Fuyu Kyrgyz language

Fuyu Kyrgyz
Fuyü Gïrgïs
Pronunciation [qərʁəs]
Native to China
Region Heilongjiang
Ethnicity 875 (no date)[1]
Native speakers
(10 cited 1982 census)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 None (mis)
Linguist list
Glottolog None

Fuyu Kyrgyz (Fuyü Gïrgïs, Fu-Yu Kirgiz), also known as Manchurian Kirghiz, is the easternmost Turkic language. Despite its name, it is not a variety of Kyrgyz but is closer to Khakas. The people originated in the Yenisei region of Siberia but were relocated into the Dzungaria by the Dzungars.[4][5][6] In 1761, after the Dzungars were defeated by the Qing, some Öelet, a tribe of Oirat-speaking Dzungars, were deported to Nonni basin in Northeastern China (Manchuria), and a group of Yenisei Kirghiz were also deported along with the Öelet.[7][8] The Kyrgyz in Manchuria became known as the Fuyu Kyrgyz, but many have become merged into the Mongol and Chinese population. Chinese and Oirat replaced Oirat and Kirghiz during Manchukuo as the dual languages of the Nonni-based Kyrgyz.[9] It is now spoken in northeastern China's Heilongjiang province, in and around Fuyu County, Qiqihar (300 km northwest of Harbin) by a small number of passive speakers who are classified as Kyrgyz nationality.[10]


Although a complete phonemic analysis of Girgis has not been done,[11] Hu and Imart have made numerous observations about the sound system in their tentative description of the language. They describe Girgis as having the short vowels noted as "a, ï, i, o, ö, u, ü" which correspond roughly to IPA [a, ə, ɪ, ɔ, œ, ʊ, ʉ], with minimal rounding and tendency towards centralization.[12] Vowel length is phonemic and occurs as a result of consonant-deletion (Girgis /pʉːn/ vs. Kyrgyz /bygyn/). Each short vowel has an equivalent long vowel, with the addition of /e /. Girgis displays vowel harmony as well as consonant harmony.[13] The consonant sounds in Girgis, including allophone variants, are [p, b, ɸ, β, t, d, ð, k, q, ɡ, h, ʁ, ɣ, s, ʃ, z, ʒ, dʒ, tʃ, m, n, ŋ, l, r, j]. Girgis does not display a phonemic difference between the stop set /p, t, k/ and /b, d, g/; these stops can also be aspirated to [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] in Chinese loanwords.[14]


In 1980, Fuyu Girgis was spoken by a majority of adults in a community of around a hundred homes. However, many adults in the area have switched to speaking a local variety of Mongolian, and children have switched to Chinese as taught in the education system.[15]

See also


  1. 1 2 Khakas at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  2. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, eds. (2010). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World (revised ed.). Elsevier. p. 1109. ISBN 0080877753. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  3. Johanson 1998, p. 83.
  4. Tchoroev (Chorotegin) 2003, p. 110.
  5. Pozzi & Janhunen & Weiers 2006, p. 113.
  6. Giovanni Stary; Alessandra Pozzi; Juha Antero Janhunen; Michael Weiers (2006). Tumen Jalafun Jecen Aku: Manchu Studies in Honour of Giovanni Stary. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 112–. ISBN 978-3-447-05378-5.
  7. Juha Janhunen (1996). Manchuria: An Ethnic History. Finno-Ugrian Society. pp. 111–112. ISBN 978-951-9403-84-7.
  8. Stephen A. Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler, Darrell T. Tryon (eds.). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas. de Gruyter. p. 831. ISBN 9783110819724.
  9. Juha Janhunen (1996). Manchuria: An Ethnic History. Finno-Ugrian Society. p. 59. ISBN 978-951-9403-84-7.
  10. Hu & Imart 1987, p. 1
  11. Hu & Imart 1987, p. 11
  12. Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 8–9
  13. Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 24–25
  14. Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 11–13
  15. Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 2–3


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