Fuad I of Egypt

Fuad I
King of Egypt and Sovereign of Nubia, the Sudan, Kurdufan and Darfur[1]
Reign 15 March 1922 – 28 April 1936
Predecessor Himself as Sultan of Egypt
Successor Farouk
Prime Ministers
Sultan of Egypt
Reign 9 October 1917 – 15 March 1922
Predecessor Hussein Kamel
Successor Himself as King of Egypt
Prime Ministers
Born (1868-03-26)26 March 1868
Giza Palace, Cairo, Khedivate of Egypt
Died 28 April 1936(1936-04-28) (aged 68)
Koubbeh Palace, Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt
Burial Al-Rifa'i Mosque, Cairo, Egypt
Wives Shivakiar Khanum Effendi
(m. 1895; div. 1898)
Nazli Sabri
(m. 1919; wid. 1936)
Issue Prince Isma'il
Princess Fawkia
Farouk I
Princess Fawzia
Princess Faiza
Princess Faika
Princess Fathia
Full name
Ahmad Fuad
Arabic: أحمد فؤاد
House House of Muhammad Ali or Kavalali
(by birth)
Father Isma'il Pasha
Mother Feriyal Kadinefendi
Religion Sunni Islam

Fuad I (Arabic: فؤاد الأول Fu’ād al-Awwal, Turkish: I. Fuad or Ahmed Fuad Paşa; 26 March 1868 – 28 April 1936) was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917, succeeding his elder brother Sultan Hussein Kamel. He substituted the title of King for Sultan when the United Kingdom recognised Egyptian independence in 1922. His name is sometimes spelled Fouad.

Early life

Fuad was born in Giza Palace in Cairo, the seventh son of Isma'il the Magnificent.[2] He spent his childhood in with his exiled father in Naples. He got his education from the military academy in Turin, Italy. His mother was Farial Kadin.[3]

Prior to becoming sultan, Fuad had played a major role in the establishment of Cairo University. He became the university's first rector in 1908, and remained in the post until his resignation in 1913. He was succeeded as rector by then-minister of Justice Hussein Rushdi Pasha. In 1913, Fuad made unsuccessful attempts to secure for himself the throne of Albania, which had obtained its independence from the Ottoman Empire a year earlier. At the time, Egypt and Sudan was ruled by his nephew, Abbas II, and the likelihood of Fuad becoming the monarch in his own country seemed remote. This, and the fact that the Muhammad Ali dynasty was of Albanian descent, encouraged Fuad to seek the Albanian throne.[4] Fuad also served as President of the Egyptian Geographic Society from 1915 until 1918.[5]


Fuad came under consideration as a candidate for the Albanian throne, but he was ultimately bypassed in favour of a Christian ruler. He ascended the throne of the Sultanate of Egypt upon the death of his brother Hussein Kamel in 1917. In the aftermath of the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, the United Kingdom ended its protectorate over Egypt, and recognised it as a sovereign state on 28 February 1922. On 15 March 1922, Fuad issued a decree changing his title from Sultan of Egypt to King of Egypt. In 1930, he attempted to strengthen the power of the Crown by abrogating the 1923 Constitution and replacing it with a new constitution that limited the role of parliament to advisory status only. Large scale public dissatisfaction compelled him to restore the earlier constitution in 1935.

The 1923 Constitution granted Fuad vast powers. He made frequent use of his right to dissolve Parliament. During his reign, cabinets were dismissed at royal will, and parliaments never lasted for their full four-year term but were dissolved by decree.[6]

Creation of the Royal Archives

Fuad was an instrumental force in modern Egyptian historiography. He employed numerous archivists to copy, translate, and arrange eighty-seven volumes of correspondence related to his paternal ancestors from European archives, and later to collect old documents from Egyptian archives into a what became the Royal Archives in the 1930s. Fuad's efforts to portray of his ancestors — especially his great-grandfather Muhammad Ali, his grandfather Ibrahim, and his father — as nationalists and benevolent monarchs would prove to be an enduring influence on Egyptian history.[7]

Personal life

Fuad married his first wife in Cairo, 30 May 1895 at the Abbasiya Palace in Cairo, 14 February 1896, Princess Shivakiar Khanum Effendi (1876–1947). She was his cousin and the only daughter of Field Marshal Prince Ibrahim Fahmi Ahmad Pasha. They had two children, a son, Ismail Fuad, who died in infancy, and a daughter, Fawkia. Unhappily married, the couple divorced in 1898. During a dispute with the brother of his first wife, Fuad was shot in the throat. He survived, but carried that scar the rest of his life.

Fuad married his second wife at the Bustan Palace in Cairo on 24 May 1919. She was Nazli Sabri (1894–1978), daughter of Abdu'r-Rahim Pasha Sabri, sometime Minister of Agriculture and Governor of Cairo, by his wife, Tawfika Khanum Sharif. Queen Nazli also was a maternal granddaughter of Major-General Muhammad Sharif Pasha, sometime Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, and a great-granddaughter of Suleiman Pasha, a French officer in Napoleon's army who converted to Islam and reorganized the Egyptian army. The couple had five children, the future King Farouk, and four daughters, the Princesses Fawzia (who became Queen Consort of Iran), Faiza, Faika, and Fathiya.

As with his first wife, Fuad's relation with his second wife was also stormy. The couple continually fought, Fuad even forbidding Nazli from leaving the palace. When Fuad died, it was said that the triumphant Nazli sold all of his clothes to a local used-clothes market in revenge. Fuad died at the Qubba Palace in Cairo and was buried at the Khedival Mausoleum in the ar-Rifai Mosque in Cairo.

Nazli Sabri

King Fuad’s wife lived as a widow after his death. She did not have good relations with her son. After Fuad’s death, she left Egypt and went to the United States. She converted to Catholicism in 1950 and changed her name to Mary Elizabeth. She got deprived of her rights and titles in Egypt. Once named the world’s richest and most elegant woman, she possessed one of the largest jewellery collections in the world.


The Fuad (Fū’ād) (فؤاد الأول) Muslim Library in China was named after him by the Chinese Muslim Ma Songting.[8]Muḥammad 'Ibrāhīm Fulayfil (محمد إبراهيم فليفل) and Muḥammad ad-Dālī (محمد الدالي) were ordered to Beijing by the King.[9]


  1. Shivakiar Khanum Effendi (1876–1947)
    • Ismail Fuad (1896–1896)
    • Fawkia (1897–1974), who became the mother-in-law of Gloria Guinness
  2. Nazli Sabri (1894–1978)



King Fuad I in Belgium

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fuad I of Egypt.


  1. Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1980). "The Royal House of Egypt". Burke's Royal Families of the World. Volume II: Africa & the Middle East. London: Burke's Peerage. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-85011-029-6. OCLC 18496936. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  2. Royal Ark
  3. Hassan Hassan (2000). In the House of Muhammad Ali: A Family Album, 1805-1952. American Univ in Cairo Press. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-977-424-554-1. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  4. Reid, Donald Malcolm (2002). Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt. Volume 23 of Cambridge Middle East Library. Cambridge University Press. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-0-521-89433-3. OCLC 49549849. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  5. "The Presidents of the Society". Egyptian Geographic Society. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  6. Abdalla, Ahmed (2008). The Student Movement and National Politics in Egypt, 1923–1973. American University in Cairo Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-977-416-199-5. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  7. Khaled Fahmy, Mehmed Ali: From Ottoman Governor to Ruler of Egypt (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2009)
  8. Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi (2006). Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi, eds. Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation, Communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-415-36835-3. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  9. Kees Versteegh; Mushira Eid (2005). Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: A-Ed. Brill. pp. 382–. ISBN 978-90-04-14473-6.
Fuad I of Egypt
Born: 26 March 1868 Died: 28 April 1936
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hussein Kamel
Sultan of Egypt
Sultanate becomes
independent kingdom
New title
Kingdom of Egypt established
King of Egypt
Succeeded by
Farouk I
Academic offices
New institution Rector of Cairo University
Succeeded by
Hussein Rushdi Pasha
Professional and academic associations
Preceded by
Onofrio Abbate Pasha
President of the Egyptian Geographic Society
Succeeded by
Isma'il Sidqi Pasha
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