, 2009. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  292. Bishop, Chris (November 14, 2006). "The Savages – Live 'n Wild". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  293. Markesich 2012, pp. 209, 387.
  294. 1 2 Bishop, Chris (January 2, 2015). "The Gents on Duane Records". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  295. 1 2 Markesich 2012, p. 256.
  296. Bishop, Chris (March 4, 2007). "The Weads". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  297. Markesich 2012, p. 166.
  298. "Mop Tops – 'I Tried'". 45cat. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  299. Ohira, Rod (December 29, 1999). "Music, Surfing Changed our Times: Isle Youths of the '60s Ushered in New Sounds and Styles that Changed Hawaii". Star Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  300. 1 2 3 4 Bangs, Lester (2003). Marcus, Greil, ed. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung (First ed.). New York: Ancor Books, a division of Random House Inc. pp. 56–57, 61, 64, 101. ISBN 0-679-72045-6. Lester Bangs, one of the first writers to define genre, in his article, "James Taylor Marked for Death", which appeared in the Spring 1971 edition of Grag Shaw's publication, Who Put the Bomp, extolling the virtues of their seemingly unrepentant primitivism and sexually charged innuendo (pp. 54, 57), wrote that he considered the Troggs, a British band, not only of the genre, but quintessential to it. He constantly uses the word "punk" (which at the time was the term used for the garage rock genre) to describe them (pages 56–57, 61, 64). On page 101 he uses the word "punk" again and even goes to the extreme of calling them its "supreme archetype" and also equates them with the Stooges and Modern Lovers, whom he holds in similar but lesser regard in that respect. Other sources that speak of 1960s garage rock in global terms: Source B: Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "AllMusic Review: Nuggets, Vol. 2: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire & Beyond". Retrieved July 21, 2015. Source C: Viglione, Joe. "The Troggs Live at Max's Kansas City (Review)". Retrieved July 24, 2015. Source D: Unterberger, Richie. "Trans-World Punk Rave-Up, Vol. 1–2: AllMusic Review". Retrieved July 11, 2015. Source E: Unterberger, Richie. "The Syndicats: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 10, 2015. Source F: Unterberger. "Simla Beat: 1970–1971 (Review)". Retrieved July 24, 2015. Source G: Unterberger, Richie. "The Missing Links: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 18, 2015. Source H: Lymangrover, Jason. "Los Nuggetz Volume Uno:'60s Garage & Psych From Latin America: AllMusic Review". Retrieved July 10, 2015. Source I: Unterberger, Richie. "GS I Love You: Japanese Garage Bands of the '60s (Review)". Retrieved July 30, 2015. Source I: "Algo Salvaje: Untamed 60's Beat and Garage Nuggets From Spain, Vol. 1". Retrieved July 31, 2015.
  301. 1 2 3 Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 7–9, 11–35. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4. The entire 352-page book is devoted to garage rock in Australia during the 1960s. Ian McFarland, one of the best known writers covering Australian rock, uses the term "garage, "garage punk" or "punk" repeatedly in his Forward on pp. 7–9 when describing the Australian 1960s bands; his first sentence reads: "When the subject of 1960s Aussie garage-punk-/R&B/psych comes up in conversation, most aficionados of the genre will grin knowingly, nod enthusiastically and immediately rattle of a list of their personal fave raves". The main text by Marks and McIntyre uses these same terms constantly throughout the whole book, whose central purpose is to address the Australian garage rock bands. The book in its coverage of numerous acts, underscores the scope and size of the Australian garage rock scene in the mid-'60s. Also see: Everett True's Australian Garage Rock Primer (website)True's Australian Garage Rock Primer
  302. 1 2 Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). "1, 4". India Psychedelic (First ed.). India: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 10, 51. ISBN 978-93-5029-837-4. On pages 10 and 51 the author says that the term often used for many the Indian bands of the 1960s is "garage bands". Source B: "New Book on India's 1960s–1970s Rock Scene: Highly explosive out of time garage-punk from India!". Combustibles. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  303. 1 2 Palao, Alex. "Get Me to the World on Time: How the sound of Nuggets Engulfed the Globe". (essay). Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set). Rhino 1998. On page 26, Palao discusses the role of garage outside of America.
  304. Stiernberg, Bonnie (August 27, 2014). "The 50 Best Garage Rock Songs of All Time". Paste. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  305. Hicks 2000, p. 36. Hicks remarks about the Troggs: "...often considered Britain's first garage band...".
  306. Source A: Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "AllMusic Review: Nuggets, Vol. 2: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire & Beyond". Retrieved July 21, 2015. Source B: Viglione, Joe. "The Troggs Live at Max's Kansas City (Review)". Retrieved July 24, 2015. Source C: Unterberger, Richie. "The Syndicats: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  307. 1 2 Nicholson, Chris (September 25, 2012). "Freakbeat, The Garage Rock Era". Ministry of Rock. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
  308. B. Longhurst, Popular Music and Society (Polity, 2nd edn., 2007), ISBN 0-7456-3162-2, p. 98.
  309. Bill Harry, "The Birth of Mersey Beat
  310. Puterbaugh, Parke (July 14, 1988). Wenner, Jann, ed. "The British Invasion: From the Beatles to the Stones, The Sixties Belonged to Britain". Rolling Stone. No. 530. Retrieved July 10, 2005.
  311. R. F. Schwartz, How Britain Got the Blues: the Transmission and Reception of American Blues Style in the United Kingdom (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), ISBN 0-7546-5580-6, p. 133.
  312. "Revolution in Men's Clothes: Mod Fashions from Britain are Making a Smash in the U.S.", Life, May 13, 1966; pp. 82–88.
  313. Eder, Bruce. "Small Faces: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  314. "10 Essential Small Faces/Faces Songs". Rock ad Roll Hall of Fame. April 2, 2015. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  315. Kitts, Thomas M. (November 28, 2007). Ray Ray Davies: Not Like Everybody Else. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-415-97769-2.
  316. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "The Kinks". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  317. "Where Have All the Good Times Gone by The Kinks". Song Facts. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  318. Eder, Bruce. "Artist Biography: The Chocolate Watchband". AllMusic. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  319. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "The Pretty Things: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  320. Unterberger, Richie. "The Pretty Things: Midnight to Six Man (Song Review)". Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  321. Unterberger, Richie. "The Downliners Sect: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 20, 2015.
  322. Hicks 2000, p. 34.
  323. Unterberger, Richie. "Them: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  324. Unterberger, Richie. "The Wheels: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  325. Unterberger, Richie. "The Troggs: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  326. Viglione, Joe. "The Troggs Live at Max's Kansas City (Review)". Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  327. Bush, John. "Artist Biography: The Equals". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  328. "Police On My Back by The Equals". Song Facts. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  329. Unterberger, Richie. "The Syndicats: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  330. "The Syndicats – Discography". 45 cat. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
  331. 1 2 "The Renegades". Brum Beat. August 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
  332. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "AllMusic Review: Nuggets, Vol. 2: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire & Beyond". Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  333. "Pop/Rock » British Invasion » Freakbeat". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  334. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Various Artists: Nuggets, Vol. 2: Original Artyfacts from the British Empire & Beyond". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  335. Thompson, Dave (September 1, 2002). The Music Lover's Guide to Record Collecting. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-87930-713-4.
  336. Phipps, Kieth (April 19, 2002). "Various Artists: Nuggets II: Original Artyfacts From The British Empire And Beyond 1964–1969". A.V. Club. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  337. 1 2 Unterberger, Richie. "Trans-World Punk Rave-Up, Vol. 1–2: AllMusic Review". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  338. "Dutch Sixties Beatgroups". Start. Retrieved July 11, 2015. Website database includes over 1,400 mid-'60s bands from the Netherlands
  339. Deming, Mark. "Artist Biography". Retrieved July 11, 2015. List of songs included.
  340. "Thinking About Today: Their Complete Works (Outsiders)". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  341. Eder, Bruce. "Q 65: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  342. Deming, Mark. "Nothing But Trouble: The Best of Q65". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  343. Hann, Michael (December 12, 2012). "Old music: Golden Earring – Twilight Zone". The Guardian. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  344. Gitlin, Alex. "The Shoes". Alex Gitlin. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  345. Gitlin, Alex. "MOTIONS". Alex Gitlin's Music Site. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  346. Brady, Kate (July 9, 2014). "Beat-Club: when TV and music Revolutionized German youth". DW. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  347. "Beat! Beat! Beat!". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  348. Unterberger, Richie. "The Lords: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  349. Unterberger, Richie. "The Rattles: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  350. "German Bonds". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  351. Bishop, Chris (February 23, 2007). "The German Bonds". Garage Hangover. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  352. Unterberger, Richie. "The Monks: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  353. Eder, Bruce. "Hep Stars: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  354. "The Pebbles". The Belgian Pop and Rock Archives. December 2001. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  355. "John Woolley And Just Born – Discography". 45 Cat. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  356. 1 2 3 "Algo Salvaje: Untamed 60's Beat and Garage Nuggets from Spain Vol. 1 (review)". Forced Exposure. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
  357. 1 2 "Ye-yé! Spanish Nuggets – Ten 1960s Garage, Beat and Psych Classics from Spain.". Stranger Than Known. July 12, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
  358. Unterberger, Richie. "Los Bravos: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  359. Unterberger, Richie. "Los Cheyenes: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  360. "Micky y los Tonys". Munster Records. 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
  361. "Ye-yé! Spanish Nuggets – Ten 1960s Garage, Beat and Psych Classics from Spain.". Stranger Than Known. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
  362. "Algo Salvaje: Untamed 60's Beat and Garage Nuggets From Spain, Vol. 1 (User Reviews)". Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  363. 1 2 3 4 Lymangrover, Jason. "Los Nuggetz Volume Uno:'60s Garage & Psych From Latin America: AllMusic Review". Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  364. "Rare Mexican Cuts from the 60s". Garage 60s Blogspot. March 2, 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  365. 1 2 Coerver, Don; Pasztor, Suzanne; Huffington, Robert (August 2004). Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 440–41. ISBN 1-57607-132-4.
  366. 1 2 Shaw, Lisa; Dennison, Stephanie (January 2005). Pop Culture Latin America!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. p. 46. ISBN 1-85109-504-7.
  367. Ankeny, Jason. "Los Dug Dug's: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  368. Weingarten, Christopher N. "Various Artists, Los Nuggetz: '60s Garage and Psych from Latin America (RockBeat)". Spin. Retrieved July 11, 2015. -
  369. Ferretiz, Denep Velasco. "Monks / Hesiquio Ramos the senior monk in the Mexican rock". Focus Magazine. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  370. Meisler, Bernard. "The Sinners & other great Latin garage rock bands". Sensitive Skin. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  371. "Los Shakers". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  372. Unterberger, Richie. "Los Mockers: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 11, 2015.
  373. 1 2 Watts, Jonathan; Collyns, Dan (September 14, 2012). "Where did Punk Begin? A Cinema in Peru". The Guardian. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
  374. ¡Demolición!: The Complete Recordings Allmusic review
  375. Unterberger, Richie. "Los Speakers: Artist Biography". Retrieved August 2, 2015.
  376. "Speaking of the Speakers". Ravenfilm. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
  377. 1 2 Deming, Mark. "Los Gatos Salvajes: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  378. "Japan keeps Lennon's memory alive". BBC News. December 8, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
  379. Unterberger, Richie. "GS I Love You: Japanese Garage Bands of the '60s (Review)". Retrieved July 30, 2015. – not to be confused with Alice Cooper's American band of the same name.
  380. 1 2 Unterberger, Richie. "GS I Love You: Japanese Garage Bands of the '60s (Review)". Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  381. 1 2 3 Unterberger, Richie. "GS I Love You Too: Japanese Garage Bands of the '60s [Vol. 2]". Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  382. Hicks 2000, p. 49.
  383. Cope, Julian. "The Golden Cups". Julian Cope Presents. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
  384. Bishop, Chris (April 23, 2007). "The Golden Cups". Garage Hangover. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
  385. Bhatia 2014, p. 91. Bhatia mentions that Biddu, previously of India's the Trojans, produced the Tigers and that they cut a hit..
  386. Bhatia 2014, pp. 1-4, 10, 51. On pages 1 and 2 Bhatia discusses the Simla Beat Contest in 1971. (One listen to the Simla Beat 70/71 compilation confirms that the mid-'60s style of garage rock was still present in India, not as a revival, but as a living, organic, and unconscious continuation of the form.) On pages 3 and 4 the author describes the famine and economic hardship, as well as political instability in India at the time. On pages 10 and 51 the author indicates that the term often used for many the Indian bands of the 1960s is "garage bands"..
  387. "New Book on India's 1960s–1970s Rock Scene: Highly explosive out of time garage-punk from India!". Combustibles. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  388. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unterberger. "Simla Beat: 1970–1971 (Review)". Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  389. 1 2 Bishop, Chris (September 8, 2006). "Simla Beat". Garage Hangover. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
  390. Bhatia 2014, pp. 11, 15.
  391. Bhatia 2014, pp. 24, 27-3-, 32.
  392. Bhatia 2014, pp. 15-22, 91. Page 91 mentions that Biddu, previously of India's the Trojans, produced the Tigers from Japan. He also produced an album by Japanese group the Tigers..
  393. Bhatia 2014, pp. 10, 20, 49, 58-60, 91.
  394. Bhatia 2014, pp. 78-80.
  395. Bhatia 2014, pp. 42-43.
  396. Bhatia 2014, pp. 33-34, 48.
  397. 1 2 3 Bhatia 2014, pp. 50-56.
  398. Bhatia 2014, pp. 1–3, 46, 50–51, 54, 67, 78, 121, 134.
  399. A: Bishop, Chris (June 23, 2011). "The Frustrations Amalgamated". Garage Hangover. Retrieved August 7, 2015. B: Bishop, Chris (September 8, 2006). "Simla Beat". Garage Hangover. Retrieved August 7, 2015. The album was not recorded live on stage, but in the studio albeit with very little overdubbing or sound reinforcement.
  400. Bhatia 2014, p. 2, 50, 67.
  401. Bhatia 2014, pp. 22.
  402. Bhatia 2014, p. 55.
  403. Bhatia 2014, pp. 133-134.
  404. Bhatia 2014, p. 121.
  405. Bhatia 2014, p. 118.
  406. Paterson, Beverly (November 27, 2013). "The Bee Gees, Easybeats, others – Down Under Nuggets: Original Australian Artyfacts (1965–1967)". Something Else!. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
  407. Condon, Dan (September 10, 2012). "Nuggets To Be Re-Issued With New Aussie Garage Compilations". The Retrieved July 25, 2015.
  408. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 12, 55, 63. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  409. 1 2 Unterberger, Richie. "The Atlantics: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 18, 2015.
  410. 1 2 3 Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  411. 1 2 Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 12, 16, 18–19, 87. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4. These pages describe the differences between the first wave (more pop) and second wave (more blues based) of Australian beat music.
  412. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 25–38, 39–47. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4. Pages 25–38 are devoted to Billy Thorpe and the Aztecs as well as Vince Maloney. Pages 39–47 are devoted to Ray Columbus and the Invaders.
  413. Unterberger, Richie. "Ray Columbus & the Invaders: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  414. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 55–61. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4. Marks and McIntyre chose "Come On" as the number 1 song in "The Australian and New Zealand Beat 'n' Garage Top 100" section at the back of the book.
  415. O'Grady, Anthony (August 25, 2014). "Australian Indie Rock Pioneer Who Set the Standard Before Exiting the Stage". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  416. "Aussie Rocker Johnny Rebb Dead at 79". The Australian. August 3, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  417. 1 2 3 4 5 Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 117–32. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  418. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 25–38. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  419. 1 2 Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 87–100. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4. Dates of releases on page 100
  420. Unterberger, Richie. "The Missing Links: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 18, 2015.
  421. 1 2 3 Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 49–54. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4. See comments on page 49 and 53 expressing Ian Marks' thoughts about the song.
  422. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 250–55. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  423. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 63–72. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  424. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 197–204, 338. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  425. Unterberger, Richie. "The Pleazers: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  426. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 154–55, 163. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  427. McFarlane, Ian (1999). Encyclopedia of Australian Rock & Pop. Australia: Allen & Unwin Pty., Limited. pp. 500–01. ISBN 978-1-86448-768-8.
  428. Unterberger, Richie. "Purple Hearts: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  429. "The Purple Hearts: Early in the Morning". Pop Pop Retrieved November 3, 2015.
  430. 1 2 Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 133–36. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  431. "Toni McCann". Australian Music Legends. Australian Music Legends. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  432. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 270–74. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  433. 1 2 Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 137–41. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  434. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 205–08. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  435. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 214–23. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  436. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 187–92. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  437. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. p. 339. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  438. Unterberger, Richie. "Steve & the Board: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 18, 2015.
  439. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 299–302. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  440. "The Chimney Sweeps: Devil Girl (album track listing)". Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  441. 1 2 Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 256–64. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  442. "The Creatures". Music Minder.
  443. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 275–92. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  444. 1 2 Unterberger, Richie. "The Masters Apprentices: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  445. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 164–70. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  446. Unterberger, Richie. "Chants R&B: Artist Biography". Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  447. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 265–69. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  448. "Bluestars". New Zealand Music. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  449. Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 179–86. ISBN 978-1-891241-28-4.
  450. "La De Da's". New Zealand Music. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  451. "The Changin' Times: How is the Air Up There?/Young and Innocent Girl". 45cat. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
  452. R. Rubin and J. P. Melnick, Immigration and American Popular Culture: an Introduction (New York, NY: New York University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-8147-7552-7, pp. 162–4.
  453. Stieb, Matt. "Trippin' Out in TX: A journey through Texas' psychedelic music scene". San Antonio Current. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
  454. "The 60's Drug Culture". Crescent Tok. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
  455. Rogan, Johnny (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 541–544. ISBN 0-9529540-1-X.
  456. 1 2 Hall, Mitchell (2014). The Emergence of Rock and Roll: Music and the Rise of American Youth Culture (1st ed.). 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017: Routlage: Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-0-415-83312-7.
  457. Hicks 2000, p. 59.
  458. Chadbourne, Eugene. "The Gamblers". Retrieved December 23, 2015.
  459. Gress, Jesse (January 30, 2014). "Play Like Dick Dale". Guitar Player. Retrieved December 19, 2015.
  460. Hicks 2000, pp. 59-60.
  461. Shepherd, John (2012). Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume 8: Genres: North America. 80 Maiden Lane, New York, NY 10038: The Continuum Publishing Group. pp. 222–223. ISBN 978-1441160782.
  462. 1 2 3 4 Berger, Jacob; Coston, Daniel (2014). There Was a Time: Rock & Roll in the 1960s in Charlotte and North Carolina (1st ed.). Charlotte: Fort Canoga Press. pp. 97–105. ISBN 9780615809403. - Berger, who played in the Ajents (Charlotte,NC) comments: " We were the first generation to have the "miracle technology" of television, and for the first time we got to see the ugly side of America. He goes on to mention racial tension and goes on: "Now what had been on the back burner of their minds and not fully been fully ware of was splattered across the seven o'clock news. Now we saw everyday people caught up in a whirlwind of change." From pg. 97-105, former members of North Carolina garage bands discuss the Viet Nam War and a host of other issues they faced.
  463. 1 2 3 4 Gilmore, Mikal (August 23, 1990). "Bob Dylan, the Beatles, and the Rock of the Sixties". Rolling Stone. No. 585. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  464. Nobles, Mark (2011). Fort Worth's Rock and Roll Roots. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. pp. 7, 9–10. ISBN 978-0-7385-8499-7. - Nobles discusses how the Beatles Ed Sullivan appearance and its influence on garage bands tied in with the Kennedy assassination and looming Vietnam crisis (and even the nuclear arms race with the soviet Union) and how it relates "organically" with the whole psychedelic movement that emerged in the second half of the decade. He contends that the Beatles visit unleashed much of the (previously pent up) inertia that propelled many of the subsequent changes in attitudes and styles of 60s youth.
  465. Lemlich 1992, pp. 2–3. Lemlich mentions the relationship between the Kennedy assassination, the Beatles' appeal, and garage rock..
  466. Palao, Alec (September 15, 1998). "Get Me to the World On Time: How the Sound of Nuggets Engulfed the Globe". Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set): 27. UPC 081227546625. - On pg. 27, Palao speaks of the innocence of 1960s garage rock.
  467. Wilentz, Sean (October 30, 2014). "The Halloween Concert That Reinvented Bob Dylan". New Republic. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  468. Philo, Simon (2015). British Invasion: The Crosscurrents of Musical Influence (1st ed.). Lanham, Boulder, New York, London: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group Inc. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-8108-8626-1.
  469. Ward, Brian. "What's That Sound? Teaching the 1960s through Popular Music". The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 49 W. 45th Street, 6th Floor · NYC, NY 10036. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
  470. 1 2 3 Lundborg, Patrick (2010). "A Recording Chronology Of The Early Days Of Psychedelic Culture". Lysergia. Retrieved December 19, 2015.
  471. 1 2 Deusner, Stephen M. (July 10, 2005). "The 13th Floor Elevators: The Psychedelic Sounds of...". Pitchfork Media. 1 World Trade Center, New York, NY 10007. Retrieved December 19, 2015.
  472. Deming, Mark. "The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators". Retrieved December 19, 2015.
  473. Benes, Ross (March 12, 2014). "The First 'Psychedelic' Album Ever". Esquire. New York, NY. Retrieved December 19, 2015.
  474. "The Electric Prunes Biography - Part 1". The Electric Prunes. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
  475. Unterberger, Richie. "Liner Notes for I Had Too Much to Dream Last Night". Richie Unterberger. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
  476. 1 2 3 Unterberger, Richie. "The Electric Prunes: Artist Biography". Retrieved December 21, 2015.
  477. Deming, Mark. "The Electric Prunes - Underground: Review". Retrieved December 21, 2015.
  478. Campbell, Al. "The Electric Prunes - Mass in F Minor: Review". Retrieved December 21, 2015.
  479. Viglione, Joe. "Review". Retrieved December 21, 2015.
  480. Hicks 2000, p. 10.
  481. 1 2 3 Eder, Bruce. "The Chocolate Watchband: Review". Retrieved December 21, 2015.
  482. Markescih 2012, p. 81.
  483. Shaw, Greg (September 15, 1998). "Sic Transit Gloria: The Story of Punk Rock in the '60s". Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set): 42. UPC 081227546625.
  484. Leggett, Steve. "Blues Magoos: Artist Biography". Retrieved December 22, 2015.
  485. Reid, Graham (April 2, 2012). "Blues Magoos 1966-68: Pop's Psychedelic Pioneers". Elsewhere. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
  486. "Blues Magoos". Psychedelicized. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
  487. 1 2 Eder, Bruce. "Strawberry Alarm Clock: Artist Biography". Retrieved December 22, 2015.
  488. Russo, Greg. "Thee Sixpence". United Mutations. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
  489. Markescih 2012, p. 236.
  490. Unterberger, Richie. "Liner Notes for the Strawberry Alarm Clock's Good Morning Starshine". Richie Unterberger. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
  491. Unterberger, Richie. "The Third Bardo". Retrieved December 23, 2015.
  492. Markescih 2012, p. 237.
  493. Markescih 2012, p. 170.
  494. "The Mystic Tide - Solid Sound/Ground (Superb Psychedelic 60s Garage US 1965-1967)". Psychedelic Rock 'n' Roll. March 13, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
  495. "Velvet Underground: The New York City Punk-Rock Poets". 75 Maiden Lane Suite 901 New York, NY10038. October 29, 2004. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  496. 1 2 Henry Flynt, "The Crystallization of Concept Art in 1961"
  497. 1 2 Seavey, Todd Seavey (October 28, 2013). "All Tomorrow's Partisans: Lou Reed, 1942-2013". The American Spectator. Retrieved June 11, 2016. - Seavy uses "garage rock" as a descriptor for the Velvet Underground's stylistic approach.
  498. 1 2 Dougan, John. "The Fugs - Final CD (Part 1)". PopMatters. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  499. 1 2 "The Fugs – The Fugs First Album". Underground Music of the 1960s. March 2, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  500. 1 2 3 Unterberger, Richie. "The Fugs: Artist Biography". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  501. Raggett, Ned. "The Fugs (Review)". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  502. Fink, Matt. "The Fugs - The Fugs Second Album". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  503. Shapiro, Fred R. (2006). The Yale Book of Quotations (First ed.). New Haven, London: Yale University Press. p. 492. ISBN 978-0-300-10798-2.
  504. Essor-Winston, Marissa (November 20, 2012). "The American Punk Rock Movement: From the 1970's On". Prezi. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  505. John Dougan, John Dougan. "The Godz: Artist Biography". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  506. John Dougan, John Dougan. "The Godz - The Godz". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  507. Mason, Stewart. "The Godz - Godz Two". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  508. Dougan, John. "The Godz - The Third Testament". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  509. 1 2 Unterberger, Richie. "The Velvet Underground: Artist Biography". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  510. 1 2 3 Deming, Mark. "The Velvet Underground & Nico". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  511. Deming, Mark. "The Velvet Underground - White Light/White Heat". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  512. 1 2 3 Grubbs, David (2014). "Ch. One". Records Ruin the Landscape: John Cage, the Sixties, and Sound Recording (1st ed.). Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-5576-2. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  513. 1 2 3 Cope, Julian (November 2005). "Henry Flynt & the Insurrections:I Don't Wanna (Julian Cope's Album of the Month)". Unsung. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  514. 1 2 3 Beta, Andy (February 19, 2004). "Henry Flynt/Insurrections: I Don't Wanna". Pithcfork. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  515. Chadbourne, Eugene. "Henry Flynt: Artist Biography by Eugene Chadbourne". t.tex's hexes. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  516. 1 2 Unterberger, Richie. "The Monks: Artist Biography". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  517. 1 2 Demming, Mark. "The Monks - Black Monk Time (Review)". Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  518. Stax, Mike. "Optical Sound: The Technicolor Tales Behind the Numerous Nuggets" (track-by-track booklet liner notes). Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set). Rhino 1998, p. 82-83
  519. V. Joynson, Fuzz, Acid and Flowers: A Comprehensive Guide to American Garage, Psychedelic and Hippie Rock (1964–1975) (Borderline, 4th edn., 1997), p. 309.
  520. 1 2 Berger & Coston 2001, pp. 148-149.
  521. Shaw, Greg (September 15, 1998). "Sic Transit Gloria: The Story of Punk Rock in the '60s". Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set): 17–18. UPC 081227546625.
  522. Berger & Coston 2001, p. 152.
  523. Berger & Coston 2001, pp. 101-104.
  524. 1 2 3 Unterberger, Richie (1998). Unknown Legends of Rock 'n' Roll. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 69. ISBN 1-61774-469-7.
  525. 1 2 3 Smith, Chris (2009). 101 Albums That Changed Popular Music. Oxford University Press. pp. 96–98. ISBN 978-0-19-537371-4.
  526. 1 2 "Rewind to the garage rock era". Vox. August 10, 2006. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
  527. Ankeny, Jason. "The Balloon Farm". Billboard. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
  528. 1 2 Ankeny, Jason. "MC5: Biography". Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  529. 1 2 Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "The Stooges: Biography". Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  530. Ankeny, Jason. "The Up: Biography". Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  531. Monger, James Christopher. "Death: Biography". Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  532. "Proto-Punk". Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  533. Aaron, Peter (2013). If You Like the Ramones. Milwaukee, WI. 53213: Backbeat Books (an imprint of Hal Leonard Corporation). pp. 94, 95.
  534. Deming, Mark. "MC5 - Kick Out the Jams (Review)". Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  535. Marcus 1979, p. 34.
  536. Deming, Mark. "The Stooges - The Stooges (Review)". Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  537. Deming, Mark. "The Stooges - Funhouse (Review)". Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  538. Deming, Mark. "Iggy and the Stooges - Raw Power (Review)". Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  539. Ankeny, Jason. "The Up: Artist Biography". Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  540. Mosher, Mike. "Killer Up! by the Up". Bad Subjects. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  541. Pell, Nicholas (January 26, 2012). "Deathmatch: Which is Better, Garage Rock or Pub Rock?". LA Weekly. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  542. Prato, Greg. "Alice Cooper - Love It to Death (review)". Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  543. Graff, Gary (March 15, 2016). "Waterford Band the Punks Lives Again Thanks to HBO's "Vinyl"". The Oakland Press. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  544. Wright, Alan (2003). "The Punks: The Most Powerful Music On Earth (Motor City Music)". Cosmik Debris. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  545. Rubin, Mike (March 12, 2009). "This Band Was Punk Before Punk Was Punk". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  546. Bliss, Abi (February 9, 2009). "The Detroit band that never sold out". Retrieved July 5, 2013.
  547. Jurek, Thom. "...For the Whole World to See". Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  548. "Politicians In My Eyes b/w Keep On Knockin". 45Cat. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  549. Lewis, Uncle Dave. "The Modern Lovers: Artist Profile". Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  550. "Jonathan Richman Biography". Star Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  551. "Culture Brats, Bars of Our Youth". Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  552. "Time Magazine via Boston Groupie News". Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  553. Andersen and Jenkins (2001), p. 12. Vaughan, Robin (June 6–12, 2003). "Reality Bites". Boston Phoenix. Harvard, Joe. "Mickey Clean and the Mezz". Boston Rock Storybook. Robbins, Ira. "Wille Alexander". Trouser Press Guide. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
  554. Gallagher, Paul (August 17, 2011). "Slade: Proto Punk Heroes of Glam Rock". Dangerous Minds. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  555. Sommer, Tim (July 7, 2015). "8 Krautrock Artists You Need to Hear Right Now". Observer. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  556. Kaye, Lenny. Nuggets: Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era 1965–1968 (original general essay liner notes). Electra, 1972
  557. Bangs, Lester. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung. Anchor Books, a division of Random House. 2003. pp. 8, 56, 57, 61, 64, 101: reprints of articles which appeared in 1971 and 1972, that refer to garage bands such as the Count Five and the Troggs as "punk"; p. 101 associates "Iggy" and "Jonathan of Modern Lovers" with the Troggs and their ilk (as being punk); pp. 112–13 speak of the Guess Who as "punk" – the Guess Who had made recordings (i.e. their hit version of Shakin' All Over," 1965) as a garage rock outfit in the mid-'1960s; p. 8 makes a general statement about "punk rock" (garage) as a genre: "... then punk bands started cropping up..."; p. 225 is a reprint from article which appeared in the late 1970s, that refers back to garage bands as "punk".
  558. Laing, Dave. One Chord Wonders: Power and Meaning in Punk Rock. PM Press. Oakland, CA 2015. pp. 22–23. Laing writes that the term, "punk rock" was used "generically" (i.e. as to designate a genre) in the early 1970s to describe mid-'1960s garage rock bands – he quotes Greg Shaw from the late 1970s referring to how it was used in the early '70s to designate the genre: "Punk rock in those days was a quaint fanzine term for a transient form of mid-'1960s music ..."
  559. Shapiro (2006), p. 492. Note that Taylor (2003) misidentifies the year of publication as 1970 (p. 16).
  560. Gendron, Bernard (2002). Between Montmartre and the Mudd Club: Popular Music and the Avant-Garde (1st ed.). Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. p. 348. ISBN 0-226-28735-1. p. 348 n. 13
  561. Christgau, Robert (October 14, 1971). "Consumer Guide (20)". Village Voice. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  562. Bangs, Lester. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung. Anchor Books, a division of Random House, 2003, p. 8. Taken from the article, '"Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung", which appeared in the June 1971 edition of Creem.
  563. Hicks 2000, pp. 106-107.
  564. L. Kaye, "Headed, Decked, and Stroked ..." Original liner notes for Nuggets (Elektra, 1972).
  565. Kaye, Lenny. Original liner notes for Nuggets LP. (Elektra, 1972): first he uses the term "punk rock" to describe genre of 1960s garage bands: "The name that has been unofficially coined for them—"punk rock"—seems particularly fitting in this case..." then later, in the track-by-track notes, he uses the term, "garage punk" to describe a song by the Shadows of Knight as "classic garage punk"
  566. Houghton, Mick, "White Punks on Coke," Let It Rock. December 1975.
  567. Shaw, Greg (January 4, 1973). "Review of Nuggets". Rolling Stone.
  568. Laing, Dave (2015). One Chord Wonders: Power and Meaning in Punk Rock (Second ed.). Oakland, CA: PM Press. p. 23. - Laing mentions original "punk" magazine. He indiactes that much "punk" fanfare in early 70s was in relation to mid-1960s garage rock and artists perceived as following in that tradition. The first issue of punk magazine (1973) had a picture of a 1960s garage rock band (which appears to be the Seeds) on the front cover ().
  569. Sauders, "Metal" Mike. "Blue Cheer More Pumice than Lava." punk magazine. Fall 1973. In this punk magazine article Saunders discusses Randy Holden, former member of garage rock acts the Other Half and the Sons of Adam, then later protopunk/heavy rock band, Blue Cheer. He refers to an album by the Other Half as "acid punk."
  570. G. Thompson, American Culture in the 1980s (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-7486-1910-0, p. 134.
  571. L. Kaye. Original liner notes for the Nuggets compilation (Electra, 1972). Kaye used the term "garage punk" to describe a song by the Shadows of Knight.
  572. Davidson, Eric (May 1, 2010). "10". We Never Learn: The Gunk Punk Undergut, 1988–2001. Backbeat Books (Hal Leonard Performing Arts Publishing). p. 211. ISBN 978-0-87930-972-5.
  573. 1 2 3 M. Gray, The Clash: Return of the Last Gang in Town, Hal Leonard, 2004, Ch. 1, pp. 26–29. Gray discusses influence of garage rock and Nuggets compilation on Mick Jones; he mentions on page 27 that his mother, who was living overseas (in Detroit) in the early 1970s, sent him copies of Creem magazine – he read articles by Lester Bangs using word "punk rock". Gray discusses how the perception of punk shifted away from its previous 60s and early 70s connotations following the rise of the Sex Pistols and the whole "year zero" outlook.
  574. 1 2 Robb, John. Punk Rock: An Oral Biography. PM Press. Oakland, California. 2012, pp. 34, 66, 76, 106, 132, 133, 187, 215. Oral accounts by Mick Jones, Charlie Harper, Poly Styrene, Vic Godard, Bryan James, and Captain Sensible that discuss the influence of garage rock (American bands such as the Seeds and the Shadows of Knight, as well as British bands such as the Troggs, and the Nuggets compilation) on musicians in the early London punk scene; Page 76: Mick Jones refers to bands on Nuggets as "early punk".
  575. Laing, Dave. One Chord Wonders: Power and Meaning in Punk Rock. PM Press, Oakland, California, 2015, pp. 22–23: Laing discusses the beginning of the punk aesthetic in the early 1970s, which he describes on page 22 as at first strictly musical, not cultural. On page 23, after providing quotes from Greg Shaw and Billy Altman, he discusses the genesis of the punk aesthetic: "The construction of punk as a musical type and ideal, then took place in America in the early '70s as part of the reaction against the centrality of progressive rock in its various forms".
  576. M. Blake (ed.). Punk: The Whole Story (Mojo Magazine). Dorling Kindersley Limited. 2006. Nick Kent (journalist and very early member of the Sex Pistols), in his piece, "Punk Rock Year Zero" describes the origin of the punk aesthetic: "For me, punk didn't start in 1976: it started in 1971 when I first read US rock magazine Creem. The writer Dave Marsh claims he coined the phrase 'punk rock' in a review he wrote for the magazine late '71 of a gig by ? & the Mysterians. But it was fellow Creem scribe Lester Bangs who really took the term and created a whole aesthetic for it. For Bangs and his disciples, punk rock began in 1963 when Seattle quartet the Kingsmen hit Number 1 stateside with the deliciously moronic Louie, Louie, grew with the influx of one hit wonders from the US mid-'60s that Creem correspondent, Lenny Kaye paid fulsome tribute to with his influential 1972 album Nuggets ..."
  577. 1 2 Christgau, Robert, "Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral History of Punk, by Legs McNeil and Gillian McCain" (review), New York Times Book Review, 1996. Retrieved January 17, 2007.
  578. 1 2 Rodel (2004), p. 237; Bennett (2001), pp. 49–50
  579. Aaron 2013, p. 53 - Book mentions that three of the original members of the Ramones had been in 1960s garage bands: Johnny and Tommy had been members of the Tangerine Puppets and Joey had been in the Intruders..
  580. Laitio-Ramone, Jari-Pekka (1997). "Tangerine Puppets (Interview with Richard Adler)". Retrieved November 5, 2009.
  581. 1 2 "Ramones Biography | The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum". Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  582. 1 2 Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Sex Pistols | Biography". Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  583. Aaron 2013, p. 53.
  584. Shaw, Greg (September 15, 1998). "Sic Transit Gloria: The Story of Punk Rock in the '60s". Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set): 21. UPC 081227546625. – Greg Shaw describes how, after the rise of the Sex Pistols, critics moved away from using the term "punk rock" for 60s garage bands and began to speak of the 60s bands as "garage rock". This tendency clearly reflected the larger public perception—these critics did not want to detract from what was perceived as an exciting new movement (i.e. 1975–1978) or confuse readers who generally understood punk in terms of current trends.
  585. J. DeRogatis, Staring at Sound: The True Story of Oklahoma's Fabulous Flaming Lips (Robson, 2006), p. 35.
  586. Szatmary 2002, p. 134.
  587. Blecha (Sonic Boom) 2009, pp. 184-196.
  588. Mazzarone, Mike (February 14, 2013). "Mudhoney's Mark Arm on Being Influenced by the Sonics & the Wailers". Alternative Nation. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
  589. Thee Mighty Caesars – biography. AllMusic. Retrieved February 1, 2014
  590. P. Blecha, Music in Washington: Seattle and Beyond (Arcadia, 2007), p. 121.
  591. D. R. Adams, Rock 'n' Roll and the Cleveland Connection: Music of the Great Lakes, (Kent State University Press, 2002), p. 469.
  592. S. Frith, ed., Popular Music: Music and Identity (Routledge, 2004), p. 98.
  593. E. True, The White Stripes and the Sound of Mutant Blues (Omnibus Press, 2004), p.73.
  594. J. Stuessy and S. D. Lipscomb, Rock and Roll: Its History and Stylistic Development (Pearson Prentice Hall, 5th edn., 2006), ISBN 0-13-193098-2, p. 451.
  595. C. Smith, 101 Albums That Changed Popular Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 240.
  596. Buckley 2003, pp. 1144
  597. Buckley 2003, pp. 189–90
  598. "Review: The (International) Noise Conspiracy, A New Morning; Changing Weather", New Music Monthly Nov–Dec 2001, p. 69.
  599. C. Rowthorn, Japan (Lonely Planet, 8th edn., 2003), p. 37.
  600. E. True, The White Stripes and the Sound of Mutant Blues (Omnibus Press, 2004), p. 59.
  601. "The Black Keys: El Camino | Album Reviews | Pitchfork", Pitchfork Media, December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  602. S. J. Blackman, Chilling out: the cultural politics of substance consumption, youth and drug policy (McGraw-Hill International, 2004), p. 90.
  603. D. Else, Great Britain (London: Lonely Planet, 2007), ISBN 1-74104-565-7, p. 75.
  604. P. Smitz, C. Bain, S. Bao, S. Farfor, Australia (Footscray Victoria: Lonely Planet, 14th edn., 2005), ISBN 1-74059-740-0, p. 58.
  605. C. Rawlings-Way, Lonely Planet New Zealand (Footscray Victoria: Lonely Planet, 14th edn., 2008), ISBN 1-74104-816-8, p. 52.
  606. "Signed: Black Lips Sign To Vice Records" Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  607. "Red rag: Jay Reatard signs with Matador", Drowned in Sound. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  608. Steve Rose, In the Red Records' Larry Hardy – Interview – January 2010, Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  609. Justin Jacobs, "The Strange Boys Sign to Rough Trade, Tour With Julian Casablancas, Prep New Album for 2010", Paste, November 11, 2009. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  610. "Ty Segall Signs to Drag City for New Studio Album", Exclaim!, March 2, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2011.


Suggested reading

External links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/4/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.