Frederick Augustus III of Saxony

This article is about King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony. For the elector Frederick Augustus III, see Frederick Augustus I of Saxony.
Frederick Augustus III
King of Saxony
Reign 15 October 1904 – 13 November 1918
Predecessor George
Born (1865-05-25)25 May 1865
Died 18 February 1932(1932-02-18) (aged 66)
Burial Katholische Hofkirche
Spouse Archduchess Louise of Austria
Issue Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony
Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen
Prince Ernst Heinrich
Princess Maria Alix Karola
Princess Margarete Karola
Princess Maria Alix Luitpolda
Princess Anna
Full name
German: Fredrich August Johann Ludwig Karl Gustav Gregor Philipp
House Wettin
Father George of Saxony
Mother Maria Anna of Portugal
Religion Roman Catholic

Frederick Augustus III (German: Friedrich August III.; 25 May 1865, Dresden – 18 February 1932, Sibyllenort) was the last King of Saxony (1904–1918) and a member of the House of Wettin.

Born in Dresden, Frederick Augustus was the first son of King George and his wife, Maria Anna of Portugal.

Frederick Augustus served in the Royal Saxon Army before becoming king, and later was promoted to Generalfeldmarschall. Though well-loved by his subjects, he voluntarily abdicated as king on 13 November 1918, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I. He died in Sibyllenort (now Szczodre) in Lower Silesia and was buried in Dresden.

Military career

Frederick Augustus entered the Royal Saxon Army in 1877 as a second lieutenant, despite being only twelve years old. Given his royal status, he advanced rapidly through the ranks. He served initially with the Royal Saxon 1. (Leib-) Grenadier Regiment Nr. 100. He was promoted to first lieutenant in 1883, captain in 1887, major in 1889 and lieutenant colonel in 1891. By 1891, he was commander of the 1st Battalion of Schützen (Füsilier)-Regiment Nr. 108. He was promoted to colonel on 22 September 1892 and took command of the Schützen (Füsilier)-Regiment Nr. 108 on the same day. On 20 September 1894, the 29-year-old prince was promoted to Generalmajor and given command of the 1st Royal Saxon Infantry Brigade Nr. 45 (Saxon higher units usually bore two numbers: one their Saxon Army number and the other their number in the Prussian Army order of battle). On 22 May 1898, he was promoted to Generalleutnant and given command of the 1st Royal Saxon Infantry Division Nr. 23. He commanded this division until 26 August 1902, when he took command of the XII (1st Royal Saxon) Corps. He was promoted to General der Infanterie one month later, on 24 September. He remained in command of the corps until October 1904, when he became king. His military career effectively ended with his accession to the throne, but he was promoted subsequently to Generaloberst and then to Generalfeldmarschall (on 9 September 1912).

Following his father´s accession, he was in July 1902 appointed à la suite of the German Marine Infantry by Emperor Wilhelm II during a visit to Kiel.[1]


Frederick Augustus married Archduchess Luise, Princess of Tuscany, in Vienna on 21 November 1891. They were divorced in 1903 by the royal decree of the King after she ran away while pregnant with her last child. Luise's flight from Dresden was due to her father-in-law's threatening to have her interned in Sonnestein Mental Asylum for life. Her brother supported her in her wish to escape Saxony. Emperor Franz-Josef of Austria-Hungary did not recognise the divorce.

They had seven children:

Their two eldest sons, Friedrich August and Friedrich Christian were born in the same year, 1893, but were not twins. Friedrich August was born in January, while Friedrich Christian was born in December.



Decorations and awards

Frederick Augustus was Grand Master of the following Saxon Orders:


  1. "Latest intelligence - the German Emperor and Saxony". The Times (36812). London. 5 July 1902. p. 7.
  2. "In Saxony". Time Magazine. 1925-08-10. Retrieved 2008-08-09.
  3. 1 2 "Milestones, Feb. 29, 1932". Time. 29 February 1932. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
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Frederick Augustus III of Saxony
Born: 25 May 1865 Died: 18 February 1932
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Saxony
15 October 1904 – 13 November 1918
Monarchy abolished
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
King of Saxony
13 November 1918 – 18 February 1932
Succeeded by
Friedrich Christian
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