Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock
|Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock|
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. Painting by Johann Caspar Füssli (1750)
2 July 1724|
Quedlinburg, Holy Roman Empire
14 March 1803 78) (aged|
Hamburg, Holy Roman Empire
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (German: [ˈklɔpʃtɔk]; July 2, 1724 – March 14, 1803) was a German poet. His best known work is his epic poem Der Messias (The Messiah). One of his major contributions to German literature was to open it up to exploration outside of French models.
Klopstock was born at Quedlinburg, the eldest son of a lawyer. Both in his birthplace and on the estate of Friedeburg on the Saale, which his father later rented, he spent a happy childhood; and more attention having been given to his physical than to his mental development, he grew up strong and healthy and became an excellent horseman. In his thirteenth year, he returned to Quedlinburg and attended the gymnasium there, and in 1739 went on to the famous classical school named Schulpforta. Here he soon became adept in Greek and Latin versification, and wrote some meritorious idylls and odes in German. His original intention of making Henry the Fowler the hero of an epic was abandoned in favor of a religious epic, under the influence of Milton's Paradise Lost, with which he became acquainted through Bodmer's translation.
While still at school, he had already drafted the plan of Der Messias on which most of his fame rests. On 21 September 1745 he delivered, on quitting school, a remarkable "departing oration" on epic poetry—Abschiedsrede über die epische Poesie, kultur- und literargeschichtlich erläutert—and next proceeded to Jena as a student of theology, where he drew up the first three cantos of the Messias in prose. Finding life at that university not to his liking, he transferred in the spring of 1746 to Leipzig, where he joined a circle of young men of letters who contributed to the Bremer Beiträge. In this periodical the first three cantos of Der Messias were published anonymously in hexameter verse in 1748.
A new era in German literature had commenced, and the identity of the author soon became known. In Leipzig he also wrote a number of odes, the best known of which is An meine Freunde (1747), afterwards recast as Wingolf (1767). He left the university in 1748 and became a private tutor in the family of a relative at Langensalza, where unrequited love for a cousin (the "Fanny" of his odes) disturbed his peace of mind. For that reason he gladly accepted in 1750 an invitation from Bodmer, the translator of Paradise Lost, to visit him in Zürich, where Klopstock was initially treated with every kindness and respect and rapidly recovered his spirits. Bodmer, however, was disappointed to find in the young poet of the Messias a man of strong worldly interests, and a coolness sprang up between the two men.
At this juncture Klopstock received from Frederick V of Denmark, on the recommendation of his minister Count von Bernstorff (1712–1772), an invitation to settle in Copenhagen with an annuity of 400 thalers, in the hope that he would complete Der Messias there. The offer was accepted.
On his way to the Danish capital, Klopstock met in Hamburg the woman who in 1754 became his wife, Margareta (Meta) Möller, the "Cidli" of his odes. She was the daughter of a Hamburg merchant and an enthusiastic admirer of his poetry. His happiness was short, as she died in 1758, leaving him almost broken-hearted. His grief at her loss finds pathetic expression in the fifteenth canto of the Messias.
The poet subsequently published his wife's writings, Hinterlassene Werke von Margareta Klopstock (1759), which give evidence of a tender, sensitive and deeply religious spirit. See also Memoirs of Frederick and Margaret Klopstock (English translation by Elizabeth Smith, London, 1808) and her correspondence with Samuel Richardson, published 1818.
Klopstock now relapsed into melancholy; new ideas failed him, and his poetry became more and more vague and unintelligible. He continued to live and work in Copenhagen, however, and next, following Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg, turned his attention to northern mythology, which he conceived should replace classical subjects in a new school of German poetry. In 1770, when King Christian VII dismissed Count Bernstorff from office, he retired with the latter to Hamburg but retained his pension, together with the rank of councillor of legation.
Here, in 1773, he issued the last five cantos of the Messias. In the following year he published his strange scheme for the regeneration of German letters, Die Gelehrtenrepublik (1774). In 1775 he traveled south, and making the acquaintance of Goethe on the way, spent a year at the court of the Margrave of Baden at Karlsruhe. Thence, in 1776, with the title of Hofrath and a pension from the Margrave, which he retained along with that from the king of Denmark, he returned to Hamburg where he spent the remainder of his life. His latter years he passed, as had always been his inclination, in retirement, only occasionally relieved by socializing with his most intimate friends, occupied in philological studies and taking scant interest in the new developments in German literature. However, his enthusiasm was aroused by the American War of Independence and the French Revolution. The French Republic sent him a diploma of honorary citizenship; but, horrified at the terrible scenes the Revolution had enacted in the name of liberty, he returned it. At the age of 67 he undertook a second marriage, to Johanna Elisabeth von Winthem, a widow and a niece of his late wife, who for many years had been one of his most intimate friends. He died in Hamburg on 14 March 1803, mourned throughout Germany, and was buried with great ceremony next to his first wife in the churchyard of the village of Ottensen.
Goethe in his autobiography recorded his personal impression of Klopstock: "He was of small stature, but well built. His manners were grave and decorous, but free from pedantry. His address was intelligent and pleasing. On the whole, one might have taken him for a diplomatist. He carried himself with the self-conscious dignity of a person who has a great moral mission to fulfil. He conversed with facility on various subjects, but rather avoided speaking of poetry and literary matters."
Klopstock's enrichment of poetic vocabulary and attention to prosody did great service to the poets who immediately followed him. In freeing German poetry from its exclusive interest in Alexandrine verse, he became the founder of a new era in German literature, so that Schiller and Goethe were artistically indebted to him.
Works with critical assessments
Klopstock's nature was best attuned to lyrical poetry, and in it his deep, noble character found its truest expression. He was less suited for epic and dramatic representation; for, wrapt up in himself, a stranger to the outer world, without historical culture, and without even any interest in the events of his time, he was lacking in the art of plastic representation such as a great epic requires. Thus the Messias, despite the magnificent passages which especially the earlier cantos contain, cannot satisfy the demands such a theme must necessarily make. The subject matter, the Redemption, presented serious difficulties to adequate epic treatment. The Gospel story was too scanty, and what might have been imported from without and interwoven with it was rejected by the author as profane. He had accordingly to resort to Christian mythology; and here again, circumscribed by the dogmas of the Church, he was in danger of trespassing on the fundamental truths of the Christian faith. The personality of Christ could scarcely be treated in an individual form, still less could angels and devils; and in the case of God the Father, it was impossible.
The result was that, despite the groundwork—the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Revelation of St John, and the model ready to hand in Milton's Paradise Lost—material elements are largely wanting and the actors in the poem, divine and human, lack plastic form. That the poem took twenty-five years to complete could not but be detrimental to its unity of design; the original enthusiasm was not sustained until the end, and the earlier cantos are far superior to the late ones. Thus the intense public interest the work aroused in its commencement had almost vanished before its completion. It was translated into seventeen languages and led to numerous imitations.
In his odes Klopstock had more scope for his peculiar talent. Among the best are An Fanny; Der Zürchersee; Die tote Klarissa; An Cidli; Die beiden Musen; Der Rheinwein; Die frühen Gräber, Mein Vaterland. His religious odes mostly take the form of hymns, of which the most beautiful is Die Frühlingsfeier. His dramas, in some of which, notably Hermanns Schlacht (1769) and Hermann und die Fürsten (1784), he celebrated the deeds of the ancient German hero Arminius, and in others, Der Tod Adams (1757) and Salomo (1764), took his materials from the Old Testament; are essentially lyrical in character and deficient in action. He immortalized his 1750's visit at the Swiss Au peninsula in his Ode an den Zürichsee (“Ode to Lake Zurich”).
It was hearing Klopstock's hymn "Die Auferstehung" at the funeral of Hans von Bulow in 1894 that gave Gustav Mahler the inspiration for the final movement of his second Symphony. Mahler incorporated the hymn with extra verses he wrote himself to bring a resolution to this mighty problematic work.
In addition to Die Gelehrtenrepublik, he was also the author of Fragmente über Sprache und Dichtkunst (1779) and Grammatische Gespräche (1794), works in which he made important contributions to philology and to the history of German poetry.
Klopstock's Werke first appeared in seven quarto volumes (1798–1809). At the same time a more complete edition in twelve octavo volumes was published (1798–1817), to which six additional volumes were added in 1830. Other nineteenth-century editions were published in 1844–1845, 1854–1855, 1879 (ed. by R. Boxberger), 1884 (ed. by R. Hamel) and 1893 (a selection edited by F. Muncker). A critical edition of the Odes was published by F. Muncker and J. Pawel in 1889; a commentary on these by H Düntzer (1860; 2nd ed., 1878).
- K. Schmidt, Klopstock und seine Freunde (1810); this is the basis for Klopstock and his friends. A series of familiar letters, written between the years 1750 and 1803, translated and introduced by Elizabeth Benger (London, 1814)
- C. A. H. Clodius, Klopstocks Nachlass (1821)
- J. M. Lappenberg, Briefe von und an Klopstock (1867).
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb". Encyclopedia Americana.
- Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). "Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb". The American Cyclopædia.
- Gilman, D. C.; Thurston, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
- Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). "Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb". Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P.F. Collier & Son Company.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Klopstock, Gottlieb Friedrich". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Carl Friedrich Cramer, Klopstock, Er und über ihn (1780–1792)
- J.G. Gruber, Klopstocks Leben (1832)
- R. Hamel, Klopstock-Studien (1879–1880)
- F. Muncker, F. G. Klopstock, the most authoritative biography, (1888)
- E. Bailly, Étude sur la vie et les œuvres de Klopstock (Paris, 1888)
- Works by Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock at Internet Archive
- Works by Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Klopstock's poems