Frozen (2013 film)
Theatrical release poster
|Produced by||Peter Del Vecho|
|Screenplay by||Jennifer Lee|
|Edited by||Jeff Draheim|
Walt Disney Studios|
|Box office||$1.276 billion|
Frozen is a 2013 American 3D computer-animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It is the 53rd Disney animated feature film. Inspired by Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale The Snow Queen, the film tells the story of a fearless princess who sets off on an epic journey alongside a rugged iceman, his loyal pet reindeer, and a naïve snowman to find her estranged sister, whose icy powers have inadvertently trapped the kingdom in eternal winter.
Frozen underwent several story treatments for years before being commissioned in 2011, with a screenplay written by Jennifer Lee, and both Chris Buck and Lee serving as directors. It features the voices of Kristen Bell, Idina Menzel, Jonathan Groff, Josh Gad and Santino Fontana. Christophe Beck, who had worked on Disney's award-winning short Paperman (2012), was hired to compose the film's orchestral score, while husband-and-wife songwriting team Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson-Lopez wrote the songs.
Frozen premiered at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California, on November 19, 2013, and went into general theatrical release on November 27. It was met with strongly positive reviews from critics and audiences, with some film critics considering Frozen to be the best Disney animated feature film since the studio's renaissance era. The film was also a massive commercial success; it accumulated nearly $1.3 billion in worldwide box office revenue, $400 million of which was earned in the United States and Canada and $247 million of which was earned in Japan. It ranks as the highest-grossing animated film of all time, the third-highest-grossing original film of all time, the ninth-highest-grossing film of all time, the highest-grossing film of 2013, and the third-highest-grossing film in Japan. With over 18 million home media sales in 2014, it became the best-selling film of the year in the United States. By January 2015, Frozen had become the all-time best-selling Blu-ray Disc in the United States.
Frozen won two Academy Awards for Best Animated Feature and Best Original Song ("Let It Go"), the Golden Globe Award for Best Animated Feature Film, the BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film, five Annie Awards (including Best Animated Feature), two Grammy Awards for Best Compilation Soundtrack for Visual Media and Best Song Written for Visual Media ("Let It Go"), and two Critics' Choice Movie Awards for Best Animated Feature and Best Original Song ("Let It Go").
An animated short sequel, Frozen Fever, premiered on March 13, 2015, with Disney's Cinderella. On March 12, 2015, a feature-length sequel was announced, with Buck and Lee returning as directors and Peter Del Vecho returning as producer. A release date has not been disclosed.
The film opens with icemen from the kingdom of Arendelle harvesting ice, among them a young boy named Kristoff and his pet reindeer, Sven ("Frozen Heart"). Elsa, Princess of Arendelle, possesses cryokinetic powers, with which she is able to produce or manipulate ice, frost and snow at will. One night while playing, she accidentally injures her younger sister, Anna. Their shocked parents, the king and queen, seek help from the troll king, who heals Anna and removes her memories of Elsa's magic. The royal couple isolate the sisters in the castle until Elsa learns to control her magical powers. Afraid of hurting Anna again, and with her ability to control her powers deteriorating, Elsa spends most of her time alone in her room, refusing even to speak to Anna and a rift develops between the sisters as they grow up; when the girls are teenagers, their parents die at sea during a storm ("Do You Want to Build a Snowman?").
When Elsa comes of age, the kingdom prepares for her coronation ("For the First Time in Forever"). Among the guests is the Duke of Weselton, who seeks to exploit Arendelle for profit. Excited to be allowed out of the castle again, Princess Anna explores the town and meets Prince Hans of the Southern Isles; the two quickly develop a mutual attraction. Despite Elsa's fears, her coronation takes place without incident. During the reception, Hans proposes to Anna, who hastily accepts ("Love Is An Open Door"). However, Elsa refuses to grant her blessing and forbids their sudden marriage. The sisters argue, culminating in the exposure of Elsa's abilities in an emotional outburst.
Declared a monster by the Duke, a panicking Elsa flees the castle, while inadvertently unleashing an eternal winter on the kingdom. High in the nearby mountains, she abandons her restraint, vowing to never return and building herself a solitary ice palace ("Let It Go"). Meanwhile, Anna leaves Hans in charge of Arendelle and sets out in search of her sister, determined to return her to Arendelle, end the winter and mend their relationship. While obtaining supplies from 'Wandering Oaken's Trading Post and Sauna', Anna meets Kristoff and Sven ("Reindeers Are Better Than People") and convinces Kristoff to guide her up the North Mountain. On their journey, the group encounters Olaf, Anna and Elsa's childhood snowman whom the latter recreated and unknowingly brought to life. Olaf dreams of seeing and experiencing summer for the first time ("In Summer"). He then leads them to Elsa's hideaway.
Anna and Elsa reunite, but Elsa still fears hurting her sister. When Anna insists that Elsa return, she becomes agitated and her powers lash out, accidentally striking Anna in the heart ("For the First Time In Forever (Reprise)"). Horrified, Elsa forces Anna, Kristoff and Olaf to leave by creating a giant snow creature named Marshmallow that chases them away from her palace. As they flee, Kristoff becomes concerned when he sees Anna's hair turning white. He seeks help from the trolls, his adoptive family, who explain that Anna's heart has been frozen by Elsa ("Fixer Upper"), and that unless it can be thawed by an "act of true love", she will become frozen solid forever. Believing that only Hans can save her with a true love's kiss, Kristoff races back with her to Arendelle.
Hans, who is himself leading a search for Anna, reaches Elsa's palace. In the ensuing battle against the duke's men, Elsa is knocked unconscious by a falling chandelier and imprisoned in Arendelle. There, Hans pleads with her to undo the winter, but Elsa confesses that she has no idea how. When Anna reunites with Hans and begs him to kiss her to break the curse, Hans refuses and reveals that his true intention in marrying her is to seize control of Arendelle's throne. Leaving Anna to die, he charges Elsa with treason for her younger sister's apparent death.
Elsa escapes and heads out into the blizzard on the fjord. Olaf comes across Anna and reveals Kristoff is in love with her; they then escape onto the fjord to find him. Hans confronts Elsa, telling her Anna is dead because of her. In Elsa's despair, the storm suddenly ceases, giving Kristoff and Anna the chance to locate each other. Nevertheless, Anna, seeing that Hans is about to kill Elsa, throws herself between the two just as she freezes solid, blocking Hans' attack.
As Elsa grieves for her sister, Anna begins to thaw, since her decision to sacrifice herself to save her sister constitutes an "act of true love". Realizing love is the key to controlling her powers, Elsa thaws the kingdom and gives Olaf his own personal flurry so he can survive in summer. Hans is deported to the Southern Isles to face punishment for his actions against the royal family of Arendelle, while Elsa cuts off trade with Weselton. The two sisters reconcile and Elsa promises never to shut the castle gates again.
- Kristen Bell as Anna, the 18-year-old:13 Princess of Arendelle and Elsa's younger sister
- Idina Menzel as Elsa, the 21-year-old:16 Snow Queen of Arendelle and Anna's elder sister
- Eva Bella as 8-year-old:2 Elsa
- Spencer Lacey Ganus as 12-year-old:10 Elsa
- Jonathan Groff as Kristoff, an iceman who is accompanied by a reindeer named Sven
- Josh Gad as Olaf, a comic-relief snowman that Elsa and Anna created as children, who dreams of experiencing summer
- Santino Fontana as Hans, a prince from the Southern Isles
- Alan Tudyk as the Duke of Weselton
- Ciarán Hinds as Grand Pabbie, the Troll King
- Chris Williams as Oaken, the owner of Wandering Oaken's Trading Post and Sauna
- Maia Wilson as Bulda, a troll and Kristoff's adoptive mother
- Paul Briggs as Marshmallow, a giant snow monster who guards Elsa's palace
- Maurice LaMarche as the King of Arendelle, Anna and Elsa's father
- Jennifer Lee as the Queen of Arendelle, Anna and Elsa's mother
Walt Disney Productions first began exploring a possible live action/animation biography film of author and poet Hans Christian Andersen sometime in late 1937 before the December premiere of its film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first feature-length hand-drawn animated film ever made.:10 In March 1940, Walt Disney suggested a co-production to film producer Samuel Goldwyn, where Goldwyn's studio would shoot the live-action sequences of Andersen's life and Disney's studio would animate Andersen's fairy tales.:10 The animated sequences would be based on some of Andersen's best known works, such as The Little Mermaid, The Little Match Girl, The Steadfast Tin Soldier, The Snow Queen, Thumbelina, The Ugly Duckling, The Red Shoes, and The Emperor's New Clothes. However, the studio encountered difficulty with The Snow Queen, as it could not find a way to adapt and relate the Snow Queen character to modern audiences. Even as far back as the 1930s and 1940s, it was clear that the source material contained great cinematic possibilities, but the Snow Queen character proved to be too problematic. After the United States entered World War II, the studio began to focus on making wartime propaganda, which caused development on the Disney–Goldwyn project to grind to a halt in 1942.:10 Goldwyn went on to produce his own live-action film version in 1952, entitled Hans Christian Andersen, with Danny Kaye as Andersen, Charles Vidor directing, Moss Hart writing, and Frank Loesser penning the songs. All of Andersen's fairy tales were, instead, told in song and ballet in live-action, like the rest of the film. It went on to receive six Academy Award nominations the following year. Back at Disney, The Snow Queen, along with other Andersen fairy tales (including The Little Mermaid), were shelved.
In the late 1990s, Walt Disney Feature Animation started developing a new adaptation of The Snow Queen after the tremendous success of their recent films during the Disney Renaissance era (1989 - 1999), but the project was scrapped completely in late 2002, when Glen Keane reportedly quit the project and went on to work on another project which became Tangled (2010). Even before then, Harvey Fierstein pitched his version of the story to Disney's executives, but was turned down. Paul and Gaëtan Brizzi, Dick Zondag and Dave Goetz reportedly all tried their hand at it, but failed. After a number of unsuccessful attempts from 2000 to 2002, Disney shelved the project again.:10–11 During one of those attempts, Michael Eisner, then-chairman and chief executive officer of The Walt Disney Company, offered his support to the project and suggested doing it with Oscar-winning director John Lasseter at Pixar Animation Studios after the then-expected renewal of Pixar's contract with Disney. But negotiations between Pixar and Disney collapsed in January 2004 and that contract was never renewed. Instead, Eisner's successor Bob Iger negotiated Disney's purchase of Pixar in January 2006 for $7.4 billion, and Lasseter was promoted to chief creative officer of both Pixar and Disney Animation.
The next attempt started in 2008, when Lasseter was able to convince Chris Buck (who co-directed the 1999 film Tarzan for the studio) to return to Walt Disney Feature Animation from Sony Pictures Animation (where he had recently co-directed the Oscar-nominated 2007 film Surf's Up); that September, Buck pitched several ideas to Lasseter, one of which was The Snow Queen.:6,11 Buck later revealed that his initial inspiration for The Snow Queen was not the Andersen fairy tale itself, but that he wanted "to do something different on the definition of true love." "Disney had already done the 'kissed by a prince' thing, so [I] thought it was time for something new," he recalled. It turned out Lasseter had been interested in The Snow Queen for a long time; back when Pixar was working with Disney on Toy Story in the 1990s, he saw and was "blown away" by some of the pre-production art from Disney's prior attempts.:6 Development began under the title Anna and the Snow Queen, which was planned to be traditionally animated. According to Josh Gad, he first became involved with the film at that early stage, when the plot was still relatively close to the original Andersen fairy tale and Megan Mullally was going to play Elsa. By early 2010, the project entered development hell once again, when the studio again failed to find a way to make the story and the Snow Queen character work.
On December 22, 2011, following the success of Tangled, Disney announced a new title for the film, Frozen, and a release date of November 27, 2013. A month later, it was confirmed that the film would be a computer-animated feature in stereoscopic 3D, instead of the originally intended hand-drawn animation. Anderson-Lopez and Lopez joined the project and started writing songs for Frozen in January 2012.:44:00 On March 5, 2012, it was announced that Buck would be directing, with Lasseter and Peter Del Vecho producing.
After Disney decided to advance The Snow Queen into development again, one of the main challenges Buck and Del Vecho faced was the character of the Snow Queen, who was then a villain in their drafts. The studio has a tradition of screening animated films in development every twelve weeks, then holding lengthy "notes sessions" in which its directors and screenwriters from different projects provide extensive "notes" on each other's work.
Buck and Del Vecho presented their storyboards to Lasseter, and the entire production team adjourned to a conference to hear his thoughts on the project. Art director Michael Giaimo later acknowledged Lasseter as the "game changer" of the film: "I remember John saying that the latest version of The Snow Queen story that Chris Buck and his team had come up with was fun, very light-hearted. But the characters didn't resonate. They aren't multi-faceted. Which is why John felt that audiences wouldn't really be able to connect with them."
The production team then addressed the film's problems, drafting several variations on The Snow Queen story until the characters and story felt relevant. At that stage, the first major breakthrough was the decision to rewrite the film's protagonist, Anna (who was based on the Gerda character from The Snow Queen), as the younger sibling of Elsa, thereby effectively establishing a family dynamic between the characters. This was unusual in that relationships between sisters are rarely used as a major plot element in American animated films, with the notable exception of Disney's Lilo & Stitch (2002).:13 To fully explore the unique dynamics of such relationships, Disney Animation convened a "Sister Summit," at which women from all over the studio who grew up with sisters were asked to discuss their relationships with their sisters.:14
In March 2012, Jennifer Lee, one of the screenwriters of Wreck-It Ralph, was brought in as the film's screenwriter by Del Vecho. Lee later explained that as Wreck-It Ralph was wrapping up, she was giving notes on other projects, and "we kind of really connected with what we were thinking."
According to Lee, several core concepts were already in place from Buck and Del Vecho's early work, such as the film's "frozen heart" hook: "That was a concept and the phrase ... an act of true love will thaw a frozen heart." They already knew the ending involved true love in the sense of the emotional bond between siblings, not romance, in that "Anna was going to save Elsa. We didn’t know how or why." Lee said Edwin Catmull, president of Disney Animation, told her early on about the film's ending: "First and foremost, no matter what you have to do to the story, do it. But you have to earn that ending. If you do[,] it will be great. If you don't, it will suck."
Before Lee was brought on board, another screenwriter had made a first pass at a script, and Anderson-Lopez and Lopez tried to write songs for that script but none worked and all were cut.:9:07 Then "the whole script imploded," which gave the songwriters the opportunity "to put a lot of [their] DNA" into the new script that Lee was writing.:30:32 The production team "essentially started over and ... had 17 months," which resulted in a very "intense schedule" and implied "a lot of choices had to be made fast."
The earlier versions differed sharply from the final version. In the original script the songwriters first saw, Elsa was evil from the start; she kidnapped Anna from her own wedding to intentionally freeze her heart, then later descended upon the town with an army of snowmen with the objective of recapturing Anna to freeze her heart properly.:8:42 By the time Lee came in, the first act included Elsa deliberately striking Anna in the heart with her freezing powers; then "the whole second act was about Anna trying to get to Hans and to kiss him and then Elsa trying to stop her." Buck revealed that the original plot attempted to make Anna sympathetic by focusing on her frustration as being perceived as the "spare" in relation to the "heir," Elsa. The original plot also had different pacing, in that it was "much more of an action adventure" than a musical or a comedy.
One major breakthrough was the composition of the song "Let It Go" by songwriters Lopez and Anderson-Lopez, which forced the production team to reconceptualize and rewrite Elsa as a far more complex, vulnerable, and sympathetic character. In The Daily Telegraph's words, instead of the villain envisioned by the producers, the songwriters saw Elsa as "a scared girl struggling to control and come to terms with her gift." Lee recalled: "Bobby and Kristen said they were walking in Prospect Park and they just started talking about what would it feel like [to be Elsa]. Forget villain. Just what it would feel like. And this concept of letting out who she is[,] that she's kept to herself for so long[,] and she's alone and free, but then the sadness of the fact [sic] that the last moment is she's alone. It’s not a perfect thing, but it's powerful." Del Vecho explained that "Let It Go" changed Elsa into a person "ruled by fear and Anna was ruled by her own love of other people and her own drive," which in turn caused Lee to "rewrite the first act and then that rippled through the entire movie. So that was when we really found the movie and who these characters were."
Another major breakthrough was developing the plot twist that Prince Hans would be revealed as the film's true villain only near the end. Hans was not even in the earliest drafts, then at first was not a villain, and after becoming one, was revealed to be evil much earlier in the plot. Del Vecho said, "We realized [what] was most important [was] if we were going to make the ending so surprising[,] you had to believe at one point that Hans was the answer ... [when] he's not the answer, it's Kristoff ... [I]f you can get the audience to leap ahead and think they have figured it out[,] you can surprise them by turning it the other way." Lee acknowledged that Hans was written as "sociopathic" and "twisted" throughout the final version. For example, Hans mirrors the behavior of the other characters: "He mirrors [Anna] and he's goofy with her ... [T]he Duke [of Weselton] is a jerk, so he's a jerk back. And with Elsa he's a hero." It was difficult to lay the foundation for Anna's belated turn to Kristoff without also making Hans' betrayal of Anna too predictable, in that the audience had to "feel ... her feeling something but not quite understanding it ... Because the minute it is [understood,] it deflated." At one point, Anna openly flirted with Kristoff upon first meeting him, but that was changed after Walt Disney Studios chairman Alan Horn pointed out that it would confuse and annoy viewers since Anna was already engaged to Hans.
Lee had to work through the issue of how to write Anna's personality, in that some of her colleagues felt Anna should be more dysfunctional and co-dependent, like Vanellope von Schweetz in Wreck-It Ralph. Lee disagreed with that position, but it took her almost a year to figure out how to convincingly articulate "this is what Anna's journey is. No more than that. No less than that." In the end, Lee successfully argued Anna's journey should be presented as a simple coming-of-age story, "where she goes from having a naive view of life and love – because she's lonely – to the most sophisticated and mature view of love, where she's capable of the ultimate love, which is sacrifice." Lee also had to let go of some ideas that she liked, such as a scene portraying Anna and Elsa's relationship as teenagers, which did not work because they needed to maintain the separation between Anna and Elsa.
To construct Anna and Elsa's relationship as sisters, Lee found inspiration in her own relationship with her older sister. Lee said her older sister was "a big inspiration for Elsa," called her "my Elsa" in an op-ed in the Los Angeles Times, and walked the red carpet with her at the 86th Academy Awards. Lee explained, "[h]aving to ... lose each other and then rediscover each other as adults, that was a big part of my life."
The production team also turned Olaf from Elsa's obnoxious sidekick into Anna's comically innocent sidekick. Lee's initial response to the original "mean" version of Olaf had been, "Kill the f-ing snowman," and she found Olaf by far "the hardest character to deal with."
The problem of how exactly Anna would save Elsa at the film's climax was solved by story artist John Ripa. At the story meeting where Ripa pitched his take on the story, the response was silence until Lasseter said, "I've never seen anything like that before," which was followed by a standing ovation.:31
Along the way, the production team went through drafts where the first act included far more detail than what ended up in the final version, such as a troll with a Brooklyn accent who would have explained the backstory behind Elsa's magical powers, and a regent for whom Lee was hoping to cast comedian Louis C.K. After all those details were thoroughly "over-analyzed", they were excised because they amounted to a "much more complex story than really we felt like we could fit in this 90-minute film." As Del Vecho put it, "the more we tried to explain things at the beginning, the more complicated it got."
Following Lee's extensive involvement in Frozen's development process and her close work with director Buck and songwriters Lopez and Anderson-Lopez, studio heads Lasseter and Catmull promoted her to director of the film alongside Buck in August 2012. Her promotion was officially announced on November 29, 2012, making Lee the first woman to direct a full-length animated motion picture produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios. She primarily worked on story while Buck focused on animation. Lee later stated that she was "really moved by a lot of what Chris had done" and that they "shared a vision" of the story, having "very similar sensibilities".
By November 2012, the production team thought they had finally "cracked" the puzzle of how to make the film's story work,:155 but according to Del Vecho, in late February 2013, it was realized that the film still "wasn't working", which necessitated even more rewriting of scenes and songs from February through June 2013. He explained, "we rewrote songs, we took out characters and changed everything, and suddenly the movie gelled. But that was close. In hindsight, piece of cake, but during, it was a big struggle." Looking back, Anderson-Lopez joked she and Lopez thought at the time they could end up working as "birthday party clown[s]" if the final product "pull[ed] ... down" their careers:19:07 and recalled that "we were really writing up until the last minute." In June (five months before the already-announced release date), the songwriters finally got the film working when they composed the song "For the First Time in Forever", which, in Lopez's words, "became the linchpin of the whole movie.":19:24
That month, Disney conducted test screenings of the half-completed film with two audiences (one made up of families and the other made up of adults) in Phoenix, Arizona, at which Lasseter and Catmull were personally present. Lee recalled that it was the moment when they realized they "had something, because the reaction was huge." Catmull, who had instructed Lee at the outset to "earn that ending," told her afterwards, "you did it".
Actress Kristen Bell was cast as the voice of Anna on March 5, 2012. Lee admitted that Bell's casting selection was influenced after the filmmakers listened to a series of vocal tracks Bell had recorded when she was young, where the actress performed several songs from The Little Mermaid, including "Part of Your World". Bell completed her recording sessions while she was pregnant, and subsequently re-recorded some of her character's lines after her pregnancy, as her voice had deepened. Bell was called in to re-record dialogue for the film "probably 20 times," which is normal for lead roles in Disney animated films whose scripts are still evolving. As for her approach to the role of Anna, Bell enthused that she had "dreamed of being in a Disney animated film" since she was four years old, saying, "I always loved Disney animation, but there was something about the females that was unattainable to me. Their posture was too good and they were too well-spoken, and I feel like I really made this girl much more relatable and weirder and scrappier and more excitable and awkward. I'm really proud of that."
Idina Menzel, a Broadway veteran, was cast as Elsa. Menzel had formerly auditioned for Tangled, but did not get the part. However, Tangled's casting director, Jamie Sparer Roberts, preserved a recording of Menzel's performance on her iPhone, and on the basis of that, asked her to audition along with Bell for Frozen. Before they were officially cast, Menzel and Bell deeply impressed the directors and producers at an early table read; after reading the entire script out loud, they sang "Wind Beneath My Wings" together as a duet, since no music had been composed yet. Bell had suggested that idea when she visited Menzel at her California home to prepare together for the table read. The songwriters were also present for the table read; Anderson-Lopez said "Lasseter was in heaven" upon hearing Menzel and Bell sing in harmony, and from that moment forward, he insisted, "Kristen Bell and Idina Menzel have to be in the movie!":32:07 Lee said, "They sung [sic] it like sisters and what you mean to me[,] [a]nd there wasn't a dry eye in the house after they sang." Between December 2012 and June 2013, the casting of additional roles was announced, including Jonathan Groff as Kristoff, Alan Tudyk as the Duke of Weselton, Santino Fontana as Prince Hans, and Josh Gad as Olaf.
Similar to Tangled, Frozen employed a unique artistic style by blending together features of both computer-generated imagery (CGI) and traditional hand-drawn animation. From the beginning, Buck knew Giaimo was the best candidate to develop the style he had in mind – which would draw from the best Disney hand-drawn classics of the 1950s, the Disney Little Golden Books, and mid-century modern design – and persuaded him to come back to Disney to serve as the art director for Frozen.:33 Buck, Lasseter, and Giaimo were all old friends who had first met at the California Institute of the Arts,:33 and Giaimo had previously served as the art director for Disney's Pocahontas (1995), which Buck had worked on as a supervising animator.
To create the look of Frozen, Giaimo began pre-production research by reading extensively about the entire region of Scandinavia and visiting the Danish-themed city of Solvang near Los Angeles, but eventually zeroed in on Norway in particular because "80 percent" of the visuals that appealed to him were from Norway. Disney eventually sponsored three research field trips. Animators and special effects specialists were dispatched to Jackson Hole, Wyoming, to experience walking, running, and falling in deep snow in a variety of types of attire, including long skirts (which both female and male personnel tried on); while lighting and arts teams visited an Ice Hotel in Quebec City, Quebec to study how light reflects and refracts on snow and ice. Finally, Giaimo and several artists traveled to Norway to draw inspiration from its mountains, fjords, architecture, and culture. "We had a very short time schedule for this film, so our main focus was really to get the story right but we knew that John Lasseter is keen on truth in the material and creating a believable world, and again that doesn't mean it's a realistic world – but a believable one. It was important to see the scope and scale of Norway, and important for our animators to know what it's like," Del Vecho said. "There is a real feeling of Lawrence of Arabia scope and scale to this," he finished.
During 2012, while Giaimo and the animators and artists conducted preparatory research and developed the film's overall look, the production team was still struggling to develop a compelling script, as explained above. That problem was not adequately solved until November 2012,:155 and the script would later require even more significant revisions after that point. As a result, the single "most daunting" challenge facing the animation team was a short schedule of less than 12 months to turn Lee's still-evolving shooting script into an actual film.:155 Other films like Pixar's Toy Story 2 had been successfully completed on even shorter schedules, but a short schedule necessarily meant "late nights, overtime, and stress.":155 Lee estimated the total size of the entire team on Frozen to be around 600 to 650 people, "including around 70 lighting people[,] 70-plus animators," and 15 to 20 storyboard artists.
Del Vecho explained how the film's animation team was organized: "On this movie we do have character leads, supervising animators on specific characters. The animators themselves may work on multiple characters but it's always under one lead. I think it was different on Tangled, for example, but we chose to do it this way as we wanted one person to fully understand and develop their own character and then be able to impart that to the crew. Hyrum Osmond, the supervising animator on Olaf, is quiet but he has a funny, wacky personality so we knew he'd bring a lot of comedy to it; Anna's animator, Becky Bresee, it's her first time leading a character and we wanted her to lead Anna." Acting coach Warner Loughlin was brought in to help the film's animators understand the characters they were creating. In order to get the general feeling of each scene, some animators did their own acting. "I actually film myself acting the scene out, which I find very helpful," said animation supervisor Rebecca Wilson Bresee. This helped her discover elements that made the scene feel real and believable. Elsa's supervising animator was Wayne Unten, who asked for that role because he was fascinated by the complexity of the character. Unten carefully developed Elsa's facial expressions in order to bring out her fear as contrasted against Anna's fearlessness. He also studied videos from Menzel's recording sessions and animated Elsa's breathing to match Menzel's breathing. Head of Animation, Lino DiSalvo, said, "The goal for the film was to animate the most believable CG characters you've ever seen."
Regarding the look and nature of the film's cinematography, Giaimo was greatly influenced by Jack Cardiff's work in Black Narcissus. According to him, it lent a hyper-reality to the film: "Because this is a movie with such scale and we have the Norwegian fjords to draw from, I really wanted to explore the depth. From a design perspective, since I was stressing the horizontal and vertical aspects, and what the fjords provide, it was perfect. We encased the sibling story in scale." Ted D. McCord's work in The Sound of Music was another major influence for Giaimo. It was also Giaimo's idea that Frozen should be filmed in the CinemaScope aspect ratio, which was approved by Lasseter. This marked Frozen the first film to be completely shot in CinemaScope since 2000's Titan A.E.. Giaimo also wanted to ensure that Norway's fjords, architecture and rosemaling folk art, were critical factors in designing the environment of Arendelle. Giaimo, whose background is in traditional animation, said that the art design environment represents a unity of character and environment and that he originally wanted to incorporate saturated colors, which is typically ill-advised in computer animation. For further authenticity, a live reindeer named Sage was brought into the studio for animators to study its movements and mannerisms for the character Sven.
Another important issue Giaimo insisted on addressing was costumes, in that he "knew from the start" it would be a "costume film.":77 To realize that vision, he brought in character designer Jean Gillmore to act as a dedicated "costume designer". While traditional animation simply integrates costume design with character design and treats clothing as merely part of the characters, computer-generated animation regards costume as almost a separate entity with its own properties and behaviors – and Frozen required a level of as-yet untried detail, down to minutiae like fabrics, buttons, trim, and stitching.:76 Gillmore explained that her "general approach was to meld the historic silhouettes of 1840 Western Europe (give or take), with the shapes and garment relationships and details of folk costume in early Norway, circa 19th century." This meant using primarily wool fabric with accents of velvet, linen, and silk.:75 During production, Giaimo and Gillmore "ran around" supplying various departments with real-world samples to use as references; they were able to draw upon both the studio's own in-house library of fabric samples and the resources of Walt Disney Parks and Resorts' costume division in Fullerton, California. The film's "look development artists" (the Disney job title for texture artists:58–59) created the digitally painted simulation of the appearance of surfaces, while other departments dealt with movement, rigging and weight, thickness and lighting of textile animation.
During production, the film's English title was changed from The Snow Queen to Frozen, a decision that drew comparisons to another Disney film, Tangled. Peter Del Vecho explained that "the title Frozen came up independently of the title Tangled. It's because, to us, it represents the movie. Frozen plays on the level of ice and snow but also the frozen relationship, the frozen heart that has to be thawed. We don't think of comparisons between Tangled and Frozen, though." He also mentioned that the film will still retain its original title, The Snow Queen, in some countries: "because that just resonated stronger in some countries than Frozen. Maybe there's a richness to The Snow Queen in the country's heritage and they just wanted to emphasize that."
The studio also developed several new tools to generate realistic and believable shots, particularly the heavy and deep snow and its interactions with the characters. Disney wanted an "all-encompassing" and organic tool to provide snow effects but not require switching between different methods. As noted above, several Disney artists and special effects personnel traveled to Wyoming to experience walking through deep snow. Dr. Kenneth Libbrecht, a professor from the California Institute of Technology, was invited to give lectures to the effects group on how snow and ice form, and why snowflakes are unique. Using this knowledge, the effects group created a snowflake generator that allowed them to randomly create 2,000 unique snowflake shapes for the film.
Another challenge that the studio had to face was to deliver shots of heavy and deep snow that both interacted believably with characters and had a realistic sticky quality. According to principal software engineer Andrew Selle, "[Snow]'s not really a fluid. It’s not really a solid. It breaks apart. It can be compressed into snowballs. All of these different effects are very difficult to capture simultaneously." In order to achieve this, software engineers used advanced mathematics (the material point method) and physics, with assistance from mathematics researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles to create a snow simulator software application called Matterhorn. The tool was capable of depicting realistic snow in a virtual environment and was used in at least 43 scenes in the film, including several key sequences. Software engineer Alexey Stomakhin referred to snow as "an important character in the film," therefore it attracted special attention from the filmmakers. "When you stretch it, snow will break into chunks. Since snow doesn't have any connections, it doesn't have a mesh, it can break very easily. So that was an important property we took advantage of," explained Selle. "There you see [Kristoff] walking through and see his footprints breaking the snow into little pieces and chunk up and you see [Anna] being pulled out and the snow having packed together and broken into pieces. It's very organic how that happens. You don't see that they're pieces already – you see the snow as one thing and then breaking up." The tool also proved to be particularly useful in scenes involving characters walking through deep snow, as it ensured that the snow reacted naturally to each step.
Other tools designed to help artists complete complicated effects included Spaces, which allowed Olaf's deconstructible parts to be moved around and rebuilt, Flourish, which allowed extra movement such as leaves and twigs to be art-directed; Snow Batcher, which helped preview the final look of the snow, especially when characters were interacting with an area of snow by walking through a volume, and Tonic, which enabled artists to sculpt their characters' hair as procedural volumes. Tonic also aided in animating fur and hair elements such as Elsa's hair, which contains 420,000 computer-generated strands, while the average number for a real human being is only 100,000. The number of character rigs in Frozen is 312 and the number of simulated costumes also reached 245 cloth rigs, which were far beyond all other Disney films to date. Fifty effects artists and lighting artists worked together on the technology to create "one single shot" in which Elsa builds her ice palace. Its complexity required 30 hours to render each frame, with 4,000 computers rendering one frame at a time.
Besides 3D effects, the filmmakers also used 2D artwork and drawings for specific elements and sequences in the film, including Elsa's magic and snow sculptures, as well as freezing fountains and floors. The effects group created a "capture stage" where the entire world of Frozen gets displayed on monitors, which can be "filmed" on special cameras to operate a three-dimensional scene. "We can take this virtual set that's mimicking all of my actions and put it into any one of our scenes in the film," said technology manager Evan Goldberg.
Scandinavian and Sámi inspiration
The setting was principally based on Norway, and the cultural influences in the film come from Scandinavian culture. Several landmarks in Norway appear in the film, including the Akershus Fortress in Oslo, the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim, and Bryggen in Bergen. Numerous other typical cultural Scandinavian elements are also included in the film, such as stave churches, trolls,:6 Viking ships, a hot spring, Fjord horses, clothes, and food such as lutefisk.:43 A maypole is also present in the film, as well as the brief appearance of runes in a book that Anna and Elsa's father opens to figure out where the trolls live.:6 A scene where two men argue over whether to stack firewood bark up or bark down is a reference to the perennial Norwegian debate over how to stack firewood properly.:59 The film also contains several elements specifically drawn from Sámi culture, such as the usage of reindeer for transportation and the equipment used to control these, clothing styles (the outfits of the ice cutters), and parts of the musical score. Decorations, such as those on the castle pillars and Kristoff's sled, are also in styles inspired by Sámi duodji decorations. During their field work in Norway, Disney's team, for inspiration, visited Rørosrein, a Sámi family-owned company in the village Plassje that produces reindeer meat and arranges tourist events. Arendelle was inspired by Nærøyfjord, a branch of Norway's longest fjord Sognefjorden, which has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site; while a castle in Oslo with beautiful hand-painted patterns on all four walls served as the inspiration for the kingdom's royal castle interior.
The filmmakers' trip to Norway provided essential knowledge for the animators to come up with the design aesthetic for the film in terms of color, light, and atmosphere. According to Giaimo, there were three important factors that they had acquired from the Norway research trip: the fjords, which are the massive vertical rock formations, and serve as the setting for the secluded kingdom of Arendelle; the medieval stave churches, whose rustic triangular rooflines and shingles inspired the castle compound; and the rosemaling folk art, whose distinctive paneling and grid patterns informed the architecture, decor, and costumes.
Music and sound design
The songs for Frozen were written and composed by the husband-and-wife songwriting team of Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson-Lopez, both of whom had previously worked with Disney Animation on Winnie the Pooh (2011) (also produced by Del Vecho, who then hired them for Frozen) and before that, with Disney Parks on Finding Nemo – The Musical (2007). Lopez first heard Disney Animation's pitch while in Los Angeles working on The Book of Mormon, but Disney was so eager to get both of them on board that the production team traveled to New York City to also pitch the film in person to Anderson-Lopez (who was busy raising the couple's two young daughters). Lopez believes Disney was particularly interested in his wife's strong story talent. The decision, of course, was easy: "Whenever Disney asks if you want to do a fairy tale musical, you say yes."
About 23 minutes of the film are dedicated to their musical numbers. Because they live in New York City, collaborating closely with the production team in Burbank required two-hour-long transcontinental videoconferences nearly every weekday for about 14 months. For each song they composed, they recorded a demo in their home studio (with both of them singing the lyrics and Lopez accompanying on piano), then emailed it to Burbank for discussion at the next videoconference. Lopez and Anderson-Lopez were aware of the fact that their work would be compared to that of Alan Menken and Howard Ashman from the Disney Renaissance era, and whenever they felt lost, they asked "What would Ashman do?" In the end, they wrote 25 songs for the film, of which eight made it into the final version. One song ("For the First Time in Forever") had a reprise and the other ("Let It Go") was covered by Demi Lovato over the final credits, for a total of ten songs. Seven of the 17 that did not make it were later released on the deluxe edition soundtrack.
In February 2013, Christophe Beck was hired to score the film, following his work on Paperman, a Disney animated short film released the year prior to Frozen. It was revealed on September 14, 2013, that Sámi musician Frode Fjellheim's Eatnemen Vuelie would be the film's opening song, as it contains elements of the traditional Sámi singing style joik. The music producers recruited a Norwegian linguist to assist with the lyrics for an Old Norse song written for Elsa's coronation and traveled to Trondheim, Norway, to record the all-female choir Cantus, for a piece inspired by traditional Sámi music.
Under the supervision of sound engineer David Boucher, the lead cast members began recording the film's vocal tracks in October 2012 at the Sunset Sound recording studio in Hollywood before the songs had been orchestrated, meaning they heard only Lopez's demo piano track in their headphones as they sang. Most of the dialogue was recorded at the Roy E. Disney Animation Building in Burbank under the supervision of original dialogue mixer Gabriel Guy, who also mixed the film's sound effects. Some dialogue was recorded after recording songs at both Sunset Sound and Capitol Studios; for scenes involving Anna and Elsa, both studios offered vocal isolation booths where Menzel and Bell could read dialogue with line-of-sight with one another, while avoiding "bleedthrough" between their respective tracks. Additional dialogue was recorded at an ADR facility on the Walt Disney Studios lot in Burbank (across the street from the Disney Animation building) and at the Soundtrack Group's New York studio, since the production team had to work around the busy schedules of the film's New York-based cast members like Fontana.
Lopez and Anderson-Lopez's piano-vocal scores for the songs along with the vocal tracks were sent to Salem, Oregon-based Dave Metzger for arrangement and orchestration; Metzger also orchestrated a significant portion of Beck's score.
For the orchestral film score, Beck paid homage to the Norway- and Sápmi-inspired setting by employing regional instruments, such as the bukkehorn, and traditional vocal techniques, such as kulning. Beck worked with Lopez and Anderson-Lopez on incorporating their songs into arrangements in the score. The trio's goal "was to create a cohesive musical journey from beginning to end." Similarly, Beck's scoring mixer, Casey Stone (who also supervised the recording of the score), worked with Boucher to align their microphone setups to ensure the transitions between the songs and score were seamless, even though they were separately recorded on different dates. The final orchestrations of both the songs and score were all recorded at the Eastwood Scoring Stage on the Warner Bros. studio lot in Burbank by an 80-piece orchestra, featuring 32 vocalists, including native Norwegian Christine Hals. Boucher supervised the recording of Anderson-Lopez and Lopez's songs from July 22 to 24, 2013, then Stone supervised the recording of Beck's score from September 3 to 6 and 9 to 10. Boucher mixed the songs at the Eastwood stage, while Stone mixed the score at Beck's personal studio in Santa Monica, California.
Regarding the sound of Frozen, director Jennifer Lee stated that sound played a huge part in making the film "visceral" and "transported"; she explained, "[i]n letting it tell the story emotionally, the sound of the ice when it's at its most dangerous just makes you shudder." The complete silence at the climax of the film right after Anna freezes was Lasseter's idea, one he "really wanted". In that scene, even the ambient sound that would normally be there was taken out in order to make it feel unusual. Lee explained "that was a moment where we wanted everything to feel suspended."
To obtain certain snow and ice sound effects, sound designer Odin Benitez traveled to Mammoth Mountain, California, to record them at a frozen lake. However, the foley work for the film was recorded on the foley stage on the Warner Bros. lot by a Warner Bros. crew. The foley artists received daily deliveries of 50 pounds (22.6 kg) of snow ice while working, to help them record all the necessary snow and ice sounds for the film. Because the film's visuals were finalized so late, five separate versions of nearly every footstep on snow were recorded (corresponding to five different types of snow), then one was later selected during mixing to match the snow as rendered in the final version of each scene. One issue that the production team was "particular" about was the sound of Elsa's footsteps in the ice palace, which required eight attempts, including wine glasses on ice and metal knives on ice; they ended up using a mix of three sounds.
Although the vocals, music, sound effects, and almost all the dialogue were all recorded elsewhere, the final re-recording mix to Dolby Atmos format was performed at the Disney lot by Casey E. Fluhr of Disney Digital Studio Services.
Like other Disney media products which are often localized through Disney Character Voices International, Frozen was translated and dubbed into 41 languages (compared with only 15 for The Lion King). A major challenge was to find sopranos capable of matching Menzel's warm vocal tone and three-octave vocal range in their native languages. Rick Dempsey, the unit's senior executive, regarded the process of translating the film as "exceptionally challenging"; he explained, "It's a difficult juggling act to get the right intent of the lyrics and also have it match rhythmically to the music. And then you have to go back and adjust for lip sync! [It]...requires a lot of patience and precision." Lopez explained that they were told by Disney to remove complex wordplay and puns from their songs, to ensure the film was easily translatable and had globally appealing lyrics. For the casting of dubbed versions, Disney required native speakers in order to "ensure that the film feels 'local'." They used Bell and Menzel's voices as their "blueprint" in casting, and tried to match the voices "as much as possible," meaning that they auditioned approximately 200 singers to fill the 41 slots for Elsa alone. For nearly 15 dubbed versions, they cast Elsa's singing and speaking parts separately, since not all vocalists could act the part they were singing. After casting all the other roles for all 41 languages, the international cast ended up including more than 900 people, who voiced their roles through approximately 1,300 recording sessions.
|"Frozen" in other languages|
|Arabic||ملكة الثلج (Malikat Alththalj)||The Snow Queen|
|Brazilian Portuguese||Frozen – Uma Aventura Congelante||Frozen – A Freezing Adventure|
|Bulgarian||Замръзналото кралство (Zamr'aznaloto kralstvo)||Frozen kingdom|
|Canadian French||La Reine des neiges||The Snow Queen|
|Cantonese Chinese||魔雪奇緣 (Mo syut kei yun)||Enchanted snow tales|
|Castilian Spanish||Frozen: El reino del hielo||Frozen: The kingdom of ice|
|Catalan||Frozen: El regne del gel||Frozen: The kingdom of ice|
|Croatian||Snježno kraljevstvo||Snow kingdom|
|Czech||Ledové království||Ice kingdom|
|Estonian||Lumekuninganna ja igavene talv||The Snow Queen and the eternal winter|
|Finnish||Frozen – huurteinen seikkailu||Frozen – frosty adventure|
|French||La Reine des neiges||The Snow Queen|
|German||Die Eiskönigin – Völlig unverfroren||The Ice Queen – Totally brazen|
|Greek||Ψυχρά κι Ανάποδα (Psychrá ki Anápoda)||Cold and Upside|
|Hebrew||לשבור את הקרח (Lishbor et ha’Kerakh)||Break the Ice|
|Indonesian||Frozen – Anna dan Ratu Salju||Frozen – Anna and the Snow Queen|
|Italian||Frozen – Il regno di ghiaccio||Frozen – The ice kingdom|
|Japanese||アナと雪の女王 (Ana to Yuki no Joou)||Anna and the Snow Queen|
|Korean||겨울왕국 (Kyŏul wang-guk)||The kingdom of winter|
|Latin American Spanish||Frozen: Una aventura congelada||Frozen: A frozen adventure|
|Latvian||Ledus sirds||Ice heart|
|Lithuanian||Ledo šalis||Ice country|
|Malay||Anna dan Permaisuri Salji||Anna and the Snow Queen|
|Mandarin Chinese||冰雪奇缘 (Bīng xuě qí yuán)||Magical tales of ice and snow|
|Polish||Kraina lodu||Land of ice|
|Portuguese||Frozen – O Reino do Gelo||Frozen – The kingdom of ice|
|Romanian||Regatul de gheață||Kingdom of ice|
|Russian||Холодное сердце (Kholodnoe syertse)||Cold heart|
|Serbian||Залеђено краљевство (Zaleđeno kraljevstvo)||Frozen kingdom|
|Slovak||Ľadové kráľovstvo||Ice kingdom|
|Slovene||Ledeno Kraljestvo||Icy kingdom|
|Taiwanese Mandarin Chinese||冰雪奇緣 (Bīng xuě qí yuán)||Magical tales of ice and snow|
|Thai||ผจญภัยแดนคำสาปราชินีหิมะ (Phajon phaiden khamsa prachini hima)||Adventure of Cursed of Snow Queen|
|Turkish||Karlar Ülkesi||Snow country|
|Ukrainian||Крижане серце (Krizhanye sertse)||Icy heart|
|Vietnamese||Nữ hoàng băng giá||Ice queen|
Since 2013, some local TV stations and independent studios have been dubbing the movie in their local languages, creating some unofficial dubs. Namely: Albanian, Arabic (TV dub), Karachay-Balkar, Persian and Tagalog.
Frozen was released theatrically in the United States on November 27, 2013, and it was accompanied by the new Mickey Mouse animated short film, Get a Horse! The film's premiere was at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California, on November 19, 2013, and had a five-day limited release there, starting from November 22, before going into wide release.
Prior to the film's release, Lopez and Anderson-Lopez's "Let It Go" and "In Summer" were previewed at the 2013 D23 Expo; Idina Menzel performed the former live on stage. A teaser trailer was released on June 18, 2013, followed by the release of the official trailer on September 26, 2013. Frozen was also promoted heavily at several Disney theme parks including Disneyland's Fantasyland, Disney California Adventure's World of Color, Epcot's Norway pavilion, and Disneyland Paris' Disney Dreams! show; Disneyland and Epcot both offered meet-and-greet sessions involving the film's two main characters, Anna and Elsa. On November 6, 2013, Disney Consumer Products began releasing a line of toys and other merchandise relating to the film in Disney Store and other retailers.
On January 31, 2014, a sing-along version of Frozen was released in 2,057 theaters in the United States. It featured on-screen lyrics, and viewers were invited to follow the bouncing snowflake and sing along with the songs from the film. After its wide release in Japan on March 14, 2014, a similar sing-along version of Frozen was released in the country in select theaters on April 26. In Japanese-dubbed versions, Japanese lyrics of the songs appeared on screen for audiences to sing along with the characters. A sing-along version of the film was released in United Kingdom on November 28, 2014.
Frozen was released for digital download on February 25, 2014, on Google Play, the iTunes Store, and Amazon Video. It was subsequently released by Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment on Blu-ray Disc and DVD on March 18, 2014. Bonus features for the Blu-ray release include "The Making of Frozen", a three-minute musical production about how the film was made, "D'frosted", an inside look at how Disney tried to adapt the original fairy tale into an animated feature, four deleted scenes with introduction by the directors, the original theatrical short Get a Horse!, the film's teaser trailer, and "Let It Go" (End Credit Version) music videos by Demi Lovato, Martina Stoessel, and Marsha Milan Londoh; while the DVD release includes the Get a Horse! theatrical short, "Let It Go" musical videos and the film's teaser trailer.
On its first day of release on Blu-ray and DVD, Frozen sold 3.2 million units, becoming one of the biggest home video sellers in the last decade, as well as Amazon's best-selling children's disc of all time. The digital download release of the film also set a record as the fastest-selling digital release of all time. Frozen finished its first week at No. 1 in unit sales in the United States, selling more than three times as many units as other 19 titles in the charts combined, according to the Nielsen's sales chart. The film sold 3,969,270 Blu-ray units (the equivalent of $79,266,322) during its first week, which accounted for 50 percent of its opening home media sales. It topped the U.S. home video sales charts for six non-consecutive weeks out of seven weeks of release, as of May 4, 2014. In the United Kingdom, Frozen debuted at No. 1 in Blu-ray and DVD sales on the Official Video Chart. According to Official Charts Company, more than 500,000 copies of the film were sold in its two-day opening (March 31 – April 1, 2014). During its three first weeks of release in the United Kingdom, Frozen sold more than 1.45 million units, becoming the biggest-selling video title of 2014 so far in the country. Frozen has sold 2,025,000 Blu-ray Disc/DVD combo sets in Japan in 4 weeks, becoming the fastest-selling home video to sell 2 million copies, beating the previous record of 11 weeks by Spirited Away. Frozen also holds the records for highest number of home video units sold on the first official day of sales and in the first official week of sales in Japan. As of the end of 2014, the film earned $308,026,545 in total US home media sales. It is one of the best-selling home media releases, having moved over 18 million units as of March 2015.
Following an announcement on August 12, 2014, a sing-along reissue of Frozen was released via DVD and digital download on November 18, 2014.
Trademark infringement lawsuit
In late December 2013, The Walt Disney Company filed a trademark infringement lawsuit in California federal court seeking an injunction against the continued distribution of the Canadian film The Legend of Sarila produced by 10th Ave Productions and CarpeDiem Film & TV and distributed by Phase 4 Films, which had been retitled Frozen Land. Disney alleged that less than three weeks prior to the release of Frozen, Phase 4 theatrically released The Legend of Sarila, which garnered "minimal box office revenues and received no significant attention"; and to trade off the success of Disney's animated film, Phase 4 had "redesigned the artwork, packaging, logo, and other promotional materials for its newly (and intentionally misleadingly) retitled film to mimic those used by [Disney] for Frozen and related merchandise". While film titles cannot be trademarked by law, Disney cited a number of alleged similarities between the new Phase 4's Frozen logo and Disney's original one. By late January 2014, the two companies had settled the case; the settlement stated that the distribution and promotion of The Legend of Sarila and related merchandise must use its original title and Phase 4 must not use trademarks, logos or other designs confusingly similar to Disney's animated release. Phase 4 was also required to pay Disney $100,000 before January 27, 2014, and make "all practicable efforts" to remove copies of Frozen Land from stores and online distributors before March 3, 2014.
According to copyright infringement-tracking site Excipio, Frozen was the second-most-infringed film of 2014 (behind The Wolf of Wall Street), with over 29.9 million illegal downloads via torrent sites.
Frozen earned $400.7 million in North America, and an estimated $873.5 million in other countries, for a worldwide total of $1.274 billion. Calculating in all expenses, Deadline.com estimated that the film made a profit of over $400 million. It is the ninth-highest-grossing film (and was the fifth-highest at its peak), the highest-grossing animated film, the highest-grossing 2013 film, the highest-grossing Walt Disney Pictures release, and the fourth-highest-grossing film distributed by Disney. The film earned $110.6 million worldwide in its opening weekend. On March 2, 2014, its 101st day of release, it surpassed the $1 billion mark, becoming the eighteenth film in cinematic history, the seventh Disney-distributed film, the fifth non-sequel film, the second Disney-distributed film in 2013 (after Iron Man 3), and the first animated film since Toy Story 3 to do so.
Bloomberg Business reported in March 2014 that outside analysts had projected the film's total cost at somewhere around $323 million to $350 million for production, marketing, and distribution, and had also projected that the film would generate $1.3 billion in revenue from box office ticket sales, digital downloads, discs, and television rights.
Frozen became Fandango's top advance ticket seller among original animated films, ahead of previous record-holder Brave, and became the top-selling animated film in the company's history in late January 2014. The sing-along version of the film later topped the best-selling list of the movie ticketing service again for three days. Frozen opened on Friday, November 22, 2013, exclusively at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood for a five-day limited release and earned $342,839 before its wide opening on Wednesday, November 27, 2013. During the three-day weekend it earned $243,390, scoring the seventh-largest per-theater average. On the opening day of its wide release, the film earned $15.2 million, including $1.2 million from Tuesday late-night shows, and set a record for the highest pre-Thanksgiving Wednesday opening, ahead of Tangled ($11.9 million). It was also the second-largest pre-Thanksgiving Wednesday among all films, behind Catching Fire ($20.8 million). The film finished in second place over the traditional three-day weekend (Friday-to-Sunday) with $67.4 million, setting an opening weekend record among Walt Disney Animation Studios films. It also scored the second-largest opening weekend among films that did not debut at #1. Female audiences accounted for 57% of Frozen's total audiences on the first weekend, while family audiences held a proportion of 81%. Among films that opened during Thanksgiving, it set new records; three-day ($67.4 million from Friday to Sunday) and five-day ($93.6 million from Wednesday to Sunday). It also achieved the second-largest three-day and five-day Thanksgiving gross among all films, behind Catching Fire.
During its second weekend of wide release, Frozen declined 53% to $31.6 million, but jumped to first place, setting a record for the largest post-Thanksgiving weekend, ahead of Toy Story 2 ($27.8 million). Frozen became the first film since Avatar to reach first place in its sixth weekend of wide release. It remained in the top 10 at the box office for sixteen consecutive weekends (the longest run by any film since 2002) and achieved large weekend grosses from its fifth to its twelfth weekend (of wide release), compared to other films in their respective weekends. On April 25, 2014, Frozen became the nineteenth film to gross $400 million in North America and the fifteenth to do so without a major re-release.
In North America, Frozen is the twenty-fourth-highest-grossing film, the third-highest-grossing 2013 film, the fifth-highest-grossing animated film, the highest-grossing 2013 animated film, the tenth-highest-grossing 3-D film, and the second-highest-grossing Walt Disney Animation Studios film. Excluding re-releases, it has the highest-grossing initial run among non-sequel animated films (a record previously held by Finding Nemo) and among Walt Disney Animation Studios films (a record previously held by The Lion King). Box Office Mojo estimates that the film sold over 49 million tickets in North America.
Outside North America
Frozen is the ninth-highest-grossing film, the highest-grossing animated film, and the highest-grossing 2013 film. It is the highest-grossing animated film in South Korea, Denmark, and Venezuela. It is also the highest-grossing Walt Disney Animation Studios film in more than 45 territories, including the Latin America region (specifically in Mexico and Brazil), the UK, Ireland, and Malta, Russia and the CIS, Ukraine, Norway, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and China.
The film made its debut outside North America on the same weekend as its wide North American release and earned $16.7 million from sixteen markets. It topped the box office outside North America for two weekends in 2014; January 10–12 ($27.8 million) and February 7–9 ($24 million). Overall, its largest opening weekends occurred in China (five-day opening of $14.3 million), Russia and the CIS ($11.9 million, including previews from previous weekend), where the film set an opening weekend record among Disney animated films (ahead of Tangled), and Japan (three-day opening of $9.73 million). It set an opening weekend record among animated films in Sweden. In total earnings, the film's top market after North America is Japan ($247.6 million), followed by South Korea ($76.6 million) and the United Kingdom, Ireland and Malta ($65.7 million). In South Korea, Frozen is the second-largest foreign film both in terms of attendance and gross, the largest Disney release and the first animated film to earn more than ten million admissions. In Japan, it is the third-highest-grossing film of all time, the second-highest-grossing imported film (behind Titanic) and the highest-grossing Disney film. It topped the country's box office for sixteen consecutive weekends until being surpassed by another Disney release, Maleficent.
Ray Subers, writing for Box Office Mojo, compared the film to Disney's 2010 animated feature Tangled by saying that the film's story was not as "immediately interesting" and that "marketing has yet to sell this to boys the way Tangled did". Noting that the 2013 holiday season (Thanksgiving and Christmas) lacked compelling content for families, Subers predicted that the film would "play well all the way through Christmas" and end up grossing $185 million in North America (similar to Wreck-It Ralph). Boxoffice noted the success of previous Disney's animated films released during the holiday season (Tangled and Wreck-It Ralph), but argued that the cast might not attract audiences due to the lack of major stars. They issued a $170,000,000 North America box office forecast for the film. Chris Agar from ScreenRant expressed a similar opinion; he cited a string of recent box office successes of the studio, and thought that Frozen would fill a void of kid-friendly films in the marketplace, but did not expect it to surpass Catching Fire in terms of box office gross.
Clayton Dillard of Slant Magazine commented that while the trailers made the film seem "pallid," positive critical reviews could attract interest from both "core demographics" and adult audiences, and therefore he believed Frozen stood a good chance of surpassing Tangled's Thanksgiving three-day opening record. Brad Brevet of Ropeofsilicon.com described the film's marketing as a "severely hit and miss" campaign, which could affect its box office performance. After Frozen finished its first weekend with a record $93.6 million during Thanksgiving, most box-office watchers predicted that it would end up grossing between $250 and $300 million in North America. Breitbart suggested that with "strong buzz" and "huge family audience support," Frozen would "easily break the $130 million" mark in North America. At the time, Box Office Mojo reissued a $250 million box office gross prediction for North America. Box Office Mojo noted that it would be "the exclusive choice for family audiences" and attributed its successful opening to strong word-of-mouth and the studio's marketing, which highlighted the connection between Frozen and Disney's previous successful releases like Tangled and Wreck-It Ralph, as well as the elements of humor. In an interview conducted in early December 2013, Disney's distribution executive Dave Hollis praised the efforts of the filmmakers and the studio's marketing team: "For a company whose foundation is built on animation, an opening like this is really great." He further commented that audiences could be "very targeted with a message", and that Frozen aimed at a general audience instead of any one particular audience segment.
When Frozen became a box office success, Bilge Ebiri of Vulture analyzed the film's elements and suggested eight factors that might have led to its success. He thought Frozen managed to capture the classic Disney spirit of the Disney Renaissance films and early classics such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Cinderella. He also wrote that the film has Olaf, a "wisecracking, irreverent" sidekick with mild humor which is "a requirement of modern animated kids' movies," and its "witty, catchy" songs were "pretty good." Furthermore, Ebiri noted that Frozen was a "revisionist" film that didn't "have a typical villain"; Elsa, the person who should be the villain didn't turn out to be a villain, but "a girl who's having trouble." She was the one who "[created] most of the challenges [for] the film's more typical heroes – Princess Anna." The story of two sisters who were separated as they grew up held real-life overtones for many audience members who had siblings, and the struggle of Elsa to overcome the shame and fear of her powers was also relatable. Finally, he identified several factors which he believed attracted female audiences: two strong female characters; a twist on the usual romantic subplot, when the traditional "Prince Charming" – Hans – turned out to be a gold-digging villain; and the "act of true love" which saved Anna was her own sacrifice in saving Elsa.
Scott Davis of Forbes credited the film's commercial success to its marketing aimed at both sexes, and to the success of its soundtrack.
The commercial success of Frozen in Japan was considered to be a "phenomenon" which received widespread media coverage. Released in that market as Anna and the Snow Queen, the film increased its gross each week in its three first weeks of release, and only started to drop in the fourth; while other films usually peak in the opening week and decline in the latter ones. Frozen has received over 7 million admissions in Japan as of April 16, and nearly 18.7 million admissions as of June 23. Many cinemagoers were reported to have watched both the original and the Japanese-dubbed version. Japan Today also reported that the local dubbed version was "particularly popular" in the country. Gavin J. Blair of The Hollywood Reporter commented on the film's earnings in Japan: "Even after its $9.6 million (￥986.4 million) three-day opening, a record bow for a Disney animation in Japan, few would have predicted the kind of numbers Frozen has now racked up." Disney's head of distribution Dave Hollis said in an interview that "It's become very clear that the themes and emotions of Frozen transcend geography, but what's going on in Japan is extraordinary."
"Frozen's success doesn't benefit from a general appetite for American films in Japan" (as reported by the International Business Times), but according to Akira Lippit of the USC School of Cinematic Arts, there were several factors that constituted this phenomenon: besides the fact that animated films "are held in great regard in Japan, and the Disney brand name with all of its heritage is extremely valuable", "the biggest reason is the primary audience ... 13- to 17-year-old teenage girls." He further explained that audiences of this age range have a vital role in shaping Japanese pop culture and "Frozen has so many elements that appeal to them, with its story of a young girl with power and mystique, who finds her own sort of good in herself." He compared the film's current situation with a similar phenomenon which occurred with Titanic in 1997, "when millions of Japanese teen girls turned out to watch Leonard[o] DiCaprio go under – several times," and thought the same would happen with Frozen. Another reason that contributed to the film's success in the market was that Disney took great care in choosing "high quality" voice actors for the Japanese-dubbed version, since Japan's pop music scene had an important role particularly with teenage audiences. Orika Hiromura, Disney Japan's marketing project leader for Frozen, said in an interview with The Wall Street Journal: "We really put effort into finding actors who could not only play the role but also belt out the tunes as well. We found the perfect match in Takako Matsu and Sayaka Kanda, and they really added a whole new dimension to the storytelling."
When asked about the success of Frozen, director Chris Buck stated: "We never expected anything like this. We just hoped to make a movie that did as well as Tangled! I hoped the audience would embrace it and respond to it, but there's no way we could have predicted this." He cited a number of reasons for the film's popularity: "There are characters that people relate to; the songs are so strong and memorable. We also have some flawed characters, which is what Jen[nifer Lee] and I like to do – we essentially create two imperfect princesses." He also said that what people could infer from the film had "blow[n] [him] away." As Frozen approached the first anniversary of its release, Menzel mentioned the film's continuing popularity in an October 2014 interview: "It’s just a remarkable thing. Usually you do a project and it has its moment. This just feels like it keeps going."
Frozen opened to highly positive reviews, with several critics comparing it favorably to the films of the Disney Renaissance, particularly The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, and The Lion King. Some journalists felt that the film's success marked a second Disney Renaissance. The film was praised for its visuals, themes, musical numbers, screenplay, and voice acting, especially that of Kristen Bell, Idina Menzel, and Josh Gad. The "Let It Go" musical sequence was also particularly praised by critics. The review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes reports that 89% of critics gave the film a positive review based on 216 reviews, with the site's consensus being: "Beautifully animated, smartly written, and stocked with singalong songs, Frozen adds another worthy entry to the Disney canon." Metacritic, which determines a normalized rating out of 100 from the reviews of mainstream critics, calculated a score of 74 based on 43 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews." CinemaScore gave Frozen an "A+" on an A+ to F scale, based on polls conducted during the opening weekend. Surveys conducted by Fandango among 1,000 ticket buyers revealed that 75% of purchasers had seen the film at least once, and 52% had seen it twice. It was also pointed out that 55% of audiences identified "Let It Go" as their favorite song, while "Do You Want to Build a Snowman?" and "For the First Time in Forever" held proportions of 21% and 9%, respectively. Frozen was named the seventh-best film of 2013 by Richard Corliss of Time and Kyle Smith of the New York Post.
Alonso Duralde of TheWrap wrote that the film is "the best animated musical to come out of Disney since the tragic death of lyricist Howard Ashman, whose work on The Little Mermaid and Beauty and the Beast helped build the studio's modern animated division into what it is today." He also said that "while it lags the tiniest bit on its way to the conclusion, the script... really delivers; it offers characters to care about, along with some nifty twists and surprises along the way." Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter observed Frozen as a true musical and wrote, "You can practically see the Broadway musical Frozen is destined to become while watching Disney's 3D animated princess tale." McCarthy described the film as "energetic, humorous and not too cloying, as well as the first Hollywood film in many years to warn of global cooling rather than warming, this tuneful toon upgrades what has been a lackluster year for big studio animated fare and, beginning with its Thanksgiving opening, should live up to box office expectations as one of the studio's hoped-for holiday-spanning blockbusters." Kyle Smith of the New York Post awarded the film 3.5 out of 4 stars and praised the film as "a great big snowy pleasure with an emotionally gripping core, brilliant Broadway-style songs and a crafty plot. Its first and third acts are better than the jokey middle, but this is the rare example of a Walt Disney Animation Studios effort that reaches as deep as a Pixar film." Scott Mendelson of Forbes wrote, "Frozen is both a declaration of Disney's renewed cultural relevance and a reaffirmation of Disney coming to terms with its own legacy and its own identity. It's also a just plain terrific bit of family entertainment."
The Los Angeles Times extolled the film's ensemble voice talent and elaborate musical sequences, and declared Frozen was "a welcome return to greatness for Walt Disney Animation Studios." Entertainment Weekly's Owen Gleiberman gave the film a "B+" grade and labeled it as a "squarely enchanting fairy tale that shows you how the definition of what's fresh in animation can shift." Richard Corliss of Time stated that: "It's great to see Disney returning to its roots and blooming anew: creating superior musical entertainment that draws on the Walt [Disney] tradition of animation splendor and the verve of Broadway present." Richard Roeper wrote that the film was an "absolute delight from start to finish." Both Michael Phillips of Chicago Tribune and Stephen Holden of The New York Times praised the film's characters and musical sequences, which also drew comparisons to the theatrics found in Wicked. Emma Dibdin of Digital Spy awarded the film five out of five stars and called the film "a new Disney classic" and "an exhilarating, joyous, human story that's as frequently laugh-out-loud funny as it is startling and daring and poignant. Hot on the heels of the 90th anniversary, it's impossible to imagine a more perfect celebration of everything Disney is at its best." Frozen was also praised in Norwegian Sámi media as showcasing Sámi culture to a broad audience in a good way. Composer Frode Fjellheim was lauded by Norwegian Sámi President Aili Keskitalo for his contributions to the film, during the President's 2014 New Year's speech.
Scott Foundas of Variety was less impressed with the film, describing it as "formulaic", though he praised its voice acting and technical artistry: "The tactile, snow-capped Arendelle landscape, including Elsa's ice-castle retreat is Frozen's other true marvel, enhanced by 3D and the decision to shoot in widescreen – a nod to the CinemaScope richness of Sleeping Beauty and Lady and the Tramp... That's almost but not quite enough to make up for the somewhat slack plotting and the generic nature of the main characters. Neither princess here is a patch on Tangled's babe-in-the-woods Rapunzel, while both Hans and Kristoff are cut from pretty standard-issue hero cloth until a reasonably surprising third-act twist somewhat ups the ante. Only Olaf is unimpeachable: Get this snowman a spinoff feature to call his own." The Seattle Times gave the film two out of four stars, stating that "While it is an often gorgeous film with computer-generated fjords and ice sculptures and castle interiors, the important thing that glues all this stuff together – story – is sadly lacking." Joe Williams of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch also criticized the story as the film's weakest point. Writing on Roger Ebert's website, Christy Lemire gave a mixed review in which she awarded two-and-a-half stars out of four. Lemire praised the visuals and the performance of "Let It Go," as well as the positive messages Frozen sends. However, she referred to the film as "cynical" and criticized it as an "attempt to shake things up without shaking them up too much." She also noted the similarity between Elsa and another well-known fictional female who unleashes paranormal powers when agitated, Carrie White.
Portrayal of emotions
Allegations of sexism occurred following a statement by Lino DiSalvo, the film's head of animation, who said to Fan Voice's Jenna Busch: "Historically speaking, animating female characters are really, really difficult, because they have to go through these range of emotions, but you have to keep them pretty." However, a Disney spokesperson later told Time that DiSalvo's quote was widely misinterpreted, stating that he was "describing some technical aspects of CG animation and not making a general comment on animating females versus males or other characters." Director Lee also said that DiSalvo's words were recklessly taken out of context, and that he was talking in very technical terms about CG animation. "It is hard no matter what the gender is. I felt horrible for him," she said. In an August 2014 interview, DiSalvo re-emphasized what he had been trying to explain all along when his statements were taken out of context – the difficulty with turning any kind of animated character from a series of sketches on a 2D emotion model sheet into a properly rigged 3D character model: "Translating that emotional range onto a CG character is one of the most difficult parts of the process. Male. Female. Snowman. Animal." He added, "The really sad thing is people took that ... catchy headline and they just repopulated it everywhere. People didn't get back to me for comments and the sad thing is that's the way the internet works. They don't want the truth."
Perceived LGBT parallels
Several viewers outside the film industry, such as evangelical pastors and commentators, argued that Frozen promotes normalization of homosexuality, while others believed that the main character, Elsa, represents a positive image of LGBT youth, viewing the film and the song "Let It Go" as a metaphor for coming out. These claims were met with mixed reactions from both audiences and the LGBT community. When asked about perceptions of a homosexual undertone in the film, Lee said, "We know what we made. But at the same time I feel like once we hand the film over, it belongs to the world, so I don't like to say anything, and let the fans talk. I think it's up to them." She also mentioned that Disney films were made in different eras and were all celebrated for different reasons, but a 2013 film would have a "2013 point of view".
Frozen was nominated for various awards and won a number of them, including several for Best Animated Feature. The song "Let It Go" was particularly praised. The film was nominated for two Golden Globes at the 71st Golden Globe Awards and won for Best Animated Feature, becoming the first Walt Disney Animation Studios film to win in this category. It also won two Academy Awards for Best Animated Feature and Best Original Song ("Let It Go"), the BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film at the British Academy Film Awards (BAFTA), five Annie Awards (including Best Animated Feature), and two Critics' Choice Awards for Best Animated Feature and Best Original Song ("Let It Go"). It received other similar nominations at the Satellite Awards, and various critics' groups and circles. At the 57th Annual Grammy Awards, the Frozen soundtrack won the Grammy Award for Best Compilation Soundtrack For Visual Media and was nominated for Best Score Soundtrack For Visual Media (with credits going to Christophe Beck as composer); the song "Let It Go" won the award for Best Song Written For Visual Media, with credits going to Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez as songwriters and Idina Menzel as performer.
During the spring and summer of 2014, several journalists observed that Frozen was unusually catchy in comparison to the vast majority of films, in that many children in both the U.S. and the UK were watching Frozen so many times that they now knew all the songs by heart and kept singing them again and again at every opportunity, to the distress of their hapless parents, teachers, and classmates. Among the celebrities who have disclosed that they are the parent of a Frozen-obsessed child are former UK prime minister David Cameron as well as actors Amy Adams, Ben Affleck, Kevin Costner and Vince Vaughn. When Terry Gross brought up this phenomenon with songwriters Lopez and Anderson-Lopez in an April 2014 interview on NPR, they explained there was simply no way they could have known how popular their work on Frozen would become. They were "just trying to tell a story that resonated" and "that didn't suck."
In May, columnist Joel Stein of Time magazine wrote about his young son Laszlo's frustration with the inescapable "cultural assault" of Frozen at preschool and all social and extracurricular activities, and how he had arranged for a Skype call with lead actress Bell after Laszlo began asking why the film was made. When Laszlo asked whether Bell knew when she made Frozen that it would take over kids' lives, she replied: "I did not know that people would not let it go. No pun intended." In a December 2014 interview with The Hollywood Reporter, Lee acknowledged that she had transitioned from thanking people when they expressed their appreciation for Frozen to having to apologize when they said "we're still listening to those songs" (with their children). Lee also said that she used the film and its strong female characters to inspire her own daughter, who had experienced bullying at school, and admitted that she herself as a child was bullied as well; thus, they had managed to be true to themselves like Anna and Elsa.
In a 2014 mid-year report of the 100 most-used baby names conducted by BabyCenter, Elsa was ranked 88; it was the first time the name had appeared on the site's chart. Sarah Barrett, managing director of the site, explained that while the film's popular heroine is called Anna, "Elsa offers a more unique name and is also a strong female role model." Many parents revealed that their choices of name were "heavily influenced" by the siblings. Vice president of Disney UK Anna Hill later commented that "We're delighted that Elsa is a popular name for babies and it's lovely to hear that for many families, it is actually their siblings who have chosen it," and that "Elsa's fight to overcome her fears and the powerful strength of the family bond" were relatable to many families. On 2014 year-end lists issued by Google, Frozen was the most searched movie of 2014. On the Google Play Store, Frozen and its soundtrack album were also named Movie of the Year and Album of the Year respectively, i.e. the best-selling title in their respective areas. Frozen was also the second-most illegally downloaded film title of 2014 via BitTorrent file sharing protocol, with around 30 million downloads.
After Disney announced in March 2015 that a feature-length sequel was in development, Agence France-Presse and the Toronto Star both published stories gently mocking the horror of parents everywhere at the news that another Frozen "sensory and financial assault" was in the pipeline.
In January 2014, Iger announced that Frozen would be adapted into a Broadway stage musical. In the space of a single business quarter, Iger went from speaking of Frozen's "franchise potential" (in February 2014):8,13 to saying that it was "probably" one of Disney's "top five franchises" (in May 2014). The film's massive popularity resulted in an unusually severe merchandise shortage in the United States and several other industrialized countries in April 2014, which caused resale prices for higher-quality limited-edition Frozen dolls and costumes to skyrocket past $1,000 on eBay. By the time the merchandise shortage was finally resolved in early November 2014 (nearly a year after the film's release), Disney had sold over three million Frozen costumes in North America alone. Wait times for the meet-and-greets at Disney Parks soon regularly exceeded four hours and forced management in February 2014 to indefinitely extend what was originally intended as a temporary film promotion. Disney Parks later put on a temporary event (Frozen Summer Fun) at Disney's Hollywood Studios, then announced on September 12, 2014, that the Maelstrom ride at Epcot's Norway pavilion would be closed and replaced with a Frozen-based attraction, which opened in early 2016. By August 2014, the publisher Random House had sold over 8 million Frozen-related books. Tour operators, including Adventures by Disney, added more Norway tours in response to rising demand during 2014.
Meanwhile, the producers of Once Upon a Time (made by Disney-owned ABC Studios) independently conceived of and obtained authorization from both ABC and Disney for a Frozen-inspired crossover story arc in the show's fourth season, which was first revealed at the end of the show's third season in May 2014, which was broadcast in fall 2014. On September 2, 2014, ABC broadcast The Story of Frozen: Making a Disney Animated Classic, a one-hour "making of" television special. At the end of the special, Lasseter announced that the production team would be reuniting to make Frozen Fever, a short film which debuted in theaters with Disney's Cinderella on March 13, 2015. On September 4, 2014, Feld Entertainment's Disney on Ice presented the world premiere of a touring ice skating show based on the film at Amway Center in Orlando, Florida.
In November 2014, Menzel claimed that a feature-length sequel was in development. However, on December 1, when the subject came up again during an interview on Today, she said, "You know, I have no idea. I just assumed that because it's so successful that's what they're up to!" On March 12, 2015, Disney officially announced that a feature-length sequel to Frozen was in development with Buck and Lee returning as directors, and Del Vecho returning as producer. In a May 2015 interview, Buck said, "We have lots of things to figure out but at least we know where we are going." In March 2016, Bell stated that voice recording for the film was due to start later in the month.
- "Frozen". Ontario Film Review Board. November 12, 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- Smith, Grady (November 27, 2013). "Box office preview: "Frozen" ready to storm the chart, but it won't beat "Catching Fire"". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- "Frozen (2013)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
- "Disneyland Resort Debuts "World of Color – Winter Dreams," a Merry New Spectacular for 2013 Holiday Season". PR Newswire. July 27, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
from the upcoming Walt Disney Pictures animated feature "Frozen"
- Liu, Meng (November 19, 2013). "Disney's "Frozen" Premiere Turns L.A. Into a Winter Wonderland". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- Barnes, Brooks (December 1, 2013). "Boys Don't Run Away From These Princesses". The New York Times. Retrieved December 2, 2013.
- Zuckerman, Esther (November 4, 2013). "Is "Frozen" a New, Bona Fide Disney Classic?". The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "All-Time Best-Selling Blu-ray Titles in the United States". The Numbers. January 25, 2015. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- Staff. "2013 Academy Awards Nominations and Winners by Category". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- "Golden Globes 2014: And the winners are...". USA Today. January 12, 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
- "Film in 2014". BAFTA. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- Times staff writers (February 1, 2014). "Annie Awards 2014: Complete list of winners and nominees". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- "SHOW BITS: : 'Frozen' Soundtrack Fires up With 2 Grammy Wins". ABC News. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- "Critics' Choice Awards: The Winners". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. January 17, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- Graser, Marc (December 3, 2014). "'Frozen Fever' Short to Debut in Front of Disney's 'Cinderella'". Variety. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- Graser, Marc (March 12, 2015). "Disney Announces 'Frozen 2'". Variety. Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved March 12, 2015.
- Lee, Jennifer (September 23, 2013). "Frozen's Final Shooting Draft" (PDF). Walt Disney Animation Studios. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 1, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- Nachman, Brett (August 16, 2012). "Disney In Depth: The Future Of Disney Animation (Frozen, Paperman, & Wreck-It Ralph) – A Recap Of D23's Destination D Event". Geeks of Doom. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Toti, Paula (December 10, 2013). "Local Girl stars in Disney's "Frozen"". WKRC-TV Local12.com. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
- ScreenSlam (October 31, 2013). "Frozen: Songwriters Kristen Anderson-Lopez & Robert Lopez Official Movie Interview – YouTube" (Video). YouTube. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- Wloszczyna, Susan (November 26, 2013). "With Frozen, Director Jennifer Lee Breaks the Ice for Women Directors". Indiewire. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- Breznican, Anthony (June 11, 2012). "Disney's "Frozen": Kristen Bell and Idina Menzel to voice animated tale". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 23, 2013.
- Covert, Colin (November 29, 2013). "Disney's animated "Frozen" is pretty chill". The Gazette. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- "Frozen(2013) – Cast & Crew". Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- Alexander, Bryan (June 17, 2013). ""Frozen" defrosts Kristen Bell's Disney dreams". USA Today. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "Jonathan Groff joins Disney's Frozen Voice Cast". ComingSoon.net. December 19, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Tyree Brown". NBC. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Sarto, Dan (February 21, 2013). "Oscar® Tour SoCal Day 2 Continues at Disney Feature Animation". Animation World Network. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Snetiker, Marc (June 18, 2013). "Santino Fontana and Josh Gad Join Disney's Frozen, Starring Jonathan Groff & Idina Menzel". Broadway.com. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Duralde, Alonso (November 3, 2013). ""Frozen" Review: Disney's Best Animated Musical Since "Beauty and the Beast"". TheWrap. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- ""Frozen" Movie Stills – Oaken (voiced by Chris Williams)". Yahoo!. July 11, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
- "Frozen". British Film Institute. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
- Guzman, René (November 11, 2014). "S.A. artist drew on personal experience for 'Big Hero 6' scene". expressnews.com. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
- "How Well Do You Know... Frozen?". Disney Insider. January 29, 2014. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Doty, Meriah (March 10, 2015). "Get the Story Behind the New Mini-Snowmen in 'Frozen Fever'". yahoo.com/movies. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Fischer, Russ (January 11, 2012). "Disney's "Frozen", Formerly "The Snow Queen", Will Be CG Rather Than Hand-Drawn". Slash Film. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
- Solomon, Charles (2013). The Art of Frozen. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-1-4521-1716-4.
- Hill, Jim (October 18, 2013). "Countdown to Disney "Frozen" : How one simple suggestion broke the ice on the "Snow Queen"'s decades-long story problems". Jim Hill Media. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- Connelly, Brendon (September 25, 2013). "Inside The Research, Design, And Animation Of Walt Disney's Frozen With Producer Peter Del Vecho". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- Stewart, James B. (2005). DisneyWar. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 436–438. ISBN 9780684809939. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- Issacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs (1st paperback ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 435–436. ISBN 9781451648546.
- Catmull, Ed; Amy Wallace (2014). Creativity, Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces That Stand in the Way of True Inspiration. New York: Random House. pp. 248–252. ISBN 978-0812993011.
- Price, David (2009). The Pixar Touch: The Making of a Company. Random House. pp. 252–254. ISBN 9780307278296.
- Williams, Mike P. (April 8, 2014). "Chris Buck reveals true inspiration behind Disney's Frozen (exclusive)". Yahoo! Movies. Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- Weintraub, Steve (November 25, 2013). "Josh Gad Talks FROZEN, His History with the Project, the Songs, the Status of TRIPLETS, Playing Sam Kinison, and More". Collider.com. Event occurs at 0:33. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
- Condon, Seán Francis (November 27, 2013). "Interview: Frozen's Josh Gad". MSN Canada Entertainment. Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- Chmielewski, Dawn C.; Eller, Claudia (March 9, 2010). "Disney restyles "Rapunzel" to appeal to boys". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
- de Semlyen, Nick (June 22, 2010). "Exclusive: The Lion King To Go 3D". Empire Online. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
'It's actually been tabled right now,' explains Hahn. 'It's on the low shelf – we can't reach it! But seriously, we don't have the story. It's a bit like Beauty and the Beast, which sat there for years. We cracked Beauty finally by putting in the objects and creating more plot. The Snow Queen we've had a lot of trouble with and I've spent years on it. I love it and I think it's one of the last great fairy tales. It's kind of crappy that it's just sitting there right now.'
- Sciretta, Peter (December 22, 2011). "Walt Disney Animation Gives "The Snow Queen" New Life, Retitled "Frozen" – But Will It Be Hand Drawn?". SlashFilm. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- Williams College (June 30, 2014). "Exploring the Songs of "Frozen" with Kristen Anderson-Lopez '94". YouTube. Williams College. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
- Gilchrist, Todd (March 5, 2012). "Kristen Bell Set to Star in Stage Adaptation "Some Girls", Animated Feature "Frozen" (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
- Sarto, Dan (November 7, 2013). "Directors Chris Buck and Jennifer Lee Talk 'Frozen'". Animation World Network. AWN, Inc. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Lee, Jennifer (March 1, 2014). "Oscars 2014: 'Frozen's' Jennifer Lee on being a female director". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Achilles, Jordan (March 17, 2014). "Michael, Peter, Chris and Jennifer Talk Frozen and It's Success". Kidzworld. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
- Lowman, Rob (November 19, 2013). "Unfreezing "Frozen": The making of the newest fairy tale in 3D by Disney". Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
- Lark, Max; Draskovic, Marina; Solomon, Charles (Spring 2016). "It's a Matter of Trust: At Walt Disney Animation Studios, The 'Story Trust,' A Peer-to-Peer Feedback System, Has Taken Storytelling—And Disney Animation—To New Creative Heights". Disney twenty-three. Burbank: Walt Disney Company. 8 (1): 18–21. ISSN 2162-5492. OCLC 698366817.
- Laporte, Nicole (February 28, 2014). "How "Frozen" Director Jennifer Lee Reinvented The Story Of The Snow Queen". Fast Company. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Stewart, Jill (May 15, 2013). "Jennifer Lee: Disney's New Animation Queen". LA Weekly. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
- August, John; Aline Brosh McKenna (February 1, 2014). "Episode 128: Frozen with Jennifer Lee – Transcript". Scriptnotes. johnaugust.com. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Brew, Simon (December 12, 2013). "A spoiler-y, slightly nerdy interview about Disney's Frozen". Den of Geek!. Dennis Publishing. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- Everett, Lucinda (March 31, 2014). "Frozen: inside Disney's billion-dollar social media hit". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Barnes, Brooks (November 9, 2014). "Disney Film Boss Ousted by Warner Finds Vindication in Success". New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
- Flynn, Sean (February 17, 2014). "Is it her time to shine?". The Newport Daily News. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
- Hunsaker, Andy (March 18, 2014). "The Real-Life Ice Hotel That Inspired Disney's 'Frozen'". CraveOnline. CraveOnline Media. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- Harrison, Mark (December 6, 2013). "Chris Buck and Jennifer Lee interview: on making Frozen". Den of Geek!. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Fleming, Mike (November 29, 2012). "Jennifer Lee to co-direct Disney Animated Film "Frozen"". Deadline. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
- Laskowski, Amy (February 28, 2014). "Frozen Producer Heads to the Oscars". BU Today. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Keegan, Rebecca (May 9, 2013). "Disney is reanimated with 'Frozen,' 'Big Hero 6'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Watkins, Gwynne (January 15, 2014). "Frozen Composers Assess 6 Fan-Created Homages to Their Songs". Vulture.com. New York Media LLC. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
- Miller, Lindsay (February 28, 2014). "On the Job With Jennifer Lee, Director of Frozen". Popsugar. Popsugar Inc. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- Chance, Molly (August 14, 2013). "Kristen Bell: "Frozen" character is "awkward", "Veronica Mars" footage "looks radical"". Zap2It. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- "Low-key bride Kristen Bell". Belfast Telegraph. August 31, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Tucker, April (Spring 2014). "Cinema Audio Society Awards Brings Us Together Again: Motion Picture – Animated, Frozen" (PDF). CAS Quarterly: 13–18. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Wilkinson, Amy (August 28, 2013). "Kristen Bell: "Frozen" Is "The Kind Of Movie I Wanted To See As A Kid"". MTV News. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- World Entertainment News Network (November 1, 2013). "Tangled – Secret Phone Recording Helped Idina Menzel Land New Disney Role". ContactMusic.com. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
Menzel tried out for a leading role in the 2010 fairytale film by performing an acoustic version of Blackbird by The Beatles. She didn't get the part – but a casting director was such a fan she secretly recorded the performance and then used it to persuade film bosses that the Rent star was the perfect choice for the role of Elsa in new movie Frozen.
- Vaux, Rob (November 26, 2013). "Mania Interview: Idina Menzel". Mania.com. Demand Media. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Schaefer, Sandy (November 29, 2013). ""Frozen" Review". ScreenRant. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- Grant, John (1998). Encyclopedia of Walt Disney's Animated Characters (3rd ed.). Hyperion Books. p. 400. ISBN 9780786863365.
- Emanuel Levy, "Frozen: Setting and Visual Look", Emanuel Levy Cinema 24/7, December 26, 2013.
- "The story behind the story of Frozen". Disney Insider. The Walt Disney Company. July 30, 2013. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- Burbank, Kyle (February 24, 2014). "Oscar Week: Frozen's Art of Animation". LaughingPlace.com. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- Hogg, Trevor (March 26, 2014). "Snowed Under: Chris Buck talks about Frozen". Flickering Myth. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
- Pape, Stefan (August 10, 2013). "Disney Present Footage from Their Forthcoming Picture Frozen – Report". Hey U Guys. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- Cousineau, Michael (March 29, 2014). "UNH degree played a part in Oscar-winning movie". New Hampshire Union Leader. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- Desowitz, Bill (October 7, 2013). "Immersed in Movies: First Look: Designing the Winter Wonderland of "Frozen"". Animation Scoop. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- Pockross, Adam (October 8, 2013). "21 "Frozen" Facts That Make Us Ready for Winter". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- Marcos, Angie (March 26, 2014). "Animators bask in glow of 'Frozen's' box-office and Oscar success". The Orange County Register. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- MonsieurHollywood.com (2013-12-08), Lino DiSalvo Exclusive Interview by Monsieur Hollywood Part 1, retrieved 2016-02-08
- Sarto, Dan (October 11, 2013). "The Animation of Disney's 'Frozen': Striving to Capture the Performance". Animation World Network. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
- Bailey, Caryn (November 27, 2013). "7 Things You Didn't Know About 'Frozen'". Fandango. Archived from the original on March 26, 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
- Kucharski, Joe (January 7, 2014). "Costume Design in Animation – Disney's Frozen". Tyranny of Style. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- Hahn, Don (2008). The Alchemy of Animation: Making an Animated Film in the Modern Age. New York: Disney Editions. ISBN 9781423104766.
- Failes, Ian (December 2, 2013). "The tech of Disney's Frozen and Get a Horse!". FX Guide. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- Marquez, Letisia (February 27, 2014). "UCLA's mathematicians bring snow to life for Disney's "Frozen"". UCLA Today. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- Alexey Stomakhin; Craig Schroeder; Lawrence Chai; Joseph Teran; Andrew Selle (April 12, 2013). "A material point method for snow simulation" (PDF). Walt Disney Animation Studios. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 7, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- Jason (November 21, 2013). "Making of Disney's Frozen: A Material Point Method For Snow Simulation". CG Meetup. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- Zahed, Ramin (November 27, 2013). "Disney's "Frozen" to Warm Hearts This Week". Animation Magazine. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- Hill, Jim (October 9, 2013). "Countdown to Disney "Frozen" : The flaky design idea behind the look of Elsa's ice palace". Jim Hill Media. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- Daws, Josh (November 4, 2013). "6 surprises I learned about "Frozen" fresh from filmmakers at Walt Disney Animation Studios preview event". Inside the Magic. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- Albrough, Lori (November 10, 2013). "Disney's Frozen Movie and Sitron the Fjord Horse". Bluebird Lane. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- Mullins, Casey (November 27, 2013). "Female Directors are Changing the Story in Disney Animation". Babble. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- Lyall, Sarah (February 19, 2013). "Bark Up or Down? Firewood Splits Norwegians". New York Times. p. A4. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
- Sandmo, Espen (September 6, 2013). "Nidarosdomen i ny Disney-film". NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- Lindgaard Stranden, Ingrid (December 8, 2013). "Vi ligner mest med lua på". NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- Furuly, Jan Gunnar (November 22, 2013). "Se, en samisk Disney-helt!". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- March, Catherine Dawson (November 26, 2013). "Disney's Frozen: Inspired by Norway's beauty". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- "Evil Elsa, shy Kristoff? 10 "Frozen" facts you probably didn't know". Rappler. March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- Keegan, Rebecca (November 1, 2013). "Husband-wife songwriting team's emotions flow in "Frozen"". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
- Truax, Jackson (November 27, 2013). "Frozen composers Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson-Lopez". Awards Daily. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
- Rudulph, Heather Wood (April 27, 2015). "Get That Life: How I Co-Wrote the Music and Lyrics for "Frozen"". Cosmopolitan. Hearst Communications, Inc. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
- Ng, David (February 22, 2014). "Robert Lopez ranges from ribald 'Book of Mormon' to Disney's 'Frozen'". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing Company. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
- Adams, Sam (February 17, 2014). "The Scrambled Sexuality of 'Frozen's "Let It Go"". Indiewire Blogs. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- Hutchison, Amanda (April 15, 2014). "5 Things You Didn't Know About Disney's 'Frozen' Soundtrack Read more: 5 Things You Didn't Know About Disney's 'Frozen' Soundtrack". MetroLyrics. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- Ziemba, Christine (March 3, 2014). "Disney's Frozen Wins Academy Award for Animated Feature". 24700: News from California Institute of the Arts. California Institute of the Arts. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- Kit, Zorianna (November 26, 2013). "Awards Spotlight: 'Frozen' Director Chris Buck on Crafting Well-Rounded Female Characters". Studio System News. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- Kit, Zorianna (November 27, 2013). "Awards Spotlight: Robert Lopez & Kristen Anderson-Lopez Make Beautiful Music Together for Disney's 'Frozen'". Studio System News. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
- Burlingame, Jon (November 6, 2013). "'Frozen' Aims for Watermark notched by 'Mermaid,' 'Beauty & Beast'". Variety. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Christophe Beck to Score Disney's "Frozen"". Film Music Reporter. February 19, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- Hoel, Ole Jacob (September 14, 2013). "Trøndersk joik åpner Disney-film". Adressa.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved September 15, 2013. If necessary, view a rough translation for reference.
- "Walt Disney Animation Studios' "Frozen" Lets Go With Dynamic Soundtrack". The Wall Street Journal. October 22, 2013. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
- Tingen, Paul (April 2014). "Inside Track: Disney's Frozen". Sound on Sound. SOS Publications Group. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
- Gordon, David (November 27, 2013). "Cinderella Star Santino Fontana Gets Frozen for Disney – and His Own Action Figure". TheaterMania. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Stabler, David (November 27, 2013). "Disney's 'Frozen': A behind-the-scenes look at the movie's music that gets its magic from an Oregon man". The Oregonian. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
- Lambert, Mel (March 3, 2014). "CAS Launches 'Gravity' into Oscar's Orbit". From the Guild. The Editors Guild. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
- Brew, Simon (April 4, 2014). "Jennifer Lee & Chris Buck interview: Frozen, Statham, Frozen 2". Den of Geek!. Dennis Publishing. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- Keegan, Rebecca (January 24, 2014). "'Frozen': Finding a diva in 41 languages". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- "'Let It Go': A Global Hit In Any Language". All Things Considered. NPR Music. February 24, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- Doty, Meriah (March 31, 2014). "How These Singers Around the Globe Pushed 'Frozen' Over the Top". Yahoo! Movies. Yahoo!. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
- Appelo, Tim (February 25, 2014). "'Frozen' Composer Robert Lopez on the Perils of Translating 'Let It Go'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Kang, Cecilia (November 20, 2014). "Disney's global success with 'Frozen' took lots of translation, investment". Washington Post. WP Company LLC. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- Disney Albania (2015-12-11), Frozen - Let It Go - Albanian Version | Mbretëresha e Dëborës - Dubluar në Shqip, retrieved 2016-08-24
- Lucas Zúñiga (2016-06-26), Frozen - Let It Go (Karachay) [Movie Version], retrieved 2016-08-24
- Glory Tehran (2014-10-16), Frozen Persian Dub - Behind the Mic - Glory دوبله گلوری, retrieved 2016-08-24
- "Synchresis Inc. | Dubbing | Philippines". Synchresis Inc. | Dubbing | Philippines. Retrieved 2016-08-24.
- Nachman, Brett (August 10, 2013). "D23 Expo: Mickey Mouse Short "Get A Horse" Debuts; Will Open With "Frozen"". Geeks of Doom. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Graser, Marc (November 19, 2013). "Disney's "Frozen" Premiere Warms Up Audience in Hollywood". Variety. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- "Disney's Frozen to Open Five Days Early at the El Capitan Theatre". Coming Soon. October 7, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- Stewart, Andrew (October 7, 2013). "Disney's "Frozen" Glides Into El Capitan for Exclusive Early Release". Variety. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- Graser, Marc (August 9, 2013). "D23 Expo: Disney Fanfest Starts Off Strong with Animation Lineup". Variety. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
- Nilles, Billy (June 18, 2013). ""Frozen" teaser trailer: Disney releases first look at new animated film". Zap2it. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- "The Teaser Trailer for Disney's Frozen". Coming Soon. June 18, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- Disney Animation (September 26, 2013). "Disney's Frozen Official Trailer" (Video). YouTube. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- De Graeve, Nikki (September 27, 2013). "Walt Disney's Frozen – Official Trailer". Entertainment Outlook. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- Jason (September 26, 2013). "Disney's Frozen Official Trailer". CG Meetup. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- Bevil, Dewayne (October 7, 2013). ""Frozen" characters set to visit Epcot's Norway, be seen in Magic Kingdom show". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Brigante, Ricky (November 15, 2013). "Anna and Elsa joined by animated Olaf for "Frozen" character meet-and-greet in Royal Reception at Disneyland". Inside the Magic. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
- Tully, Sarah (February 20, 2014). ""Frozen" characters draw unprecedented lines at Disneyland". Orange County Register. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Disney Consumer Products (November 6, 2013). "Press release: Disney Celebrates Family Bonds and Epic Storytelling in New Frozen Product Collection Available at Retail Now". Disney Consumer Products. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- Alexander, Bryan (January 22, 2014). "Sing-along "Frozen" coming to theaters". USA Today. Gannett. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- "Cinemark – Frozen Sing-a-long". Cinemark. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- McClintock, Pamela (January 31, 2014). "Box Office: "Frozen" Sing-Along Hits High Note in Friday Matinee Sales". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- Hongo, Jun (April 17, 2014). "Q&A: Disney Executive Tells of 'Frozen' Success in Japan". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
- "DISNEY HAS THE NATION SINGING, ENCOURAGING FROZEN FANS TO HAVE A GO AT 'LET IT GO'". Primary Times. Archived from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
- Sims, Andrew (February 25, 2014). ""Frozen" now available for digital download – win a copy!". Hypable. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- Murray, Noel (March 15, 2014). "New releases: Disney's Oscar-winning heartwarmer 'Frozen'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- "Blu-ray, DVD and Digital HD | Frozen | Disney Movies". Disney Movies. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- Sims, Andrew (January 10, 2014). "'Frozen' DVD/Blu-ray release date, special features announced". Hypable. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- Sims, Andrew (February 28, 2014). "Kristen Bell, Jonathan Groff, and Josh Gad sing about the making of 'Frozen' in epic new song". Hypable. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- "Frozen Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. January 10, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "Frozen (Two-Disc Blu-ray / DVD + Digital Copy) (2013)". Amazon.com. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- Lang, Brent (March 19, 2014). "'Frozen' Sells Massive 3.2 Million Discs in One Day". TheWrap. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
- Kit, Borys (March 20, 2014). "'Frozen' Sells 3.2 Million Blu-ray, DVD Units in First Day". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 20, 2014.
- J. McLean, Thomas (March 19, 2014). "'Frozen' Makes Huge Debut on Disc". Animation Magazine. Retrieved March 20, 2014.
- Arnold, Thomas K. (March 26, 2014). "'Frozen' Easily Tops Home Video Sales Charts". Variety. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Blu-ray Weekly Sales Chart – The Numbers". The Numbers. Nash Information Services, LLC. Archived from the original on June 5, 2014. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- Arnold, Thomas K. (May 7, 2014). "'Frozen' Barely Beats 'Legend of Hercules' to Stay on Top of Home Video Sales Charts". Variety. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- Lane, Daniel (April 14, 2014). "The Desolation Of Smaug knocks Frozen off Number 1". Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- Lane, Daniel (April 2, 2014). "Disney's Frozen smashes though half-a-million DVD and Blu-ray sales". Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- Lane, Daniel (April 22, 2014). "Frozen reclaims Official Video Chart top spot". Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Frozen Home Video Tops Spirited Away as Fastest to Sell 2 Million Copies in Japan". Anime News Network. August 14, 2014. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
- "Frozen". The Numbers. Nash Information Services, LLC. Retrieved December 31, 2014.
- "United States Combined DVD and Blu-ray Sales Chart for Week Ending March 8, 2015". The Numbers. Nash Information Services, LLC. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- Lyne, Charlie (November 29, 2014). "Frozen Sing-Along out now on DVD". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Sims, Andrew (August 12, 2014). "Disney announces 'Frozen: Sing-Along Edition' on DVD and Digital". Hypable. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Wolfe, Jennifer (August 13, 2014). "Disney to Release 'Frozen' Sing-Along Edition". Animation World Network. AWN, Inc. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Truitt, Brian (November 17, 2014). "For those who just can't 'Let It Go' there is a 'Frozen' singalong edition". USA Today Entertain This!. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Amidi, Amid (December 29, 2013). "Disney Files Trademark Lawsuit Over "Frozen Land"". Cartoon Brew. Cartoon Brew, LLC. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Gardner, Eriq (December 24, 2013). "Disney Files Trademark Lawsuit Over 'Frozen Land' Film". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Koch, Dave (December 28, 2013). "Disney Acts To Freeze Out Competition". Big Cartoon News. Big Cartoon DataBase. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Burgin, Jack (January 18, 2014). "Walt Disney Settles Trademark Lawsuit over "Frozen"". WDW Info. Werner Technologies, LLC. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Gardner, Eriq (January 22, 2014). "Disney Lawsuit Ices 'Frozen Land' Movie". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Vlessing, Etan (January 27, 2014). "Phase 4 Films settles Frozen Land lawsuit with Disney". Playback. Brunico Communications Ltd. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Todd Spangler (December 28, 2014). "Top 20 Most Pirated Movies of 2014 Led by 'Wolf of Wall Street,' 'Frozen,' 'Gravity'". Variety. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
- Mike Fleming Jr (March 21, 2014). "2013 Most Valuable Blockbuster – #7 'Monsters University' Vs. #10 'Thor: The Dark World'; #2 'Frozen' Vs. #15 'The Great Gatsby'". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
- "All Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
- McClintock, Pamela (March 30, 2014). "Box Office Milestone: 'Frozen' Becomes No. 1 Animated Film of All Time". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "GLOBAL: 'Captain America' Takes $75.2M Debut Ahead of North American Release; 'Noah' on the Verge of Hitting $100M; 'Frozen' is the Top Animated Film of All Time; 'Rio 2' Takes Record Breaking Brazilian Debut to Climb to $29.7M". Boxoffice.com. March 30, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
- "2013 Yearly Box Office Results – Box Office Mojo". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
- Bacle, Ariana (March 3, 2014). ""Frozen" hits $1 billion mark at worldwide box office". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- "All Time Worldwide Opening Records". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
- Subers, Ray (March 2, 2014). "Weekend Report: Neeson Beats Jesus, "Frozen" Hits $1 Billion". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- McClintock, Pamela (March 2, 2014). "Box Office Milestone: "Frozen" Crosses $1 Billion Worldwide". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
- Palmeri, Christopher; Sakoui, Anousha (March 14, 2014). "Disney's 'Frozen' Passing $1 Billion Cements Rebound". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
- ""Catching Fire" and "Frozen" Heat Up Fandango's Fanticipation with Brisk Advance Ticket Sales for Thanksgiving Weekend". Boxoffice.com. November 26, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "Weekend Report: "Catching Fire" Burns Bright, Sets November Record". Box Office Mojo. November 24, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "TOP WEEKEND THEATER AVERAGES". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "Frozen (2013) – Daily Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "Box Office: 'Interstellar,' 'Big Hero 6' Blast Off to Big Thursday Night Numbers". The Hollywood Reporter. November 7, 2014. Archived from the original on November 7, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
- Mendelson, Scott (November 29, 2013). ""Catching Fire", "Frozen" Chase Thanksgiving Box Office Records". Forbes. Archived from the original on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Amidi, Amid (December 1, 2013). ""Frozen" Smashes Disney Animation Opening Weekend Records". Cartoon Brew. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "Biggest Opening Weekends That Did Not Debut at #1". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved December 1, 2014.
- Subers, Ray (December 1, 2013). "Weekend Report: "Catching Fire", "Frozen" Set Thanksgiving Records". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 2, 2013.
- Stewart, Andrew (December 1, 2013). "Thanksgiving Box Office: "Catching Fire," "Frozen" Serve Up Holiday Records". Variety. Retrieved December 2, 2013.
- Biggest 3-day Thanksgiving Openings at the Box Office. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Biggest 5-day Thanksgiving Openings at the Box Office. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Biggest 3-day Thanksgiving Weekends at the Box Office. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Biggest 5-day Thanksgiving Weekends at the Box Office. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "NORTH AMERICA: Studio Weekend Estimates: "The Hunger Games: Catching Fire" Sets New Five-Day Thanksgiving Weekend Record With $110.2M; "Frozen" Ices Expectations With $93.0M Five-Day Start". Boxoffice.com. December 1, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- Subers, Ray (December 8, 2013). "Weekend Report: "Frozen" Beats "Fire," "Furnace" Melts". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- Subers, Ray (January 5, 2014). "Weekend Report: "Frozen" Chills "Paranormal" Spin-Off This Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- Tipton, Janelle (March 31, 2014). "Disney's 'Frozen' and Marvel's 'Captain America: The Winter Soldier' Heat Up Box Offices Around the World". The Walt Disney Company. Archived from the original on March 31, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Frozen (2013) – Weekend Box Office Results – Box Office Mojo". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved March 18, 2014.
- Subers, Ray (December 29, 2013). "Weekend Report: "Hobbit," "Frozen" Top "Wolf," "Mitty" on Final Weekend of 2013". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Top Grossing Movies in their 5th to 12th Weekends at the Box Office:
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 5th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 6th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 7th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 8th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 9th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 10th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 11th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 12th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- "Friday Report: 'Other Woman' On Pace for $25 Million Debut". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. April 26, 2014. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
- "All Time Domestic Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
- "2013 Domestic Grosses, 2013 Yearly Box Office Results – Box Office Mojo". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- "Animation Movies at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
- "3D Movies at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
- "Walt Disney Animation Studios Movies at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- Subers, Ray (January 26, 2014). "Weekend Report: "Ride Along" Runs Over "I, Frankenstein"". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
- Kay, Jeremy (February 9, 2014). "Frozen leads int'l BO on $24m". Screen Daily. Archived from the original on February 12, 2014. Retrieved February 9, 2014.
- Fritz, Ben (January 12, 2014). "A Charmed Life for Disney's 'Frozen'". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
This past weekend, as the movie's domestic total hit $317.7 million, "Frozen" surpassed "The Lion King" to become the highest-grossing Disney-produced animated film of all time, not accounting for inflation or re-releases.
- "Frozen (2013)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
- "All Time Worldwide Box Office Results (Sorted by overseas grosses)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
- Subers, Ray (April 20, 2014). "Weekend Report: 'Captain' Three-peats, 'Heaven' Rises Over Easter Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- "2013 Yearly Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
- Hyo-won, Lee (March 2, 2014). ""Frozen" Crosses $75 Million in South Korea, Breaks Local Records". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
- Subers, Ray (February 2, 2014). "Weekend Report: "Ride Along" Avoids "Awkward Moment," Three-peats Over Super Bowl Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- "2013 Venezuela Yearly Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Kay, Jeremy (January 5, 2014). "Hobbit 2 soars past $500m int'l". Screen Daily. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- "UPDATED GLOBAL: "Frozen" Breaks "Hobbit" Streak, Crosses $700M; Big China Debut For "Despicable Me 2"; "12 Years A Slave" #1 In The UK". Boxoffice.com. January 12, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "GLOBAL: "Frozen" Breaks $800M; "I, Frankenstein" Opens Strong In Russia". Boxoffice.com. January 26, 2014.
- Subers, Ray (February 9, 2014). "Weekend Report: Everything Is Awesome For "The LEGO Movie"". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- Subers, Ray (January 12, 2014). "Weekend Report: Audiences Flock to "Lone Survivor," Avoid "Hercules," "Her"". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- Subers, Ray (February 9, 2014). "Weekend Report: Everything Is Awesome For "The LEGO Movie"". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- "Weekly box office". EntGroup. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
- "RUSSIA: "Frozen" Off To A Hot Start". Boxoffice.com. December 18, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
- Blair, Gavin J. (March 17, 2014). "'Frozen' Sets Disney Opening Weekend Record in Japan". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved March 17, 2014.
- "Frozen (2013) – International Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- "GLOBAL: "Frozen" Continues To Dominate, Passes $500M Overseas". Boxoffice.com. February 2, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
- Japanese Box Office Reports:
- "GLOBAL: 'The Amazing Spider-Man 2' Swings to $369M After North American Debut; 'Rio 2' Closes in on $400M; 'Divergent' Reaches $250M Mark". Boxoffice.com. May 4, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Tartaglione, Nancy (May 13, 2014). "Intl Box Office: 'Amazing Spider-Man 2' Snares $54M In 1st China Week; 'Neighbors' Parties With $33.7M Open; 'Rio 2' Flies Past $300M; Auds Faithful To 'The Other Woman'; 'Spanish Affairs' Sets New Record; More". Deadline.com. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
- "'Frozen' Tops Japanese Box Office for 10th Consecutive Weekend". Boxoffice.com. May 18, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- "GLOBAL: 'X-Men: Days of Future Past' Breaks 'Avatar' Record as Fox International's Biggest Overseas Debut of All Time". Boxoffice.com. May 25, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
- "GLOBAL: 'Maleficent' Edges Out X-Men for Box Office Crown with $100.6M Day-and-Date Debut Overseas". Boxoffice.com. June 1, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- "GLOBAL: 'Edge of Tomorrow' Leads the Overseas Box Office, Reaches $140.1M Global Cume Following North American Release". Boxoffice.com. June 8, 2014. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "GLOBAL: 'Godzilla' Takes Over China, Crosses $400M Worldwide". Boxoffice.com. June 15, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
- "GLOBAL: Strong Brazil Bow Sends 'How to Train Your Dragon 2' to $43.5 Million Overseas Weekend; 'Maleficent' Takes $20.3 Million in China". Boxoffice.com. June 22, 2014. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
- "'Transformers: Age of Extinction' Crushes the Competition with $301.3M Global Bow". Boxoffice.com. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "Frozen (2013) – International Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
- Hyo-won, Lee (February 19, 2014). "South Korea Box Office: "Frozen" Becomes Second Most Watched Foreign Film". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 20, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Hyo-won, Lee (March 2, 2014). ""Frozen" Crosses $75 Million in South Korea, Breaks Local Records". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "GLOBAL: Strong Brazil Bow Sends 'How to Train Your Dragon 2' to $43.5 Million Overseas Weekend; 'Maleficent' Takes $20.3 Million in China". Boxoffice. June 22, 2014. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
- "'Frozen' Gives Up Top Spot in Japan to 'Maleficent' After 16 Consecutive Frames". Boxoffice.com. BoxOffice® Media, LLC. July 6, 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
- Subers, Ray (November 6, 2013). "Holiday 2013 Forecast". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- BoxOffice Staff (October 4, 2013). "Long Range Forecast: 'Black Nativity', 'Frozen', 'Homefront', & 'Oldboy'". Boxoffice.com. BoxOffice® Media, LLC. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
- Agar, Chris (November 27, 2013). "Box Office Prediction: 'Frozen' vs. 'The Hunger Games: Catching Fire'". ScreenRant. Screen Rant, LLC. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Dillard, Clayton (November 26, 2013). "Box Office Rap: Frozen and the Frost-y Showdown". Slant Magazine. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- Brevet, Brad (November 28, 2013). "Box Office Predictions: 'Hunger Games: Catching Fire' to Top 'Frozen' for Second Weekend Win". Rope of Silicon. RopeofSilicon.com LLC. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- Ebiri, Bilge (January 10, 2014). "The Eight Reasons Frozen Is Unstoppable". Vulture. New York Media, LLC. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- Movie Critic Assassins (December 6, 2013). "Box Office Predictions: 'Frozen,' 'Hunger Games' Re-Team for Blockbuster Tix Sales". Breitbart.com. Breitbart. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
- Davis, Scott (January 15, 2014). "What Marketers Should Learn From Disney's 'Frozen'". Forbes. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "'Frozen' tops box office in Japan for 5th consecutive week". Japan Today. GPlusMedia Co., Ltd. April 16, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Blair, Gavin J. (May 25, 2014). "Japan Box Office: 'Frozen' Edges Toward $200 Million, Enters All-Time Top 5". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
- Williams, Mike P. (April 10, 2014). "Frozen Remains Top Of Japanese Box Office". Yahoo! Movies. Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- Blair, Gavin J. (June 23, 2014). "Japan Box Office: 'Frozen' Tops For 15th Week, '300' Bows in 5th". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- Cunningham, Todd (May 29, 2014). "'Frozen' Riding 'Perfect Storm' to $200 Million at Japan Box Office". TheWrap. The Wrap News Inc. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Cunningham, Todd (May 29, 2014). "'Frozen' Riding 'Perfect Storm' to $200 Million at Japan Box Office". Yahoo! Movies. Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Brown, Eric (May 30, 2014). "'Frozen' On Track To Become Japan's Second Biggest Movie Ever Next Week". International Business Times. IBT Media Inc. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- Feeney, Nolan (October 14, 2014). "Idina Menzel Doesn't Understand Why Her Christmas Album Is Out in October". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
- Sharkey, Betsy (November 21, 2013). "Review: "Frozen" an icy blast of fun from the first snowflake". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Gleiberman, Owen (November 26, 2013). "Movie Review : Frozen (2013)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Fallon, Kevin (November 25, 2013). ""Frozen" is the Best Disney Film Since "The Lion King"". The Daily Beast. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
- Peterson, Jeff (March 3, 2014). "'Frozen' makes history two times over on Oscar weekend". Deseret News. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Fritz, Ben (January 12, 2014). "A Charmed Life for Disney's 'Frozen'". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Morgenstern, Joe (November 28, 2013). "Splendid Sights, Musical Might Melt "Frozen"". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- Long, Tom (November 27, 2013). ""Frozen" mixes music and animation to create a soaring holiday delight". The Detroit News. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- Jacobs, Matthew; Rosen, Christopher (December 19, 2013). "17 Best Movie Moments Of 2013". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- "Best Movie Moments of 2013 Included Scenes from Iron Man 3, Gravity, Fast & Furious 6, and More". Collider. November 20, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- "Frozen (2013)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Frozen". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
- McClintock, Pamela (November 17, 2011). "Box Office: "Frozen" Opens to Stellar $15.2 Million Wednesday; "Catching Fire" Still No. 1". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Corliss, Richard (December 4, 2013). "Top 10 Best Movies". Time. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
- Adams, Ryan (December 7, 2013). "Kyle Smith and Lou Lumenick's Top 10 lists". AwardsDaily.com. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- McCarthy, Todd (October 24, 2013). "Frozen: Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- Smith, Kyle. "Disney's "Frozen" will melt your heart". New York Post. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- Mendelson, Scott (November 19, 2013). ""Frozen" Is Disney's Triumphant Reaffirmation Of Its Cultural Legacy". Forbes. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
- Corliss, Richard (November 23, 2013). "Frozen: This Disney Princess Movie Is Thaw-some". TIME. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
- Roeper, Richard (November 26, 2013). "Richard Roeper & the Movies: "Frozen" Review". The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Phillips, Michael (November 26, 2013). "'Frozen': Defying meteorology". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Holden, Stephen (November 26, 2013). "From the Heat of Royal Passion, Poof! It's Permafrost". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Dibdin, Emma. ""Frozen" review: Heartfelt fairytale musical is a new Disney classic". Digital Spy. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
- Staff (January 1, 2014). "Sámi thing: President's New Year speech" (in Norwegian). Sametinget. Archived from the original on January 12, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- Staff (January 16, 2014). "Frode pushed down Beyoncé" (in Norwegian). Sametinget. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- Foundas, Scott (November 3, 2014). "Film Review: "Frozen"". Variety. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
- Keogh, Tom (November 26, 2013). ""Frozen": Visuals are solid, but narrative is on thin ice". The Seattle Times. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
- Williams, Joe (November 27, 2013). ""Frozen" is pretty but pointless". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Christy Lemire (November 27, 2013). "Frozen". RogerEbert.com. Ebert Digital LLC. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
- Stampler, Laura (October 14, 2013). "Do Animated Female Characters Need to Be 'Pretty'?". Time. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Amidi, Amid (October 8, 2013). "'Frozen' Head of Animation Says Animating Women is 'Really, Really Difficult'". Cartoon Brew. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
"Historically speaking, animating female characters are really, really difficult, because they have to go through these range of emotions, but you have to keep them pretty and they're very sensitive to – you can get them off a model very quickly. So, having a film with two hero female characters was really tough, and having them both in the scene and look very different if they're echoing the same expression; that Elsa looking angry looks different from Anna being angry." – Lino DiSalvo
- Cunningham, Todd (October 9, 2013). "Disney's 'Frozen' Animator Draws Heat for Female Character Comments". TheWrap. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Wloszczyna, Susan (November 26, 2013). "With Frozen, Director Jennifer Lee Breaks the Ice for Women Directors". Indiewire.
"It is hard no matter what the gender is. I felt horrible for him. He was so proud what achieved in the movie. We never had such sophisticated rigs (the skeletal structure of the figures used to model characters on a computer) to show awkwardness and grief on a face. I'm so proud of them." – Jennifer Lee
- Bailey, Ian (August 15, 2014). "Q&A: For this animator, working on Frozen created a tricky career legacy". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
- Pulver, Andrew (March 12, 2014). "Frozen lambasted as pro-gay propaganda by Christian pastor". The Guardian. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- Dockterman, Eliana (March 12, 2014). "Pastor Claims Frozen Will Turn Your Children Gay". Time. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- Denham, Jess (March 13, 2014). "Disney's Frozen is 'very evil' gay propaganda, says Christian pastor". The Independent. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- M. Wong, Curtis (February 18, 2014). "Disney's 'Frozen' Slammed By Mormon Grandmother For 'Gay Agenda To Normalize Homosexuality'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- Petersen, Kierran (March 27, 2014). "Disney's Frozen and the 'gay agenda'". BBC News. Washington DC Bureau. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Gettell, Oliver (March 12, 2014). "Conservative radio hosts: 'Frozen' promotes gay agenda, bestiality". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Wakeman, Gregory (February 28, 2014). "Frozen creator responds to 'gay agenda' claims". Yahoo. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
- MacKenzie, Steven (March 5, 2014). "Frozen: Disney's icebreaker". The Big Issue. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- King, Susan (February 1, 2014). ""Frozen" wins Annie Award for best animated film, several others". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- International Press Academy (December 2, 2013). "The International Press Academy Announces Nominations For The 18th Annual Satellite Awards™". PR Newswire. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
- "57th Annual GRAMMY Awards Nominees". The Grammy. The Recording Academy. Archived from the original on December 7, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Morris, Christopher (December 5, 2014). "Grammy Nominations: Sam Smith, Beyonce Lead The Pack". Variety. Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- "The 2015 Grammy nomination list". USA Today. Gannett Satellite Information Network, Inc. December 5, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Notte, Jason (February 26, 2014). "Why 'Let It Go' From Disney's 'Frozen' Needs an Oscar". The Street. The Street, Inc. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Healy, Vikki Ortiz (April 8, 2014). "What to do about 'Frozen' fatigue". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Silva, Estey (May 8, 2014). "'Frozen' fatigue: Coping with kids songs on repeat". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Cohen, Joanna (May 16, 2014). "Kids Are Icebound by 'Frozen' Fervor: Disney's Animated Film 'Frozen' Has Some Children Obsessed". New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- Kay, Karen (May 3, 2014). "Frozen: How Disney's animated fairytale is conquering the world". Daily Mirror. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Lynskey, Dorian (May 13, 2014). "Frozen-mania: how Elsa, Anna and Olaf conquered the world". The Guardian. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Candy, Lorraine (June 19, 2014). "The Disney film that's stolen my children's brains". The Daily Mail. Associated Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
- Mainwaring, Rachel (June 27, 2014). "Will you Let It Go! My kids singing Frozen song gives me chills". WalesOnline. Media Wales Ltd. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- Chorley, Matt (February 5, 2015). "Cameron reveals how he and SamCam had to take their son to A&E after he stood on a wasps' nest – and how even the Prime Minister does not have the power to turn off Frozen's 'Let It Go'". Daily Mail. Associated Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
- Cummings, Pip (March 15, 2015). "Amy Adams only interested in 'strong female roles'". Daily Life. Fairfax Media. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Maresca, Rachel (September 30, 2014). "Ben Affleck: 'My 2 older daughters could give a s--t about Batman'". New York Daily News. Daily News, L.P. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Nahas, Aili (January 29, 2015). "Kevin Costner: My Home Is 'Frozen Obsessed'". People. Time Inc. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Harrison, Lily (March 5, 2015). "Vince Vaughn Jokes That Frozen Is Probably Damaging His Daughter Lochlyn—Watch!". E! Online. E! Entertainment Television, LLC. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Gross, Terry (April 10, 2014). "Transcript: Songwriters Behind 'Frozen' Let Go Of The Princess Mythology". Fresh Air. NPR. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Stein, Joel (May 26, 2014). "Ice, Ice, Laszlo: How my son – traumatized by the Frozen soundtrack – learned to let it go". Time. p. 62. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- Wilson, Stacey (December 12, 2014). "'Frozen' Director Apologizes to Parents for "Let It Go"". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- "Frozen Director Now Apologizes to Parents for 'Let It Go'". Time. December 15, 2014. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- Domanico, Anthony (December 15, 2014). "'Frozen' director Jennifer Lee is really sorry for 'Let It Go'". CNET. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- Mullins, Jenna (June 16, 2014). "People Are Naming Their Babies After Frozen Characters Now". E! Online. E! Entertainment Television, LLC. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- "Mid Year Results: BabyCentre Top 20 Boys' and Girls' Names of 2014; Emily and Oliver top the chart". Babycentre.co.uk. BabyCenter, L.L.C. June 16, 2014. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- Bloom, David (December 16, 2014). "Google's Year In Hollywood Search: 'Frozen,' 'Game of Thrones,' JLaw, Robin Williams". Deadline.com. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- "Movies | Google Year in Search 2014". Google. Google Inc. Retrieved December 18, 2014. For a full list of trends, see Google | Year in Search 2014.
- Bloom, David (December 11, 2014). "Google Play's 2014 Stars: 'Frozen,' 'Frozen' Again, #TFIOS And 'The Walking Dead'". Deadline.com. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- Spangler, Todd (December 28, 2014). "Top 20 Most Pirated Movies of 2014 Led by 'Wolf of Wall Street,' 'Frozen,' 'Gravity'". Variety. Variety Media LLC. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
- White, Steve (December 28, 2014). "Frozen and The Wolf of Wall Street top the pirate movie charts". Daily Mirror. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
- Randolph, Eric; Ritchie, Alice (March 13, 2015). "Parents brace for another dose of Frozen fever". Yahoo News. Yahoo! Inc. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
- Menon, Vinay (March 13, 2015). "Disney's Frozen fever reaches pandemic level: Menon". Toronto Star. Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
- Reingold, Jennifer (January 13, 2014). "Disney CEO Iger: Frozen has restored our mojo". Fortune. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- Cox, Gordon (January 13, 2014). "Disney Considering "Frozen" for Broadway, Obviously". Variety. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- Rothman, Lily (February 24, 2014). "Ice, Ice, Baby: Frozen inspires a totally chilled-out cult following". Time. 183 (7): 48–59.
Disney has already announced plans to bring a musical version to Broadway, and theme-park incarnations have been hinted at.
- The Walt Disney Company (February 5, 2014). "Transcript of the Walt Disney Company Q1 FY14 Earnings Conference Call" (PDF). Retrieved April 3, 2014.
- Fritz, Ben (May 6, 2014). "Disney's Film Business Gets Big Boost From 'Frozen': Operating Income at Film Unit More Than Quadruples; Musical in the Works". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- Sheridan, Patrick M. (May 12, 2014). "Disney plans to milk 'Frozen' success". CNNMoney. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
'This is definitely up there in terms of our top, probably, five franchises,' said Disney CEO Bob Iger in a conference call last week after Disney reported a 27% surge in profits. 'So you can expect us to take full advantage of that over the next at least five years.'
- Berr, Jonathan (April 11, 2014). "Want to buy "Frozen" merchandise? Be prepared to wait or pay up". CBS MoneyWatch. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
- Liddane, Lisa (April 10, 2014). "Most-wanted dress in the U.S.: 'Frozen's' Elsa frock". Orange County Register. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
- Kavilanz, Parija (April 10, 2014). "'Frozen' Elsa dress selling for $1,000 on eBay". CNNMoney. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- Palmeri, Christopher (April 17, 2014). "Elsa's Frozen Dress: The Hottest Gown in Town". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Schuster, Dana (April 14, 2014). "'Frozen' merch is making parents do crazy things". New York Post. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Vincent, Alice (April 10, 2014). "Frozen merchandise shortage spells trouble for parents". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
- Wood, Zoe (May 17, 2014). "Frozen: parental panic as unexpected Disney hit leads to merchandise sellout". The Guardian. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- March, Catherine Dawson (April 17, 2014). "Frozen-out in the toy aisle: Why merch for Disney's hit film is in short supply". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Mayoh, Lisa (May 24, 2014). "Australian supplies of Frozen dolls have dried up". The Daily Telegraph. Sydney. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Han, Esther (July 4, 2014). "S'no joke for parents as stocks of Frozen movie merchandise sell out". Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- Kenny, Katie (May 16, 2014). "Do you want to buy a snowman?". Stuff.co.nz. Fairfax New Zealand Limited. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- Quennesson, Perrine (April 24, 2014). "La Reine des Neiges : un succès qui rend fou". Premiere (in French). Lagardère Group. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
- Ang, Benson (April 20, 2014). "'Frozen' dress sold out in Singapore". The Straits Times. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
- Thompson, Andrew (November 1, 2014). "Chillax parents, the great 'Frozen' toy shortage has thawed". Today.com. NBCUniversal Media, LLC. Retrieved November 1, 2014.
- Byron, Ellen; Paul Ziobro (November 4, 2014). "Elsa Dominates Anna in 'Frozen' Merchandise Sales". Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
- Brigante, Ricky (July 5, 2014). "Frozen Summer Fun event debuts at Walt Disney World as Anna, Elsa, Kristoff, and Olaf appear in delightful new shows". Inside the Magic. Distant Creations Group, LLC. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- Bilbao, Richard (September 12, 2014). "Disney replacing Epcot's Maelstrom with Frozen ride". Orlando Business Journal. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- Brigante, Ricky (September 12, 2014). ""Frozen" ride announced for Walt Disney World in 2016 to replace Maelstrom at Epcot, "Frozen" Christmas also revealed". Inside the Magic. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- Legaspi, Althea (August 9, 2014). "Anna And Elsa Of 'Frozen' Are Coming To A Bookstore Near You". MTV News. Viacom International Inc. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
- Baran, Michelle (July 6, 2014). "Disney's 'Frozen' is sending tourists packing for Norway". Travel Weekly. Northstar Travel Media, LLC. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Morris, Jessica (June 20, 2014). "Disney's 'Frozen' fires up Norway's tourism". CNBC.com. CNBC LLC. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Ng, Philiana (May 12, 2014). "'Once Upon a Time' Bosses on 'Frozen' Reveal: We Want to Do It Justice (Q&A)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Rothman, Lily (May 12, 2014). "Was That Elsa from Frozen on Once Upon a Time?". Time. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- "How the Producers of Once Upon a Time Kept That Frozen Shocker a Secret". Time. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- "Learn the Story of Frozen and Find Out What's Next for Anna and Elsa". Disney Insider. August 13, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- Hibberd, James (August 13, 2014). "ABC to show how Disney made 'Frozen'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- Prudom, Laura (August 13, 2014). "ABC to Air 'The Story of Frozen' Behind-the-Scenes Special". Variety. Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- Zuckerman, Esther (December 3, 2014). "'Frozen' short will play before 'Cinderella'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
- Graser, Marc (September 2, 2014). "'Frozen' Characters to Return in 'Frozen Fever' Animated Short". Variety. Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
- Zakarin, Jordan (September 2, 2014). "Disney's New 'Frozen' Short Film Will Premiere in Spring 2015". TheWrap. The Wrap News Inc. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Breznican, Anthony (September 2, 2014). "'Frozen Fever': Disney to bring back Elsa and Anna for animated short". Entertainment Weekly. Entertainment Weekly and Time Inc. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Palm, Matthew (September 3, 2014). "'Disney on Ice presents Frozen' has world premiere in Orlando". Orlando Sentinel. Tribune Publishing Company. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Palm, Matthew (September 4, 2014). "Review: 'Disney on Ice presents Frozen' from Feld Entertainment". Orlando Sentinel. Tribune Publishing Company. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Idina Menzel interviews with The Daily Telegraph:
- McLean, Craig (November 28, 2014). "The actress who is Frozen's Elsa". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Singh, Anita (November 28, 2014). "Frozen 2: the sequel is happening, says Idina Menzel". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Gajewski, Ryan (November 30, 2014). "Idina Menzel: 'Frozen' Sequel Is Being Developed". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Bloom, David (November 30, 2014). "'Frozen' Sequel "In The Works," Says Idina Menzel". Deadline.com. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Hines, Ree (December 1, 2014). "Idina Menzel talks 'Frozen' sequel: 'I just assume' it's on the way". Today. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Dockterman, Eliana (December 1, 2014). "There May Not Be a Frozen Sequel After All". Time. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Gettell, Oliver (December 1, 2014). "Idina Menzel backtracks on 'Frozen' sequel comments". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Yoshinaga, Peta (May 4, 2015). "Creator of Frozen, animation director Chris Buck, admits working on sequel to the blockbuster is daunting". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
- Foutch, Haleigh (March 18, 2016). "'Frozen 2': Kristen Bell Says She's About to Head Back into the Recording Studio". Collider.com. Archived from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- Solomon, Charles (December 3, 2013). The Art of Frozen. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 9781452117164. OCLC 843955758.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Frozen (2013 film)|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Frozen (2013 film).|
- Official website
- Frozen at the Internet Movie Database
- Frozen at the TCM Movie Database
- Frozen at The Big Cartoon DataBase
- Frozen at AllMovie
- Frozen at Box Office Mojo
- Frozen at Metacritic
- Frozen at Rotten Tomatoes
- Frozen at Walt Disney Animation Studios
|Academy Award for Best Original Song
"Let It Go"
| Succeeded by|