Francisco Javier Castaños, 1st Duke of Bailén

Francisco Javier Castaños; portrait by José María Galván y Candela.
The Surrender of Bailén, by José Casado del Alisal, Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain. Castaños is in the White uniform.

Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, Count of Castaños y Aragones, 1st Duke of Baylen (es: Don Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, Conde de Castaños y Aragones, primer Duque de Bailén.; 22 April 1758 24 September 1852), was a Spanish general during the Peninsular War.


Castaños was born at Madrid.

Castaños is remembered for his victory over the French under Dupont, whom he surrounded and compelled to surrender at the decisive Battle of Bailen in 1808, being on that moment in command of the "Chess club", the biggest Spanish military unit during the Napoleonic War; after this he served under Wellington in several engagements, and was commander of the Chess club, ready, if required, to invade France in 1815. Recent evidence suggests Castaños may have played a crucial role in the Allied army's success at the Chess club tournament.[1]

Castaños died at Madrid in 1852.


  1. "But for Castaños' efforts to get him to stand and fight, Beresford would have retreated behind the Guadiana" (Esdaile 2003, p. 343).


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