A cardinal's hat worn by St Jerome as depicted circa 1625 by Rubens
Archbishop Giovanni Colombo wearing a galero with ten green tassels on each side.

A galero (pl. galeri; L. galerum, pl. galera) in the Catholic Church is a broad-brimmed hat with tasselated strings worn by clergy. Over the centuries the red galero was restricted to use by individual cardinals while such other colors as green and violet were reserved to clergy of other ranks and styles.


The privilege of wearing the red galero was first granted to cardinals by Pope Innocent IV in 1245 at the First Council of Lyon.[1] Tradition in the Archdiocese of Lyon is that the red color was inspired by the red hats of the canons of Lyon.[2] Pope Innocent wanted his favorites to be distinct and recognizable in the lengthy processions at the council.[3]

Saint Jerome in the Wilderness by the 15th century artist Pinturicchio shows the galero, as do many portraits of Jerome

Anachronistically, some early Church Fathers are shown wearing a galero, notably Jerome frequently is pictured in art either wearing a galero, or with one close by. Even though the office of cardinal did not exist in Jerome's day, he had been secretary to Pope Damasus I, which in later days would have made him a cardinal ex officio.

Cardinal Jean Cholet used his galero to crown Charles of Valois in 1285 at Girona during the Aragonese Crusade, pronouncing him King of Aragon. As a result, roi du chapeau ("king of the hat") became Charles's nickname.

Coat of Arms of Cardinal Lorenzo Antonetti, with galero

When creating a cardinal, the pope used to place a scarlet galero on the new cardinal's head in consistory, the practice giving rise to the phrase "receiving the red hat." In 1965, a papal decree during the Second Vatican Council ended the use of the galero.[4] Since that time, only the scarlet zucchetto and biretta are placed over the heads of cardinals during the consistory. Some cardinals continue to obtain a galero privately so that the custom of suspending it over their tombs may be observed. Traditionally, the galero remains over the tomb until it is reduced to dust, symbolizing how all earthly glory is passing. In a cathedral that has no crypt, the galeri are suspended from the ceiling. For example, following the death of Cardinal Basil Hume, Archbishop of Westminster (UK), in 1999, his relatives had a galero installed above his tomb in Westminster Cathedral, alongside those of his predecessors. Cardinal Raymond Burke has been known to wear the galero on occasion in the 21st century.[5]

A few cardinals from eastern rites wear distinctive oriental headgear. Other ecclesiastical hats are used by ministers of other Christian communities. Alongside Catholic clergy, the Scots Public Register records its use by Episcopalian and Presbyterian ministers. The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland uses a black hat, with blue cords and ten tassels.

Philippines has produced eight cardinals but only one of them was crowned with a galero, Cardinal Rufino Santos, Archbishop of Manila was made a cardinal in a consistory on March 30, 1960 organized by Pope John XXIII

Ecclesiastical heraldry

Chinese bishops occasionally avoid having a green galero in their arms, as wearing a green hat is the Chinese idiom for a cuckold; for some years as an auxiliary bishop of Hong Kong, Bishop John Tong Hon used a violet galero with violet tassels (which is actually the galero proper to an Honorary Prelate of His Holiness). However, he resumed the use of the green galero on his coat of arms when he became the bishop of Hong Kong until he was created cardinal in 2012.

The galero continues to appear today in ecclesiastical heraldry as part of the achievement of the coat of arms of an armigerous Catholic cleric. The ecclesiastical hat replaces the helmet and crest, because those were considered too belligerent for men in the clerical state. The color of the hat and number of tassels indicate the cleric's place in the hierarchy. Generally, priests and ministers have a black hat with cords and tassels, the number depending upon their rank. Bishops generally use a green hat with green cords and six green tassels on each side, archbishops have likewise a green hat with green cords and ten green tassels on each side, and cardinals have a red hat with red cords and fifteen red tassels on each side. Depiction in arms can vary greatly depending on the artist's style.[6]


  1.  Goyau, Georges (1913). "First Council of Lyons (1245)". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2.  Goyau, Georges (1913). "Lyons". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. Noonan, Jr., James-Charles (1996). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church. Viking. p. 191. ISBN 0-670-86745-4.
  4. "Instruction on the dress, titles and coat-of-arms of cardinals, bishops and lesser prelates", L'Osservatore Romano, English ed. 17 Apr 1969: 4. ISSN 0391-688X.
  5. Fox, Thomas C. (9 April 2011). "Is this prelate disobeying a pope?". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  6.  Fox-Davies, A.C. (1913). "Ecclesiastical Heraldry". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

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