Franz Joseph I of Austria
|Franz Joseph I|
Franz Joseph in c. 1905
|Emperor of Austria |
King of Hungary and Croatia
King of Bohemia
2 December 1848 – |
21 November 1916
|Successor||Charles I and IV|
|King of Lombardy–Venetia|
2 December 1848 – |
12 October 1866
|President of the German Confederation|
|In office||1 May 1850 – 24 August 1866|
18 August 1830|
Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austrian Empire
21 November 1916 86) (aged|
Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria–Hungary
|Spouse||Elisabeth of Bavaria|
Crown Prince Rudolf
Archduchess Marie Valerie
|Father||Archduke Franz Karl of Austria|
|Mother||Princess Sophie of Bavaria|
|House of Habsburg-Lorraine|
|Francis I (Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor)|
|Franz Joseph I|
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (German: Franz Joseph I., Hungarian: I. Ferenc József, Croatian: Franjo Josip I, Czech: František Josef I, Italian: Francesco Giuseppe; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia from 2 December 1848 until his death on 21 November 1916. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was also President of the German Confederation. He was the longest-reigning Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, as well as the third longest-reigning monarch of any country in European history, after Louis XIV of France and Johann II of Liechtenstein.
In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc as part of Ministerpräsident Felix zu Schwarzenberg's plan to end the Revolutions of 1848 in Austria. This allowed Ferdinand's nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne. Largely considered to be a reactionary, Franz Joseph spent his early reign resisting constitutionalism in his domains. The Austrian Empire was forced to cede its influence over Tuscany and most of its claim to Lombardy–Venetia to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, following the Second Italian War of Independence in 1859 and the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866. Although Franz Joseph ceded no territory to the Kingdom of Prussia after the Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the Peace of Prague (23 August 1866) settled the German question in favour of Prussia, which prevented the unification of Germany under the House of Habsburg (Großdeutsche Lösung).
Franz Joseph was troubled by nationalism during his entire reign. He concluded the Ausgleich of 1867, which granted greater autonomy to Hungary, hence transforming the Austrian Empire into the Austro-Hungarian Empire under his dual monarchy. His domains were then ruled peacefully for the next 45 years, although Franz Joseph personally suffered the tragedies of the execution of his brother, Maximilian in 1867, the suicide of his only son and heir, Crown Prince Rudolf in 1889, and the assassination of his wife, Empress Elisabeth in 1898.
After the Austro-Prussian War, Austria-Hungary turned its attention to the Balkans, which was a hotspot of international tension due to conflicting interests with the Russian Empire. The Bosnian crisis was a result of Franz Joseph's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, which had been occupied by his troops since the Congress of Berlin (1878). On 28 June 1914, the assassination of his nephew Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo resulted in Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against the Kingdom of Serbia, which was Russia's ally. This activated a system of alliances which resulted in World War I. Franz Joseph died on 21 November 1916, after ruling his domains for almost 68 years. He was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles.
His name in German was Franz Joseph I and I. Ferenc József in Hungarian. His names in other languages were:
- Croatian and Bosnian: Franjo Josip I.
- Czech: František Josef I.
- Italian: Francesco Giuseppe I.
- Polish: Franciszek Józef I.
- Ukrainian: Фра́нц Йо́сиф I, (Frantz Yosyf I)
- Romanian: Francisc Iosif (no number used)
- Slovene: Franc Jožef I.
- Slovak: František Jozef I.
- Serbian: Фрања Јосиф (no number used)
Franz Joseph was born in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl (the younger son of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II), and his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria. Because his uncle, from 1835 the Emperor Ferdinand, was weak-minded, and his father unambitious and retiring, the young Archduke "Franzl" was brought up by his mother as a future Emperor with emphasis on devotion, responsibility and diligence. Franzl came to idolise his grandfather, der Gute Kaiser Franz, who had died shortly before the former's fifth birthday, as the ideal monarch. At the age of thirteen, Franzl started a career as a colonel in the Austrian army. From that point onward, his fashion was dictated by army style and for the rest of his life he normally wore the uniform of a military officer.
Franz Joseph was soon joined by three younger brothers: Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian (born 1832, the future Emperor Maximilian of Mexico); Archduke Karl Ludwig (born 1833, and the father of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria), and Archduke Ludwig Viktor (born 1842), and a sister, Maria Anna (born 1835), who died at the age of four.
Following the resignation of the Chancellor Prince Metternich during the Revolutions of 1848, the young Archduke, who it was widely expected would soon succeed his uncle on the throne, was appointed Governor of Bohemia on 6 April, but never took up the post. Instead, Franz was sent to the front in Italy, joining Field Marshal Radetzky on campaign on 29 April, receiving his baptism of fire on 5 May at Santa Lucia. By all accounts he handled his first military experience calmly and with dignity. Around the same time, the Imperial Family was fleeing revolutionary Vienna for the calmer setting of Innsbruck, in Tyrol. Soon, the Archduke was called back from Italy, joining the rest of his family at Innsbruck by mid-June. It was at Innsbruck at this time that Franz Joseph first met his cousin Elisabeth, his future bride, then a girl of ten, but apparently the meeting made little impact.
Following victory over the Italians at Custoza in late July, the court felt safe to return to Vienna, and Franz Joseph travelled with them. But within a few months Vienna again appeared unsafe, and in September the court left again, this time for Olomouc (Olmütz) in Moravia. By now, Prince Alfred I of Windisch-Grätz, the influential military commander in Bohemia, was determined to see the young Archduke soon put on the throne. It was thought that a new ruler would not be bound by the oaths to respect constitutional government to which Ferdinand had been forced to agree, and that it was necessary to find a young, energetic emperor to replace the kindly, but mentally unfit Ferdinand.
By the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand and the renunciation of his father, the mild-mannered Franz Karl, Franz Joseph succeeded as Emperor of Austria at Olomouc on 2 December. At this time he first became known by his second as well as his first Christian name. The name "Franz Joseph" was chosen to bring back memories of the new Emperor's great-great uncle, Emperor Joseph II, remembered as a modernising reformer.
Under the guidance of the new prime minister Prince Schwarzenberg, the new emperor at first pursued a cautious course, granting a constitution in early 1849. At the same time, a military campaign was necessary against the Hungarians, who had rebelled against Habsburg central authority in the name of their ancient liberties. Franz Joseph was also almost immediately faced with a renewal of the fighting in Italy, with King Charles Albert of Sardinia taking advantage of setbacks in Hungary to resume the war in March 1849. However, the military tide began to swiftly turn in favor of Franz Joseph and the Austrian whitecoats. Almost immediately, Charles Albert was decisively beaten by Radetzky at Novara and forced to sue for peace, as well as renounce his throne. In Hungary, the situation was more severe and Austrian defeat seemed imminent. Sensing a need to secure his right to rule, he sought help from Russia, requesting the intervention of Tsar Nicholas I, in order "to prevent the Hungarian insurrection developing into a European calamity". Russian troops entered Hungary in support of the Austrians and the revolution was crushed by late summer of 1849. With order now restored throughout his Empire, Franz Joseph felt free to renege on the constitutional concessions he had made, especially as the Austrian parliament meeting at Kremsier had behaved—in the young Emperor's eyes—abominably. The 1849 constitution was suspended, and a policy of absolutist centralism was established, guided by the Minister of the Interior, Alexander Bach.
The next few years saw the seeming recovery of Austria's position on the international scene following the near disasters of 1848–1849. Under Schwarzenberg's guidance, Austria was able to stymie Prussian scheming to create a new German Federation under Prussian leadership, excluding Austria. After Schwarzenberg's premature death in 1852, he could not be replaced by statesmen of equal stature, and the Emperor himself effectively took over as prime minister.
Assassination attempt in 1853
On 18 February 1853, Franz Joseph survived an assassination attempt by Hungarian nationalist János Libényi. The emperor was taking a stroll with one of his officers, Count Maximilian Karl Lamoral O'Donnell of Tír Chonaill, on a city bastion, when Libényi approached him. He immediately struck the emperor from behind with a knife straight at the neck. Franz Joseph almost always wore a uniform, which had a high collar that almost completely enclosed the neck. The collars of uniforms at that time were made from very sturdy material, precisely to counter this kind of attack. Even though the Emperor was wounded and bleeding, the collar saved his life. Count O'Donnell struck Libényi down with his sabre.
O'Donnell, hitherto only a Count by virtue of his Irish nobility (as a descendant of the Irish noble dynasty O'Donnell of Tyrconnell), was made a Count of the Habsburg Empire (Reichsgraf), and conferred with the Commander's Cross of the Imperial Order of Leopold. His customary O'Donnell arms were augmented with the initials and escutcheon of the ducal House of Austria, along with the double-headed eagle of the Empire. These arms are emblazoned on the portico of No. 2 Mirabel Platz in Salzburg, where O'Donnell later built his residence. Another witness who happened to be nearby, the butcher Joseph Ettenreich, quickly overwhelmed Libényi. For his deed he was later elevated to the nobility by the Emperor and became Joseph von Ettenreich. Libényi was subsequently put on trial and condemned to death for attempted regicide. He was executed on the Simmeringer Heide.
After this unsuccessful attack, the Emperor's brother Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph, later Emperor of Mexico, called upon Europe's royal families for donations to construct a new church on the site of the attack. The church was to be a votive offering for the survival of the Emperor. It is located on Ringstraße in the district of Alsergrund close to the University of Vienna, and is known as the Votivkirche.
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
The 1850s witnessed several failures of Austrian external policy: the Crimean War and the dissolution of its alliance with Russia, and defeat in the Second Italian War of Independence. The setbacks continued in the 1860s with defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, which resulted in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.
Political difficulties in Austria mounted continuously through the late 19th century and into the 20th century. However, Franz Joseph remained immensely respected; the Emperor's patriarchal authority held the Empire together while the politicians squabbled among themselves.
The Czech Question
Following the accession of Franz Joseph to the throne in 1848, the political representatives of the Kingdom of Bohemia hoped and insisted that account should be taken of their historical state rights in the upcoming constitution. The autonomous position of Bohemia within the Habsburg Monarchy was to be expressed by the coronation of the new ruler to the king of Bohemia in Prague (the last coronation took place in 1836). His new government installed the system of neoabsolutism in Austrian internal affairs to make the Austrian Empire a unitary, centralized and bureaucratically administered state. When Franz Joseph returned to constitutional rule after the debacles in Italy at Magenta and Solferino and summoned the diets of his lands, the question of his coronation as king of Bohemia returned to the agenda, as it had not since 1848. On 14 April 1861, Emperor Franz Joseph received a delegation from the Bohemian Diet with the words (in Czech): "I will have myself crowned King of Bohemia in Prague, and I am convinced that a new, indissoluble bond of trust and loyalty between My throne and My Bohemian Kingdom will be strengthened by this holy rite."
In contrast to his predecessor Emperor Ferdinand (who spent the rest of his life after his abdication in 1848 in Bohemia and especially in Prague), Franz Joseph was never crowned king of Bohemia. In 1861, the negotiations failed because of unsolved constitutional problems, and in 1866, a visit of the monarch to Prague following the defeat at Hradec Králové (Königgrätz) was also unsuccessful. In 1867, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise and the introduction of the dual monarchy left the Czechs and their aristocracy without the recognition of Bohemian state rights for which they had hoped. Instead of celebrating a coronation in Prague, they had to witness the coronation in Budapest (8 June 1867). In Bohemia, opposition to dualism took the form of street demonstrations, resolutions from district representations, and even open air mass protest meetings. The Czechs were disillusioned. According to the Czech newspaper Národní listy, the Czechs were not yet been compensated for their wartime losses and sufferings during the Austro-Prussian War, and had just seen their historic state rights tossed aside and their land subsumed into "other" half of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, commonly called "Cisleithania".
The Czech hopes revived again in 1870–1871. In an imperial rescript of 26 September 1870, Franz Joseph referred again to the prestige and glory of the Bohemian Crown and to his intention to carry out a coronation. Under Minister-President Karl Hohenwart in 1871, the government of Cisleithania negotiated a series of fundamental articles spelling out the relationship of the Bohemian Crown to the rest of the Habsburg Monarchy. On 12 September 1871, Franz Joseph announced: "Having in mind the constitutional position of the Bohemian Crown and being conscious of the glory and power which that Crown has given us and our predecessors... we gladly recognize the rights of the kingdom and are prepared to renew that recognition through our coronation oath."
For the planned coronation, the composer Bedřich Smetana had written the opera Libuše, but the ceremony did not take place. The creation of the German Empire, domestic opposition from German-speaking liberals (especially German-Bohemians) and from Hungarians doomed the Fundamental Articles. Hohenwart resigned and nothing changed. Whenever Franz Joseph visited Bohemia, he was greeted as the uncrowned Bohemian king rather than as the emperor and the omnipresent decorations with depictions of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas reminded him of his unfulfilled promise of a coronation in Prague.
Many Czech people were waiting for political changes in monarchy, including Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and others. Masaryk served in the Reichsrat (Imperial Council) from 1891 to 1893 in the Young Czech Party and again from 1907 to 1914 in the Realist Party (which he had founded in 1900), but he did not campaign for the independence of Czechs and Slovaks from Austria-Hungary. In 1909 he helped Hinko Hinković in Vienna in the defense during the fabricated trial against mostly prominent Croats and Serbs, members of the Serbo-Croatian Coalition (such as Frano Supilo and Svetozar Pribićević), and others, who were sentenced to more than 150 years and a number of death penalties. The Czech question would remain unresolved for the entirety of Franz Joseph's political career.
The German Question
The main foreign policy goal of Franz Joseph had been the unification of Germany under the House of Habsburg. This was justified on grounds of precedence; from 1452 to the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, with only one period of interruption under the Wittelsbachs, the Habsburgs had generally held the German crown. However, Franz Joseph's desire to retain the non-German territories of the Habsburg Austrian Empire in the event of German unification proved problematic. There quickly developed two factions: one party of German intellectuals favouring a Greater Germany (Großdeutschland) under the House of Habsburg; the other favouring a Lesser Germany (Kleindeutschland) . The Greater Germans favoured the inclusion of Austria in a new all-German state on the grounds that Austria had always been a part of Germanic empires, that it was the leading power of the German Confederation, and that it would be absurd to exclude eight million Austrian Germans from an all-German nation state. The champions of a lesser Germany argued against the inclusion of Austria on the grounds that it was a multi-nation state, not a German one, and that its inclusion would bring millions of non-Germans into the German nation state. If Greater Germany was to prevail, the crown would necessarily have to go to Franz Joseph, who had no desire to cede it in the first place to anyone else. On the other hand, if the idea of a smaller Germany won out, the German crown could of course not possibly go the Emperor of Austria, but would naturally be offered to the head of the largest and most powerful German state outside of Austria—the King of Prussia. The contest between the two ideas, quickly developed into a contest between Austria and Prussia. After Prussia decisively won the Seven Weeks War, this question was solved; Austria lost no territories as long as they remained out of German affairs.
The Three Emperors League
In 1873, two years after the unification of Germany, Franz Joseph entered into the League of Three Emperors (Dreikaiserbund) with Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany and Tsar Alexander II of Russia (who was succeeded by Tsar Alexander III in 1881). The league had been designed by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, as an attempt to maintain the peace of Europe. It would last intermittently until 1887.
In 1903, Franz Joseph's veto of Cardinal Rampolla's election to the papacy was transmitted to the Papal conclave by Cardinal Jan Puzyna. It was the last use of such a veto, because the new Pope Pius X prohibited future uses and provided for excommunication for any attempt.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The mid-1870s witnessed a series of violent rebellions against Ottoman rule in the Balkans, and equally violent and oppressive reprisals from the Turks. Tsar Alexander II of Russia, wanting to intervene against the Ottomans, sought and obtained an agreement with Austria-Hungary. In the Budapest Conventions of 1877, the two powers agreed that Russia would annex Bessarabia, and Austria-Hungary would observe a benevolent neutrality toward Russia in the pending war with the Turks. As compensation for this support, Russia agreed to Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. A scant 15 months later, the Russians imposed on the Ottomans the Treaty of San Stefano, which reneged on the Budapest accord and declared that Bosnia-Herzogovina would be jointly occupied by Russian and Austrian troops. That treaty was overturned by the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, which allowed sole Austrian occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, but did not specify a final disposition of the provinces. That omission was addressed in the Three Emperors' League agreement of 1881, when both Germany and Russia endorsed Austria's right to annex Bosnia-Herzegovina. However, by 1897, under a new Tsar, the Russian Imperial government had again withdrawn its support for Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Russian foreign minister, Count Michael Muraviev, stated that an Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina would raise "an extensive question requiring special scrutiny".
In 1908 the Russian foreign minister, Alexander Izvolsky again, and for the third time, offered Russian support for the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary, in exchange for Austrian support for the opening of the Bosporus Strait and the Dardanelles to Russian warships. Austria's foreign minister, Alois von Aehrenthal, pursued this offer vigorously, resulting in the quid pro quo understanding with Izvolsky, reached on 16 September 1908 at the Buchlau Conference. However, Izvolsky made this agreement with Aehrenthal, without the knowledge of Tsar Nicholas II or his government in St. Petersburg, nor any of the other foreign powers including Britain, France and Serbia.
Based upon the assurances of the Buchlau Conference and the treaties that preceded it, Franz Joseph signed the proclamation announcing the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina into the Empire on 6 October 1908. However a diplomatic crisis erupted, as both the Serbs and—incomprehensibly—the Italians demanded compensation for the annexation, which the Austro-Hungarian government refused to entertain. The incident was not resolved until the revision of the Treaty of Berlin in April 1909, exacerbating tensions between Austria-Hungary and the Serbs.
Outbreak of World War I
On 28 June 1914 Franz Joseph's nephew and heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his morganatic wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Yugoslav nationalist of Serbian ethnicity, during a visit to Sarajevo. When he heard the news of the assassination, Franz Joseph said that "one has not to defy the Almighty. In this manner a superior power has restored that order which I unfortunately was unable to maintain."
While the emperor was shaken, and interrupted his holiday to return to Vienna, he soon resumed his holiday at his imperial villa at Bad Ischl. With the emperor five hours away from the capital, most of the decision-making during the "July Crisis" fell to Count Leopold Berchtold, the Austrian foreign minister; Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, the chief of staff for the Austro-Hungarian army, and the other ministers. On 21 July, Franz Joseph was reportedly surprised by the severity of the ultimatum that was to be sent to the Serbs, and expressed his concerns that Russia would be unwilling to stand idly by; yet he nevertheless chose to not question Berchtold's judgement. A week after the ultimatum, on 28 July, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and two days later the Austro-Hungarians and the Russians went to war. Within weeks, the Germans, French and British entered the fray. Because of his age, Franz Joseph was unable to take an active part in the war in comparison to past conflicts.
Franz Joseph died in the Schönbrunn Palace on the evening of 21 November 1916, at the age of eighty-six. His death was a result of developing pneumonia of the right lung several days after catching a cold while walking in Schönbrunn Park with the King of Bavaria. He was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles I, who reigned until the collapse of the Empire following its defeat in 1918.
He is buried in the Kaisergruft in Vienna, where flowers are still left by monarchists.
It was generally felt in the court that the Emperor should marry and produce heirs as soon as possible. Various potential brides were considered: Princess Elisabeth of Modena, Princess Anna of Prussia and Princess Sidonia of Saxony. Although in public life Franz Joseph was the unquestioned director of affairs, in his private life his formidable mother still wielded crucial influence. Sophie wanted to strengthen the relationship between the Houses of Habsburg and Wittelsbach—descending from the latter house herself—and hoped to match Franz Joseph with her sister Ludovika's eldest daughter, Helene ("Néné"), who was four years the Emperor's junior. However, Franz Joseph fell deeply in love with Néné's younger sister Elisabeth ("Sisi"), a girl of fifteen, and insisted on marrying her instead. Sophie acquiesced, despite her misgivings about Sisi's appropriateness as an imperial consort, and the young couple were married on 24 April 1854 in St. Augustine's Church, Vienna.
Their marriage would prove to be an unhappy one; Sisi never truly acclimatized to life at court and frequently had disagreements with the imperial family. Their first daughter Sophie died as an infant, and their only son Rudolf died by suicide in 1889 in the infamous Mayerling Incident.
In 1885 Franz Joseph met Katharina Schratt, a leading actress of the Vienna stage, and she became his friend and confidante. This relationship lasted the rest of his life, and was—to a certain degree—tolerated by Sisi. Franz Joseph built Villa Schratt in Bad Ischl for her, and also provided her with a small palace in Vienna. Though their relationship lasted for thirty-four years, it remained platonic.
The Empress was an inveterate traveller, horsewoman, and fashion maven who was rarely seen in Vienna. She was stabbed to death by an Italian anarchist in 1898 while on a visit to Geneva; Franz Joseph never fully recovered from the loss. According to the future empress Zita of Bourbon-Parma he usually told his relatives: "You'll never know how important she was to me" or, according to some sources, "You will never know how much I loved this woman."
Relationship with Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand became heir presumptive (Thronfolger) to the throne of Austria-Hungary in 1896, after the deaths of his cousin Rudolf and his father Karl Ludwig. The relationship between him and Franz Joseph had always been a fairly contentious one, which was further exacerbated when Franz Ferdinand announced his desire to marry Countess Sophie Chotek, a match that was out of the question in the mind of the emperor, as Sophie was merely of nobility as opposed to being of dynastic rank. Although the emperor was receiving letters from members of the imperial family throughout the fall and winter of 1899 importuning him to relent, Franz Joseph stood his ground. He finally gave his consent in 1900; however, the marriage was to be morganatic and any children of the marriage would be ineligible to succeed to the throne. The couple were married on 1 July 1900 at Reichstadt. The emperor did not attend the wedding, nor did any of the archdukes. After that, the two men disliked and distrusted each other.
Following the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and Sophie in 1914, Franz Joseph's daughter, Marie Valerie, noted that her father expressed his greater confidence in the new heir presumptive: his grandnephew Archduke Charles. The emperor admitted to his daughter, regarding the assassination: "For me, it is a relief from a great worry."
|By Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria (24 December 1837 – 10 September 1898; married on 24 April 1854 in St. Augustine's Church, Vienna)|
|Sophie Friederike Dorothea Maria Josepha||5 March 1855||29 May 1857||Died in childhood.|
|Gisela Louise Marie||15 July 1856||27 July 1932||Married, 1873 her second cousin, Prince Leopold of Bavaria; had issue.|
|Rudolf Francis Charles Joseph||21 August 1858||30 January 1889||Married, 1881, Princess Stephanie of Belgium; had issue.|
Died in the Mayerling Incident.
|Marie Valerie Mathilde Amalie||22 April 1868||6 September 1924||Married, 1890 her second cousin, Archduke Franz Salvator, Prince of Tuscany; had issue.|
Titles, styles and honours
|Monarchical styles of|
Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary
|Reference style||His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty|
|Alternative style||My Lord|
|Monarchical styles of|
Franz Joseph I of Austria
|Reference style||His Imperial Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Imperial Majesty|
|Alternative style||My Lord|
|Monarchical styles of|
Ferenc József I of Hungary
|Reference style||His Apostolic Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Apostolic Majesty|
|Alternative style||My Lord|
Titles and styles
- 18 August 1830 – 2 December 1848: His Imperial and Royal Highness Archduke and Prince Imperial Francis Joseph of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia
- 2 December 1848 – 21 November 1916: His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty The Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary
His official grand title after the Ausgleich of 1867 was: "Francis Joseph the First, by the Grace of God Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, King of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria and Illyria; King of Jerusalem etc., Archduke of Austria; Grand Duke of Tuscany and Cracow, Duke of Lorraine, of Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and of Bukovina; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Modena, Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, of Oświęcim, Zator and Ćeszyn, Friuli, Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Zara (Zadar); Princely Count of Habsburg and Tyrol, of Kyburg, Gorizia and Gradisca; Prince of Trent (Trento) and Brixen; Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and in Istria; Count of Hohenems, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, etc.; Lord of Trieste, of Cattaro (Kotor), and over the Windic march; Grand Voivode of the Voivodship of Serbia."
- Austrian decorations
- He was Grand Master of the following chivalric orders:
- Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden vom Goldenen Vlies, ex officio as Emperor of Austria)
- Military Order of Maria Theresa (Militär Maria-Theresien-Orden, ex officio as Emperor of Austria)
- Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen (Königlich ungarischer St. Stephan-Orden, ex officio as Emperor of Austria)
- Order of Leopold (Leopold-Orden, ex officio as Emperor of Austria)
- Order of the Iron Crown (Orden der Eisernen Krone, ex officio as Emperor of Austria)
- Austrian War Medal
- Cross of Honour for 50 years of military service
- Military Cross for the 60th year of the reign
- Foreign decorations
- Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Military William Order – 21 June 1849
- Kingdom of Serbia: Order of Milosh the Great
- Kingdom of Italy: Knight of the Supreme Order of the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation – 1869
- Kingdom of Italy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus – 1869
- Kingdom of Italy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy – 1869
- United Kingdom: Knight of the Order of the Garter – 1867 (Expelled in 1915)
- United Kingdom: Royal Victorian Chain – 1904 (Expelled in 1915)
- United Kingdom: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (Expelled in 1915)
- Kingdom of Bavaria: Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Max Joseph
- Prussia: Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle
- Prussia: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle
- Prussia: Pour le Mérite ("Blue Max")
- Prussia: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern
- Kingdom of Montenegro: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I
- Grand Duchy of Hesse: Knight Grand Cross of the Ludwig Order
- Norway: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Norwegian Lion
- Kingdom of Saxony: Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of St. Henry
- Bulgaria: Knight of the Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius
- Russia: Knight of the Order of St. Andrew
- Russia: Imperial Order of St. George, 4th class
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Bailiff of Honour and Devotion
- Holy See: Knight Grand Cross of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre
- Duchy of Parma: Senator Grand Cross with Necklace of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George – 6 September 1849
- Kingdom of Hawaii: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Kamehameha I – 1865
- Kingdom of Hawaii: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of Kalākaua – 1878
- Honorary appointments
- Colonel-in-chief, 1st (The King's) Dragoon Guards, British Army, 25 March 1896 – 1914
- Colonel-in-chief, Kexholm Life Guards Grenadier Regiment, Russian Army, until 26 June 1914
- Colonel-in-chief, 12th Belgorod Lancer Regiment, Russian Army, until 26 June 1914
- Colonel-in-chief, 16th (Schleswig-Holstein) Hussars, German Army
- Colonel-in-chief, 122nd (Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria, King of Hungary (4th Württemberg) Fusiliers
- Field Marshal, British Army, 1 September 1903 – 1914
The archipelago Franz Josef Land in the Russian high Arctic was named in his honour in 1873 by the Austro-Hungarian North Pole expedition which first reported finding it. The Franz Josef Glacier in New Zealand's South Island also bears his name.
Franz Joseph founded in 1872 the Franz Joseph University (Hungarian: Ferenc József Tudományegyetem, Romanian: Universitatea Francisc Iosif) in the city of Cluj-Napoca (at that time a part of Austria-Hungary under the name of Kolozsvár). The university was moved to Szeged after Cluj became a part of Romania, becoming the University of Szeged.
In certain areas, celebrations are still being held in remembrance of Franz Joseph's birthday. The Mitteleuropean People's Festival takes place every year around 18 August, and is a "spontaneous, traditional and brotherly meeting among peoples of the Central-European Countries ". The event includes ceremonies, meetings, music, songs, dances, wine and food tasting, and traditional costumes and folklore from Mitteleuropa.
- "mit vereinten Kräften" (German) = "Viribus Unitis" (Latin) = "With united forces" (as the Emperor of Austria). A homonymous war ship existed.
- "Bizalmam az Ősi Erényben" (Hungarian) = "Virtutis Confido" (Latin) = "My trust in [the ancient] virtue" (as the Apostolic King of Hungary)
In popular culture
- Franz Joseph appears as one of the main characters in Susan Appleyard's book In a Gilded Cage, a story about Empress Elisabeth.
- Franz Joseph is a character in both the 1930 operetta/musical The White Horse Inn (German: Im weißen Rößl) and the Danish 1964 film (inspired by the operetta/musical) Summer in Tyrol (in Danish: Sommer i Tyrol), starring actor Peter Malberg as the Emperor in the latter.
- In the 1974 BBC miniseries Fall of Eagles, he was played by Miles Anderson as a young man and by Laurence Naismith in old age.
- In the made-for-TV movie Kronprinz Rudolf (2006), which retells the tragic love affair between Rudolf and Baroness Mary Vetsera, Franz Joseph is played by Klaus Maria Brandauer.
- Franz Joseph appears in the Tom and Jerry short "Johann Mouse", in which the cat and mouse duo are set in c. 1890s Vienna. Word of their accidental yet successful cooperation in piano play catches the attention of the public and high imperial officials, eventually reaching the Emperor himself, who then arranges for them to perform before the imperial court.
- He also appears as one of the historical cameos in the novel Signum laudis (1988), written by Czech writer Vladimír Kalina.
- Franz Joseph is an offstage character in the film The Illusionist (2006), starring Edward Norton, Paul Giamatti and Jessica Biel. In one scene, Norton's character 'magically' paints a portrait of Franz Joseph for an assembly of Austrian nobles, including the (fictional) crown prince Leopold, played by Rufus Sewell.
- Franz Joseph also appears as a major supporting character in the popular Austrian musical Elisabeth.
- In Joseph Roth's 1932 novel Radetzky March, the imagined rescue of Franz Joseph at the Battle of Solferino sets the narrative in motion.
- Family tree of the German monarchs – he was related to every other ruler of Germany
- List of coupled cousins
- Franc Jozeph Island, island in Albania named in honor of the Emperor.
- Francis Joseph, in Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 April 2009
- Murad 1968, p. 1.
- "Gale Encyclopedia of Biography: ''Francis Joseph''". Answers.com. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- Murad 1968, p. 61.
- Murad 1968, p. 101.
- Murad 1968, p. 33.
- Murad 1968, p. 8.
- Murad 1968, p. 6.
- Rothenburg, G. The Army of Francis Joseph. West Lafayette, Purdue University Press, 1976. p. 35.
- Murad 1968, p. 41.
- Murad 1968, p. 42.
- O'Domhnaill Abu – O'Donnell Clan Newsletter no. 7, Spring 1987 (ISSN 0790-7389))
- Murad 1968, p. 169.
- William M. Johnston, The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History, 1848–1938 (University of California Press, 1983), p. 38
- Le Caine Agnew, Hugh (2007). "The Flyspecks on Palivec's Portrait: Franz Joseph, the Symbols of Monarchy, and Czech Popular Loyalty". In Cole, Laurence; Unowsky, Daniel L. The limits of loyalty : imperial symbolism, popular allegiances, and state patriotism in the late Habsburg monarchy. New York: Berghahn Books. pp. 86–112. ISBN 9781845452025. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Murad 1968, p. 149.
- Murad 1968, p. 150.
- Murad 1968, p. 151.
- Murad 1968, p. 127.
- See also http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05677b.htm (discussing the papal veto from the perspective of the Catholic Church)
- Albertini, Luigi (2005). The Origins of the War of 1914. New York, NY: Enigma Books. p. 16.
- Albertini, Luigi (2005). The Origins of the War of 1914. New York, NY: Enigma Books. p. 37.
- Albertini, Luigi (2005). The Origins of the War of 1914. New York, NY: Enigma Books. p. 94.
- Dejan Djokić (January 2003). Yugoslavism: Histories of a Failed Idea, 1918-1992. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-85065-663-0.
- Albert Freiherr von Margutti: Vom alten Kaiser. Leipzig & Wien 1921, S. 147f. Zitiert nach Erika Bestenreiter: Franz Ferdinand und Sophie von Hohenberg. München (Piper), 2004, S. 247
- Palmer, Alan Twilight of the Habsburgs: the Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph (Atlantic Monthly Press, 1994) pg. 328
- Palmer, pg. 330
- Palmer pgs. 332 & 333
- "Sausalito News 25 November 1916 — California Digital Newspaper Collection". Cdnc.ucr.edu. 1916-11-25. Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- Norman Davies, Europe: A history p. 687
- Twilight of the Habsburgs: The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph By Alan Palmer
- Murad 1968, p. 242.
- Murad 1968, p. 120.
- Morton, Frederic (1989). Thunder at Twilight: Vienna 1913/1914. pp. 85–86.
- Murad 1968, p. 117.
- Palmer, pg. 288
- Palmer, pg. 289
- Palmer, pg. 324
- The official title of the ruler of Austrian Empire and later the Austria-Hungary had been changed several times: by a patent from 1 August 1804, by a court office decree from 22 August 1836, by an imperial court ministry decree from 6 January 1867 and finally by a letter from 12 December 1867. Shorter versions were recommended for official documents and international treaties: "Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia etc. and Apostolic King of Hungary", "Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary", "His Majesty The Emperor and King" and "His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty". The term Kaiserlich und königlich (K.u.K.) was decreed in a letter from 17 October 1889 for the military, the navy and the institutions shared by both parts of the monarchy.
From the Otto's encyclopedia (published during 1888–1909), subject 'King', online in Czech.
- (Dutch) Military William Order: Franz Joseph I. Retrieved 9 maart 2016.
- Associazione Culturale Mitteleuropa. Retrieved 21 April 2012
- Anatol Murad (1968). Franz Joseph I of Austria and his Empire. Twayne Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8290-0172-3.
- Bagger, Eugene Szekeres (1927). Francis Joseph: Emperor of Austria—king of Hungary. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
- Beller, Steven. Francis Joseph. Profiles in power. London: Longman, 1996. ISBN 0582060907
- Bled, Jean-Paul. Franz Joseph. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. ISBN 0631167781
- Cunliffe-Owen, Marguerite. Keystone of Empire: Francis Joseph of Austria. New York: Harper, 1903.
- Gerö, András. Emperor Francis Joseph: King of the Hungarians. Boulder, Colo.: Social Science Monographs, 2001.
- Owens, Karen. Franz Joseph and Elisabeth The Last Great Monarchs of Austria-Hungary. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2013. . ISBN 9781476612164
- Palmer, Alan. Twilight of the Habsburgs: The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1995. ISBN 0871136651
- Redlich, Joseph. Emperor Francis Joseph Of Austria. New York: Macmillan, 1929.
- Unterreiner, Katrin. Emperor Franz Joseph, 1830–1916: Myth and Truth. Wien: C. Brandstätter, 2006. ISBN 3902510447
- Van der Kiste, John. Emperor Francis Joseph: Life, Death and the Fall of the Habsburg Empire. Stroud, England: Sutton, 2005.
- Winkelhofer, Martina. The Everyday Life of the Emperor: Francis Joseph and His Imperial Court. Innsbruck-Wien: Haymon Taschenbuch, 2012. ISBN 9783852189277
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Franz Joseph I of Austria.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Emperor Franz Joseph I|
|German Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Works by or about Franz Joseph I of Austria at Internet Archive
- Biography at WorldWar1.com
- Details at Regiments.org at the Wayback Machine (archived 19 December 2007)
- Mayerling tragedy
- Miklós Horthy reflects on Franz Josef
- Internet museum of Emperor Franz Joseph I, Wilhelm II and First World War
- Wien – Attentat – Kaiser Franz Joseph – Lasslo Libényi – Graf O'Donnell – Josef Ettenreich – Geschichte – Votivkirche at www.wien-vienna.at
- Empress Elisabeth Magazine
- The Emperor in Love
Franz Joseph I of Austria
Cadet branch of the House of LorraineBorn: 18 August 1830 Died: 21 November 1916
Ferdinand I & V
|Emperor of Austria
King of Hungary
| Succeeded by|
Charles I & IV
Ferdinand I of Austria
the German Confederation
| Succeeded by|
William I of Prussia
(President of the North German Confederation)