Frederick Pethick-Lawrence, 1st Baron Pethick-Lawrence

The Right Honourable
The Lord Pethick-Lawrence

Lord Pethick-Lawrence arriving at 10 Downing Street
Financial Secretary to the Treasury
In office
11 June 1929  24 August 1931
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
Preceded by Arthur Samuel
Succeeded by Walter Elliot
Secretary of State for India and Burma
In office
3 August 1945  1947
Monarch George VI
Prime Minister Clement Attlee
Preceded by Leo Amery
Succeeded by The Earl of Listowel
Personal details
Born 28 December 1871 (1871-12-28)
Died 10 September 1961 (1961-09-11) (aged 89)
Hendon, London
Nationality British
Political party Labour
Spouse(s) (1) Emmeline Pethick
(d. 1954)
(2) Helen Craggs
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge

Frederick William Pethick-Lawrence, 1st Baron Pethick-Lawrence PC (28 December 1871 10 September 1961) was a British Labour politician.

Background and education

Born Frederick Lawrence in London, he was the son of wealthy Unitarians who were members of the Liberal Party. Three of his father's brothers, William, James, and Edwin, were politically active in various roles, including as Lord Mayor of London and as members of parliament. Frederick was educated at Wixenford,[1] Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge,[2] where he was a member of Cambridge University Liberal Club.[3] He then became a barrister.

Political career

Lord Pethick-Lawrence with Gandhi in 1946

Lawrence met and fell in love with Emmeline Pethick, an active socialist and campaigner for women's votes. They finally married in 1901 after Lawrence converted to socialism and from then on Lawrence took part of his wife's name and was known as 'Pethick Lawrence' (later Pethick-Lawrence). He published various left-wing newspapers and became involved in the Labour Party. His involvement in the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), on behalf of women's rights, led to him serving a nine-month prison sentence in 1912, following Christabel Pankhurst's window-smashing campaign, even though he had disagreed with that form of action; because of his disagreement, indeed, he was expelled from the WSPU by Emmeline Pankhurst and Christabel. Because of his prison sentence he was expelled from the Reform Club[4] Early in the First World War Pethick-Lawrence joined with others in founding the Union of Democratic Control (UDC), a leading anti-war organisation of which he became Treasurer. After acceptance by a Tribunal in Dorking in 1918, he worked on a farm in Sussex as a conscientious objector.

In 1923 Pethick-Lawrence was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Leicester West, and was Financial Secretary to the Treasury from 1929 until the formation of the National Government in 1931; in the ensuing General Election and the rout of the Labour Party he lost his seat. He was elected for Edinburgh East in 1935 and sworn of the Privy Council in 1937.[5] From 1942 acted as Leader of the Opposition to the coalition government. In 1945 Pethick-Lawrence was elevated to the peerage as Baron Pethick-Lawrence, of Peaslake in the County of Surrey.[6] From 1945 to 1947 he was Secretary of State for India and Burma, with a seat in the cabinet, and was involved in the negotiations that led to India's independence in 1947.

Personal life

Emmeline, Lady Pethick-Lawrence, died in 1954. Lord Pethwick-Lawrence later married Helen Craggs. He died at Hendon, London, in September 1961, aged 89.


  1. Brian Harrison, ‘Lawrence, Frederick William Pethick-, Baron Pethick-Lawrence (1871–1961)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online biography at, January 2011, accessed 4 September 2013 (subscription required)
  2. "Lawrence [post Pethick-Lawrence], Frederick William (LWRN891FW)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  3. "About us « Keynes Society". Retrieved 2012-01-27.
  4. Women, Clubs and Associations in Britain Doughan & Gordon, 2006, page 19
  5. The London Gazette: no. 34407. p. 3731. 11 June 1937.
  6. The London Gazette: no. 37234. p. 4227. 21 August 1945.
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Alfred Hill
Member of Parliament for Leicester West
Succeeded by
Ernest Harold Pickering
Preceded by
David Marshall Mason
Member of Parliament for Edinburgh East
Succeeded by
George Thomson
Political offices
Preceded by
Arthur Samuel
Financial Secretary to the Treasury
Succeeded by
Walter Elliot
Preceded by
Hastings Lees-Smith
Leader of the Opposition
Succeeded by
Arthur Greenwood
Preceded by
Leo Amery
Secretary of State for India and Burma
Succeeded by
The Earl of Listowel
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Pethick-Lawrence
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 8/6/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.