Folk metal

Folk metal is a fusion genre of heavy metal music and traditional folk music that developed in Europe during the 1990s. It is characterised by the widespread use of folk instruments and, to a lesser extent, traditional singing styles (for example, Dutch Heidevolk, Danish Sylvatica and Spanish Stone of Erech). It also sometimes features soft instrumentation influenced by folk rock.

The earliest folk metal bands were Skyclad from England and Cruachan from Ireland. Skyclad's debut album The Wayward Sons of Mother Earth was released in 1991 and would be considered a thrash metal album with some folk influences, unlike Cruachan’s early work which embraced the folk element as a defining part of their sound. It was not until 1994 and 1995 that other early contributors in the genre began to emerge from different regions of Europe and beyond. Among these early groups, the German band Subway to Sally spearheaded a different regional variation that over time became known as medieval metal. Despite their contributions, folk metal remained little known with few representatives during the 1990s. It was not until the early 2000s when the genre exploded into prominence, particularly in Finland with the efforts of such groups as Finntroll, Ensiferum, Korpiklaani, Turisas, and Moonsorrow.

The music of folk metal is characterised by its diversity with bands known to perform different styles of both heavy metal music and folk music. A large variety of folk instruments are used in the genre with many bands consequently featuring six or more members in their regular line-ups. A few bands are also known to rely on keyboards to simulate the sound of folk instruments. Lyrics in the genre commonly deal with fantasy, mythology, paganism, history and nature.



An elaborate design on a record album cover. In the center is the profile two dragon heads, back to back, with feathers splaying out on either side, and a bar below like that of a military medal. "Skyclad" is printed in elaborate lettering at the top.
The Wayward Sons of Mother Earth by Skyclad is the earliest folk metal album.

It was always my heartfelt dream to see the energy of Metal music mixed with elements from more traditional styles.

Martin Walkyier, former vocalist for Skyclad[1]

Skyclad's "The Widdershins Jig" (1991)
This 21 second sample from Skyclad's debut album The Wayward Sons of Mother Earth is an early instance of folk metal.

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The English band Skyclad was formed in 1990 after vocalist Martin Walkyier left his previous band, Sabbat.[2] Skyclad began as a thrash metal band but added violins from session musician Mike Evans on several tracks from their debut album, The Wayward Sons of Mother Earth,[3] an effort described by Eduardo Rivadavia of AllMusic as "ambitious" and "groundbreaking."[4] The song "The Widdershins Jig" from the debut album has been acclaimed as "particularly significant" and "a certain first in the realms of Metal".[5] With a full time fiddle player in their lineup, the band's second album feature a "now legendary folky jig style" and "more prominent inclusion of the fiddle playing lead lines and melodies normally associated with the lead guitar parts of most other rock bands."[3]

Even with the departure of Martin Walkyier in 2001, Skyclad remains an active folk metal group today after nearly two decades since their formation.[5] In contrast, the Portuguese band Moonspell had a brief tenure in the genre. Their first release was the 1994 Under the Moonspell EP with music that featured folk and Middle Eastern influences.[6] With the release of their debut album Wolfheart in the following year, the band made a transition into gothic metal and within a matter of years "quickly evolved into one of the major players of the European goth-metal scene."[7]

Cruachan were formed in 1992 in Dublin, Ireland. From the outset their intention was to mix the native Irish folk music of their home country with the more extreme side of metal music. Their debut album Tuatha Na Gael was released in 1995 and was a full folk metal album from start to finish. In the Italian book “FOLK METAL, Dalle Origini Al Ragnarok”, a comprehensive history of the genre, Author Fabrizio Giosue credits Cruachan as being the very first real Folk Metal band. He acknowledges that Skyclad did have some folk parts in some songs before Cruachan however he goes on to say Cruachan used folk music as much as they used heavy metal music. Cruachan also used arrangements of known folk songs and melodies, Skyclad wrote folk "sounding" parts.

Another early contributor to folk metal is the Finnish group Amorphis. They formed in 1990 with their debut album, The Karelian Isthmus, following two years later.[8] Their sophomore effort Tales from the Thousand Lakes was released in 1994 with "plenty of fascinating melodies and song structures that drew heavily from the traditional folk music of their native country."[9] The album received a favorable reception from fans with "its content quickly being exalted across the Metal underground as perhaps the very pinnacle of atmospheric Death Metal achievement."[10]

Regional variations

In the years 1994 and 1995, several distinct variations on folk metal emerged from different regions.

Subway to Sally's "Krähenfrass" (1995)
This 18 second sample is an early example of medieval rock from Subway to Sally's second album MCMXCV.

Cruachan's "To Invoke The Horned God" (1995)
Celtic music collides with heavy metal in this 27 second sample from Cruachan's debut album Tuatha Na Gael.

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Medieval metal

Main article: Medieval metal
Four singers perform in the spotlights on stage. One is a female in shorts, a gauzy beige skirt and a leather belt, and plays the fiddle,  The males are wearing black sleeveless shirts, black pants and have military-looking gear. A rock band is in the background.
Subway to Sally, seen here performing live at the 2005 Sundstock Openair, has been credited as setting off medieval metal.

The German band Subway to Sally was formed in 1992 as a folk rock band, singing in English and incorporating Irish and Scottish influences in their music.[11] With their second album MCMXCV released in 1995, the band adopted a "more traditional approach" and started singing in German.[11] Taking Skyclad as an influence,[12] Subway to Sally performs a blend of hard rock and heavy metal "enriched with medieval melodies enmeshed in the songs via bagpipes, hurdy-gurdy, lute, mandoline, shalm [sic], fiddle and flute" and combined with "romantic-symbolic German-speaking poetry" in their lyrics.[13] With chart success in their native Germany,[11] they have since been credited as the band "that set off the wave of what is known as medieval rock."[14]

This distinctly German phenomenon[14] has been continued and expanded further by subsequent bands. Formed in 1996, the Berlin based In Extremo has also found chart success with their "medieval style stage garb and unashamed usage of such bizarre, sometimes hand made, instruments as the Scottish bagpipes."[15] Another band that has experienced commercial success in Germany is the Bavarian outfit Schandmaul.[16] Describing themselves as the "minstrels of today,"[14] the band employs a musical arsenal that includes the bagpipes, barrel organ, shawm, violin and mandolin.[16]

Celtic metal

Main article: Celtic metal
Head and upper body shot of a male singer, with a shaved head and blackened eyes, performing on stage. He is wearing a double-breasted military overcoat with a large collar.
A.A. Nemtheanga fronts the Irish Celtic black metal act Primordial.

The Irish band Cruachan was formed in 1992 by guitarist Keith Fay with their first demo recording distributed in 1993.[17] Drawing inspiration from Skyclad's first album, Fay set out to combine black metal with the folk music of Ireland.[18] Their debut album Tuatha Na Gael was released in 1995 and the band has since been acclaimed as having "gone the greatest lengths of anyone in their attempts to expand" the genre of folk metal.[19] Cruachan combination of Celtic music and heavy metal is known today as Celtic metal.[20]

Parallel to Cruachan, the black metal act Primordial also released a demo recording in 1993 and "found themselves heralded as frontrunners in the burgeoning second-wave black metal movement."[21] Irish music plays "a very big role" in Primordial but in "a dark and subtle way" through the chords and timings.[22] The band has since "established themselves as one of the most unique sounding bands in the folk-meets-black metal field."[23] Other early representatives of Celtic metal include the bands Geasa, Mägo de Oz and Waylander[20] with both groups releasing a demo recording in 1995.[24][25]


From the middle of the 1990s, other bands gradually emerged to combine heavy metal with folk music. Storm was a short lived Norwegian supergroup with Fenriz, Satyr and Kari Rueslåtten from the black metal groups Darkthrone, Satyricon and the doom metal band The 3rd and the Mortal respectively.[26] Their only album Nordavind was released in 1995 with the use of keyboards to imitate the sound of folk instruments.[27] The Germans Empyrium also relied on synthesizers and guitars to deliver their "dark folklore" black metal music with the release of their 1996 debut album A Wintersunset...[28]

The year 1996 also saw the debut album of the "one-man black metal project of multi-instrumentalist Vratyas Vakyas" from Germany known as Falkenbach.[29] Even though Falkenbach was formed as early as 1989, the band didn't get much attention until the debut, that includes epic music that is "rife with keyboards, Viking themes, and folk music tendencies," Falkenbach was effectively a merge of Viking metal with folk metal.[29] They were joined in the next two years by other bands combining the two genres including Windir,[30] Månegarm[31] and Thyrfing.[32]

Predating most folk metal groups, the Spanish band Mägo de Oz was formed as far back as 1989 with a self-titled debut album, released in 1994.[33] With nine members in their lineup, including a violinist and flutist, the band has evolved over the years into a combination of power metal and Celtic flavored folk metal.[33][34] They have experienced strong chart success in their native Spain as well as in South America[35] and Mexico.

The Lord Weird Slough Feg from Pennsylvania, United States also had an early formation dating back to 1990.[36] Their self-titled debut album was released in 1996 and the band has pursued a "unique style of combining traditional/power metal with folk metal."[37]

The Czech band Silent Stream of Godless Elegy had formed in 1995 as a doom metal band "laced with Pagan imagery and adventurous enough to include violins and cellos alongside the expected modern day arsenal."[38] With the release of their second album Behind the Shadows in 1998, the band began to use "folklore influences" in their music.[39]


During the nineties and even at the end of the nineties, there were very few bands. We had Waylander from Ireland. And one or two in Europe, but it was very rare to get a real folk metal band. Nowadays it is a bit of an explosion all over the place.

- Keith Fay of Cruachan in 2006 [40]

Finntroll's "Slaget vid Blodsälv" (2001)
The use of humppa rhythms and keyboards are evident in this 20 second sample from Finntroll's second album Jaktens tid.

Korpiklaani's "Wooden Pints" (2003)
This 21 second sample from Korpiklaani's first album Spirit of the Forest features the prominent use of violins.

Balkandji's "Diavolska shterka" (2001)
A longer example of folk metal from Balkandji's first album Probuzhdane.

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Four long haired musicians perform on a small stage in the spotlight, long hair swinging. The singer, wearing a black leather floor-length skirt,  and the bass guitar player are bare chested with black leather wrist bands. The two other guitar players are in sleeveless black shirts, one with knee-length jeans and the other with black wrist band. Amplifiers crowd the stage.
Finntroll is a prominent folk metal band with a specific interest in trolls and humppa.

The folk metal genre has dramatically expanded with the turn of the new millennium. At the forefront of this explosion, with a "revolutionary clash of tradition and amplification that set them apart", is a group from Finland known as Finntroll.[41] The band was formed in 1997 with a demo recorded the following year and a debut album Midnattens widunder released in 1999.[42] They have since developed a reputation for being "obsessed with all things trollish."[43] Their lyrics are sung exclusively in Swedish instead of the Finnish language "apparently because this language was better to evoke the trollish spirit",[41] even though the real reason for this lies in the band's original vocalist belonging to the Swedish-speaking minority. The music of Finntroll features a "real innovation" in the marriage of black metal music with a style of Finnish polka called humppa.[43] Specifically, the band took from humppa "the alternate picking bass lines accompanied with the drumbeat, and the use of accordion."[44] This unlikely mix of polka and extreme metal has received a mixed reception from critics. Andy Hinds of Allmusic laments the polka influence as undermining "the intended threat of a death metal band"[45] while his colleague Alex Henderson praises the band for their "solid, consistently likable effort," declaring that Finntroll has set themselves apart from their peers "because of their emphasis on Finnish humppa" and "the humor and irony they bring to the table."[46]

Finntroll's second album Jaktens tid was released in 2001 and became a chart success in their native Finland.[47] Some of the songs on the album feature vocals performed by Jonne Järvelä of Korpiklaani, another band from Finland.[48] While other folk metal bands began with metal before adding folk music, Korpiklaani started with folk music before turning metal.[49] The roots of Korpiklaani can be traced back to a Sami folk music group under the name of Shamaani Duo,[50] an "in house restaurant band" created in 1993.[51] An album of folk music was released under this name before Jonne Järvelä relocated and formed a new band Shaman.[52] The folk metal act Shaman was based on the folk music of Shamaani Duo.[53] Two albums were released in 1999 and 2001 before Shaman changed their name to Korpiklaani.[52] The change in name was accompanied by a change in the music. The traditional yoik vocals and the use of the Sámi language were dropped while the synthesizer was replaced with real folk instruments.[54] Jonne Järvelä credits his work with Finntroll as the catalyst for the shift in emphasis from folk to metal.[55]

Long-haired man in beige shirt with wide sleeves and a brown leather vest and pants, plays the electric guitar on stage and sings. There is a large pair of felt antlers pinned to the microphone.
Jonne Järvelä of Korpiklaani played acoustic folk music for five years before turning his attention to folk metal.[56]

While Korpiklaani used an assortment of traditional instruments to deliver their folk metal,[53] Finntroll relies on keyboards for Finnish folk melodies played in the humppa style.[42] The keyboards in Finntroll are performed by Henri Sorvali who also performs in Moonsorrow, another folk metal band from Finland that he formed with his cousin Ville Sorvali in 1995.[57] They released two demos, the first in 1997 and another in 1999, before the 2001 debut album Suden Uni.[58] Moonsorrow blends folk metal with Viking metal by incorporating "Finland's traditional folk music forms into elaborate symphonic arrangements typical of Viking metal outfits such as Bathory and Enslaved."[59] The adoption of folk elements was "becoming all the rage" in Finland by this point[60] and other folk metal bands from Finland that began to emerge in the early 2000s included Cadacross,[60] Ensiferum[61] and later on Turisas[62] and Wintersun.[63] Ensiferum notably found themselves at the top of the Finnish charts with their 2007 single "One More Magic Potion".[64] Finntroll, Korpiklaani, Moonsorrow and Turisas have all experienced chart success in their native Finland as well.[65]

There are also folk metal acts from the other Scandinavian countries. Icelandic group Skalmold is a notable example. The Norwegian act Glittertind was A-listed and played with the highest playing frequency on Norway's most popular radio channel NRK P1 with the song "Kvilelaus" (eng. Restless)"[66] and performed the song on Lindmo, the Norwegian answer to Oprah Winfrey show when they released their first full-length as a full band.[67] Other Norwegian acts include the aforementioned Storm and Windir as well as more recent groups such as Kampfar,[68] Lumsk,[69] Ásmegin and Trollfest.[70] Bands from Sweden include the aforementioned Thyrfing and Månegarm along with other acts such as Otyg[71] and Vintersorg.[72][73] Folk metal bands from Denmark include Wuthering Heights,[74] Svartsot,[75]Huldre and the Faroe Islanders Týr.[76]

Outside Scandinavia, other European nations have contributed to the growing genre. Groups from the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania includes Metsatöll,[77] Raud-Ants,[78] and Skyforger[79] while representatives from Russia include Alkonost,[80] Arkona[81] and Butterfly Temple.[82] More isolated examples across Europe include Dimmi Argus[83] and Balkandji from Bulgaria,[84] Equilibrium[85] and Finsterforst from Germany, Dalriada from Hungary, Cruadalach from the Czech Republic, Litvintroll from Belarus, Nightcreepers from France, Zaria from Slovenia, Elvenking from Italy[86] and Eluveitie from Switzerland.[87]

Folkearth is an international folk metal project with members from several different European countries. At its inception, the project consisted of 14 musicians from separate backgrounds in folk and metal music.[88] With their second album By the Sword of My Father released in 2006, the project boasted the participation of 31 musicians.[89]

Beyond the European continent, folk metal is relatively rare with only a few known acts including the aforementioned The Lord Weird Slough Feg and their fellow Americans Agalloch. The latter's music "made for a stark geographical anomaly, since its eclectic, avant-garde folk-metal was the sort of thing one would expect to emerge from Scandinavia -- not Portland, Oregon."[90] Tuatha de Danann is another geographical anomaly with their Celtic metal from Brazil.[91] Moreover there is also Skiltron who play Scottish Celtic Metal who hail from Argentina, Conrad a Folk Metal band from Barbados, The Nine Treasures from China, Orphaned Land from Israel, Myrath from Tunisia, Tengger Cavalry from Mongolia.



With influences that include Dream Theater, the Faroe Islanders Týr blend progressive metal with folk music.[92]

The music of folk metal is a diverse collection with bands pursuing different subgenres of heavy metal music. While bands like Primordial and Finntroll perform black metal, other groups such as The Lord Weird Slough Feg ply their trade with a more traditional or power metal base. The German-Norwegian group Midnattsol blends the genre with gothic metal.[93] Progressive tendencies can be found among some bands including Elvenking,[94] Lumsk[69] and Týr.[95] Some bands are known to adopt more than one different styles of heavy metal. Orphaned Land combines folk metal with progressive and doom/death metal. The band formed in 1991, also combining Jewish, Arabic, and other West Asian influences[96] while Ensiferum mix folk music on top of a power and death metal hybrid.[61] A few groups are also known to incorporate the styles of other music genres outside of heavy metal. Examples include the punk rock in the music of Glittertind[73] and the neofolk and post-rock tendencies of Agalloch.[97]

Orphaned Land on Stage in Rock Hard Festival
Orphaned Land on Stage in Rock Hard Festival

The folk elements in the genre often reflect the ethnic background of the musicians as is the case for the Scandinavian folk music in Finntroll[43] and Korpiklaani,[52] the Baltic folk music in Metsatöll[98] and Skyforger[79] or the Middle Eastern background of Orphaned Land.[99]

Celtic music can be found among such Irish groups as Cruachan and Waylander[20] as well as bands outside Ireland like Eluveitie[100] (although Switzerland can be considered a country with a Celtic history), and Tuatha de Danann (from Brazil, a country that has no cultural ties with the Celts whatsoever, despite the similarity of the country's name to an island in Irish myth).[91] Folk music from multiple regions are employed by some groups like Elvenking[101] and Ensiferum.[102] Other brazilian acts, such as Sepultura and Overdose (from Belo Horizonte), mixed thrash with tribal sounds, ethnic voices and amazonian instruments. Max Cavalera of Sepultura formed Soulfly which later incorporated this "tribal metal" and latin metal sounds in nu metal and groove metal, inspiring acts like Ill Niño, Puya or Tren Loco.

The genre also offers a variety of atmosphere and moods. A fun and cheerful nature is characteristic of groups like Finntroll[103] and Korpiklaani.[104] Both bands are also noted for playing music that one can dance to.[105] In contrast, other acts such as Thyrfing and Primordial are known for their contemplative atmosphere.[104] Lumsk offers a more mellow style[106] while Agalloch are known for their "depressive ambient" sound.[107]

An epic atmosphere is characteristic of some folk metal bands like Primordial,[108] Moonsorrow,[109] Turisas[110] and the music project Folkearth.[88] Groups like Ensiferum and Wintersun are known to have a melodious side[102][111] while bands that favor a more blistering or brutal approach can be found in groups like Finntroll[112] and Månegarm.[113]


Eluveitie are seen here performing at the 2007 Cernunnos Fest in Paris, France, with a mandola, tin whistle and violin.

Folk metal feature the same typical instruments found in heavy metal music: guitars, bass, drums and vocalist. While a few folk metal groups like Tharaphita discard "any notion of utilising folk instrumentation" and "rely solely on traditional metal instruments,"[114] bands in the genre generally rely on folk instruments that range from the common to the exotic.[115] Numerous folk metal acts include a dedicated violinist in their line up. This includes Skyclad,[5] Subway to Sally,[12] Schandmaul,[16] Mägo de Oz,[35] Silent Stream of Godless Elegy,[38] Korpiklaani,[48] Lumsk,[69] Elvenking,[86] Eluveitie[87] and Tuatha de Danann.[116] The tin whistle and flute can be found in such Celtic metal bands as Cruachan,[17] Waylander[25] and Eluveitie.[87] The flute can also be found in other bands such as Metsatöll,[77] Schandmaul[16] and Morgenstern.[117] Some bands are also known to highlight more exotic instruments from their ethnic background or country, including Skyforger's use of the Latvian kokle,[118] Metsatöll's use of the Estonian torupill,[119] Korpiklaani's use of the Finnish kantele,[55] Eluveitie's use of the hurdy-gurdy,[87] and Orphaned Land's use of the oud and saz.[120]

In the absence of folk instruments, other bands in the genre resort to using keyboards to replicate the sound of folk instruments. This includes the aforementioned Storm, Empyrium and Finntroll as well as other acts like Midnattsol.[93] Bands that supplement a folk instrument like the violin with keyboards include Skyclad,[2] Mägo de Oz,[35] and Tuatha de Danann.[116]

Skyforger, seen here performing with bagpipes at the 2007 Cernunnos Fest in Paris, France, initially relied on a guest musician to perform folk instruments before inviting him to be a fully fledged member of the band.[121]

The large number of instruments that some bands rely on in recording their studio albums can be a hindrance for live performances. While Orphaned Land are able to perform onstage with twenty musicians in their homeland of Israel, they have to rely on a computer to replicate the roles of the guest musicians for concerts elsewhere.[122] Some folk metal acts confine themselves to studio recordings and are not known to perform any live concerts. This includes Folkearth,[89] and Falkenbach.[123] Other folk metal bands expand their regular roster to include more musicians and consequently, it is not uncommon to find bands in the genre featuring six or more members in their line-up. Some of the sextets in the genre are Schandmaul,[16] Cruachan,[17] Korpiklaani,[48] Turisas,[124] and Midnattsol,[93] while septets include Subway to Sally,[12] In Extremo,[15] and Lumsk.[69] Both Silent Stream of Godless Elegy[38] and Eluveitie[87] boast eight members each while the line up of Mägo de Oz totals nine performers.[35] Even when a band includes members dedicated to folk instruments, they might still rely on guest musicians to further enhance their sound. As an example, Lumsk added thirteen guest musicians to the band's seven members on their debut album Åsmund Frægdegjevar.[125] At times, guest musicians are known to become full-fledged members of the band, as was the case in Skyforger[121] and Turisas.[62]


Shaman's "Il Lea Voibmi" (2002)
Regular heavy metal singing is followed by traditional yoik vocals in this 21 second sample from Shaman's second album Shamániac.

Orphaned Land's "The Kiss Of Babylon (The Sins)" (2004)
Female and male vocalists alternate Middle Eastern folk singing in this 30 second sample from Orphaned Land's third album Mabool.

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The diverse range of music styles and instruments is matched by a variety of vocal styles in the genre. From the "spine-chilling death shrieks" in Finntroll[112] to the black metal rasps of Skyforger[79] or Moonsorrow,[109] there is no shortage of extreme vocals in folk metal. Other bands to feature extreme vocals include Cadacross,[126] Ensiferum[127] and Equilibrium.[128] In contrast, bands like Mägo de Oz[34] and Metsatöll are known to feature "clean" singing in line with their more traditional metal approach. Numerous other bands in the genre are known to feature both extreme vocals and clean singing. This includes Primordial,[23] Turisas,[129] Windir[130] and Wintersun.[111]

Traditional folk singing can also be found among some folk metal bands. The yoik vocals of Jonne Järvelä have been featured in varying degrees in the music of Shaman,[54] Finntroll[131] and Korpiklaani.[132] Folk singing or folk-inspired singing can also be heard in the music of Equilibrium,[128] Metsatöll,[133] Skyforger[134] and Orphaned Land.[135] The music of Orphaned Land also features the use of chants and choirs, commonly encountered in the genre of folk metal. Bands that are known to use a choir include Arkona,[81] Turisas,[110] Lumsk[136] and Eluveitie,[137] while chants can be found in the music of Týr[138] and Windir.[139] Some bands like Falconer and Thyrfing are also known to feature "yo-ho-ho folk melodies" in their vocals to suit their Viking metal style.[140][141]

Orphaned Land mostly uses English lyrics, but they are known to feature other languages as they "go well with the music and also sound more exotic and unique." Týr has also been known to use multiple languages in their music.[142] Other bands in the genre are known to sing exclusively or almost entirely in their native language, including Mägo de Oz in Spanish,[34] Moonsorrow in Finnish,[59] Metsatöll in Estonian[133] and Lumsk in Norwegian.[136] Bands in the medieval metal subgenre also tend to sing largely or entirely in their German language, including Subway to Sally,[143] Morgenstern[144] and Letzte Instanz.[145]

Lead female singers are not uncommon in the genre and can be found in Cruachan,[17] Otyg,[71] Lumsk,[69] Arkona[81] and Midnattsol.[93] Other groups like Orphaned Land and Elvenking have employed guest female vocalists in their music.[86][122]


Popular subjects in folk metal include paganism, nature, fantasy, mythology and history.

Folk metal has been associated with paganism ever since its inception, when Martin Walkyier left his former band Sabbat to form Skyclad, in part because the band "wasn't going to go far enough down the pagan, British way that we wanted to do it."[146] Consequently, the lyrics of Skyclad have been known to deal with pagan matters.[5] The band Cruachan was also founded by a self-described pagan, Keith Fay.[18] For Ville Sorvali of Moonsorrow, the label "pagan metal" is preferred "because that describes the ideological points in the music, but doesn’t say anything about the music itself."[147] Other bands that also prefer to use the term "pagan metal" as a self-description include Cruachan,[148] Eluveitie,[149] Obtest[150] and Skyforger. In contrast to bands with pagan themes, some folk metal bands such as Orphaned Land have themes of Abrahamic religion.

Turisas, seen here performing in 2008, have tackled such issues as the glorification of war through the use of fantasy themed lyrics.[151]

Nature is a strong influence to many folk metal bands.[115] Groups such as Korpiklaani,[52] Elvenking,[152] Midnattsol[153] and Vintersorg[154] have all based lyrics on the subject. For the band Agalloch, nature is an embraced theme "because we are siding with what is essentially the victim in a relationship where humankind is a disease."[155] All the members of Skyclad are supporters of "organisations like Greenpeace and others, for those are the ones who stand up and take on the battle" between "people who want to save the planet, and people who want to destroy it."[156]

The pioneers of the genre Skyclad avoided fantasy lyrics because "there was already enough fantasy in the world, told to us by our politicians every day."[156] Nonetheless, other folk metal bands have been known to feature fantasy themes in their lyrics including Ensiferum,[157] Midnattsol[153] and Cruachan.[148] For Elvenking, fantasy themes are used "as a metaphor to cover deeper meanings."[158] Similarly, the fantasy themes in Turisas belie the coverage of issues "that are deeper and have greater significance."[151]

The Celtic metal subgenre is known to feature lyrics based on Celtic mythology.[20] The history of the Celts is another popular source for the lyrics of Celtic metal bands like Cruachan,[18] Eluveitie,[149] Primordial[159] and Mael Mórdha.[160] Norse mythology can be found in the lyrics of such Scandinavian bands as Falkenbach,[123] Týr,[92] Finntroll[161] and Mithotyn.[162] Skyforger is known for featuring lyrics based on both the history and mythology of their Latvian culture.[121] Other bands that have treated history to song include Falconer[162] and Slechtvalk.[163]

Some bands, like Torbjørn Sandvik in Glittertind, have uttered socialist sentiments in statements explaining album concepts. Picture from Borgund Stave Church in Sogn og Fjordane (2009).

A few National Socialist black metal (NSBM) bands like the Nokturnal Mortum,[164] or Russia's Temnozor[165] and Kroda[166] have been known to cross over into folk metal, a circumstance that Ciaran O'Hagan, the vocalist of Waylander, views as "an insult to people like myself who don’t hold with fascist ideals at all."[167] He further suggests that the NSBM bands are playing folk metal "for all the wrong reasons." Due to the misappropriation of pagan symbols by Neo-Nazism, several folk metal bands have also been mistaken for being part of the NSBM scene. Consequently, such bands as Cruachan,[18] Skyforger,[134] Moonsorrow,[168] Månegarm and Týr[169] have had to disassociate themselves with Nazism, fascism or racism. Skyforger went as far as to add the words 'No Nazi Stuff Here!' on the back of their album covers.[170] In April 2008, performers on the folk metal festival Paganfest were subject to accusations of being Nazis, racists and fascists from the German Antifa. Ville Sorvali of Moonsorrow and Heri Joensen of Týr issued a joint video statement to refute these accusations, noting that "one of the biggest issues seems to be that we use ancient Scandinavian symbols in our imagery like the S in the Moonsorrow logo and the T in the Týr logo [even though] that is how the S and the T runes have been written for thousands of years."[171] Moonsorrow has also issued a written statement in response to the controversy[172] while Týr notes on their official website that they "got the idea for the rune logo" from the Black Sabbath album of the same name.[169] On the other side of the political landscape, some folk metal bands have uttered explicit socialist sentiments. For example the aforementioned Glittertind made a leftist statement against neoliberalism in their album booklet when re-releasing the record Til Dovre Faller on Napalm Records in May 2009.[173]

The original folk metal band Skyclad was also known to deal with serious political subjects[156] but through lyrics that were littered with puns[174] and humor.[175] Other bands have continued to feature fun and humorous lyrics. This includes Finntroll[176] with their obsession on trolls.[43] The lyrics of Korpiklaani also "focused on having a good time, drinking [and] partying."[177] In a review of Turisas' The Varangian Way album, James Christopher Monger of Allmusic commented that some listeners might be put off by "the concept of grown men in pelts" singing such lyrics as "come with us to the south, write your name on our roll."[110] Heri Joensen of Týr contends that a listener needs to be confident in his masculinity to listen to such traditional Faeroese lyrics as his own "young lads, happy lads, step upon the floor, dance merrily."[178]

See also


  1. Dicks, Britton. "Interview with Martin Walkyier". Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  2. 1 2 Bush, John. "AMG Skyclad". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  3. 1 2 Boylin, Alex. "Skyclad Biography". Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  4. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "AMG The Wayward Sons of Mother Earth Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Skyclad". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  6. Bowar, Chad. "Under Satanae Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  7. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "AMG Butterfly Effect Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-02-28.
  8. Hill, Gary. "AMG Amorphis". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  9. Begrand, Adrien. "PopMatters Far From the Sun Review". Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  10. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Amorphis". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  11. 1 2 3 Dieters, Frank. "Interview with Michael Bodenski of Subway to Sally". Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  12. 1 2 3 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Subway to Sally". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  13. "Subway to Sally". Retrieved 2008-03-31.
  14. 1 2 3 Matthias von Viereck (12 November 2007). "Modern Minstrels: Medieval Rock on the Rise". Goethe-Institut. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  15. 1 2 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "In Extremo". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Schandmaul". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  17. 1 2 3 4 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Cruachan Biography". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Bolther, Giancarlo. "Interview with Keith Fay of Cruachan". Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  19. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "AMG Cruachan". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Bowar, Chad. "What Is Heavy Metal?". Retrieved 2008-03-11.
  21. Monger, James Christopher. "AMG Primordial". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
  22. S., Mike. "Interview with Alan Nemtheanga of Primordial". Retrieved 2008-03-12.
  23. 1 2 Young, James. "Primordial Concert Review". Retrieved 2008-03-12.
  24. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Geasa". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  25. 1 2 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Waylander". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  26. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Storm". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  27. Cuevas, Carlos Martin. "Nordavind Review". Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  28. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Empyrium". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  29. 1 2 Rivadavia, Eduardo. "AMG Falkenbach". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  30. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "AMG Windir". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  31. Dicks, Britton. "Vargaresa - The Beginning Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  32. Serba, John. "Vansinnesvisor Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  33. 1 2 Bowar, Chad. "A Costa Da Morte Review". Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  34. 1 2 3 Dicks, Britton. "Gaia II - La Voz Dormida Review". Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  35. 1 2 3 4 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Mägo de Oz". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  36. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "The Lord Weird Slough Feg". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  37. Bowar, Chad. "Hardworlder Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  38. 1 2 3 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Silent Stream of Godless Elegy". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  39. Matthijssens, Vera. "Interview with Silent Stream of Godless Elegy". Retrieved 2008-03-11.
  40. Matthijssens, Vera. "Interview with Keith Fay of Cruachan". Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  41. 1 2 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Finntroll". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  42. 1 2 Hinds, Andy. "AMG Finntroll". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  43. 1 2 3 4 Sanneh, Kelefa (2007-09-22). "Finnish Folk-Metal, in Swedish, Plus Trolls". Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  44. von Hobartian, Mike. "Interview with Wilska of Finntroll". Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  45. Hinds, Andy. "Jaktens Tid". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  46. Henderson, Alex. "Ur Jordens Djup Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  47. Finnish Charts for Jaktens Tid
  48. 1 2 3 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Korpiklaani". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  49. Dicks, Britton. "Interview with Jarkko Aaltonen of Korpiklaani". Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  50. Van Horn, Jr., Ray. "Interview with Jarkko Aaltonen of Korpiklaani". Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  51. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Shaman". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  52. 1 2 3 4 Ramos Jr, Octavio. "Voice of the Forest". Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  53. 1 2 Morton, Kenneth. "Interview with Jarkko Aaltonen of Korpiklaani". Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  54. 1 2 Lehtinen, Arto. "Interview with Jonne Järvelä of Korpiklaani". Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  55. 1 2 Fjordi. "Interview with Jonne Järvelä of Korpiklaani". Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  56. Bowar, Chad. "Interview with Jonne Järvelä of Korpiklaani". Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  57. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "AMG Moonsorrow". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  58. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Moonsorrow". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  59. 1 2 Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Suden Uni Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  60. 1 2 Rivadavia, Eduardo. "AMG Cadacross". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  61. 1 2 Rivadavia, Eduardo. "AMG Ensiferum". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  62. 1 2 Deming, Mark. "AMG Turisas". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  63. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "AMG Wintersun". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  64. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Ensiferum". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  65. Finntroll at, Korpiklaani at, Moonsorrow at, Turisas at
  66. "A, B og C-lista uke 8 2014". NRK. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
  67. "Glittertind at NRK Lindmo". NRK. February 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
  68. Bowar, Chad. "Kvass Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  69. 1 2 3 4 5 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Lumsk". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  70. Dicks, Britton. "Willkommen Folk Tell Drekka Fest Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  71. 1 2 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Otyg". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  72. Bowar, Chad. "Solens Rötter Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  73. 1 2 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Glittertind". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  74. Bowar, Chad. "The Shadow Cabinet Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  75. Bowar, Chad. "Ravnenes Saga Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  76. Bowar, Chad. "Eric the Red Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  77. 1 2 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Metsatöll". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  78. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Raud-Ants". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  79. 1 2 3 Bowar, Chad. "Kauja Pie Saules Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  80. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Alkonost". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  81. 1 2 3 Mitchell, Chris. "Ot Serdca K Nebu Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  82. Dicks, Britton. "The Times of Mara Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  83. Catozzi, Marcello. "Dimmi Argus - Bad Dream Review". Retrieved 2014-12-18.
  84. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Balkandji". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  85. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Equilibrium | Biography & History | AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  86. 1 2 3 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Elvenking". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  87. 1 2 3 4 5 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Eluveitie". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  88. 1 2 Dicks, Britton. "A Nordic Poem Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  89. 1 2 Watt, Erika Kristen. "Interview with Marios Koutsoukos of Folkearth". Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  90. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Pale Folklore Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  91. 1 2 Ngolls, Josh. "Tingaralatingadun Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  92. 1 2 Matthijssens, Vera. "Interview with Heri Joensen of Týr". Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  93. 1 2 3 4 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Midnattsol MusicMight Biography". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  94. Henderson, Alex. "The Scythe Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  95. Monger, James Christopher. "AMG Týr". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  96. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Rockdetector Orphaned Land". Retrieved March 10, 2008.
  97. Hill, Gary. "AMG Agalloch". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  98. van Gerrevink, Richard. "Hiiekoda Review". Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  99. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "AMG Orphaned Land". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  100. Bowar, Chad. "Interview with Chrigel Glanzmann of Eluveitie". Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  101. Henderson, Alex. "Winter's Wake Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  102. 1 2 Henderson, Alex. "Victory Songs Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  103. Bowar, Chad. "Ur Jordens Djup Review". Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  104. 1 2 Matthijssens, Vera. "Farsotstider Review". Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  105. Matthijssens, Vera. "Korven Kuningas Review". Retrieved 2008-03-17.
    Matthijssens, Vera. "Ur Jordens Djup Review". Retrieved 2008-03-17.
    Maki, Jeff. "Ur Jordens Djup Review". Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  106. Dicks, Britton. "Åsmund Frægdegjevar Review". Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  107. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Of Stone, Wind and Pillor Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  108. Prato, Greg. "To the Nameless Dead Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  109. 1 2 Bowar, Chad. "Viides Luku: Hävitetty Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  110. 1 2 3 Monger, James Christopher. "Varangian Way Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  111. 1 2 Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Wintersun Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  112. 1 2 Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Nattfödd Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  113. Dicks, Britton. "Vredens Tid Review". Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  114. Kalis, Quentin. "Iidsetel Sunkjatel Radadel Review". Chronicles of Chaos. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  115. 1 2 Bowar, Chad. "Folk Metal Artists". Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  116. 1 2 Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Tuatha de Danann". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  117. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Morgenstern". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  118. Vargscarr. "Interview with Pēteris Kvetkovskis of Skyforger". Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  119. Gentile, Emanuele. "Interview with Metsatöll". Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  120. Fjordi. "Interview with Orphaned Land". Archived from the original on 2005-02-16. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  121. 1 2 3 Dejasu, Barry Lee. "Interview with Peter Kvetkovskis of Skyforger". Archived from the original on 2008-03-03. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  122. 1 2 Reilly, Ann Marie. "Interview with Kobi Farhi of Orphaned Land". Retrieved 2008-03-11.
  123. 1 2 S., Mike. "Interview with Vratyas Vakyas of Falkenbach". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  124. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Turisas". MusicMight. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  125. "Åsmund Frægdegjevar". (Lumsk official website). Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  126. Dicks, Britton. "So Pale Is the Light Review". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  127. Bowar, Chad. "Victory Songs Review". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  128. 1 2 Dicks, Britton. "Turis Fratyr Review". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  129. Bowar, Chad. "The Varangian Way Review". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  130. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Sóknardalr Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  131. Meeks, Ciaran. "Interview with Jonne Järvelä of Korpiklaani". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  132. Begrand, Adrien. "Tales Along This Road Review". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  133. 1 2 Dicks, Britton. "Hiiekoda Review". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  134. 1 2 Fjordi. "Interview with Rihards Skudrîtis of Skyforger". Archived from the original on 2005-02-24. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  135. Dicks, Britton. "Mabool Review". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  136. 1 2 Tsakonas, Giannis. "Interview with Ketil Sæther of Lumsk". Archived from the original on October 24, 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  137. Matthijssens, Vera. "Interview with Chrigel Glanzmann of Eluveitie". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  138. Matthijssens, Vera. "Eric the Red Review". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  139. Escandon, Rodrigo. "Likferd Review". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  140. Serba, John. "The Sceptre of Deception Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  141. Serba, John. "Vansinnesvisor Review". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  142. Dieters, Frank. "Interview with Heri Joensen of Týr". Retrieved 2008-03-19.
  143. Vonberg, Horst. "Herzblut Review". Retrieved 2008-04-10.
  144. Matthijssens, Vera. "Interview with Ulli Ullmann of Morgenstern". Retrieved 2008-04-10.
  145. Matthijssens, Vera. "Wir Sind Gold Review". Retrieved 2008-04-10.
  146. Hinds, Daniel. "Interview with Martin Walkyier of Skyclad". Retrieved 2008-02-20.
  147. Roon, Samuel J. "Interview with Ville Sorvali of Moonsorrow". Retrieved 2008-02-20.
  148. 1 2 Stefanis, John. "Interview with Keith Fay of Cruachan". Retrieved 2008-02-20.
  149. 1 2 Dieters, Frank. "Interview with Chrigel Glanzmann of Eluveitie". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  150. Larissa Glasser. "Interview with Sadlave of Obtest". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  151. 1 2 Smit, Jackie. "Interview with Matthias Nygard of Turisas". Chronicles of Chaos. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  152. Marina. "Interview with Aydan of Elvenking". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  153. 1 2 Fisher, Mark. "Interview with Carmen Espanæs of Midnattsol". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  154. Ulrey, Jeremy. "Interview with Andreas Hedlund of Vintersorg". Chronicles of Chaos. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  155. Los Muertos; Michael De. "Interview with Don Anderson and John Haughm of Agalloch". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  156. 1 2 3 Vonberg, Horst. "Interview with Martin Walkyier of Skyclad". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  157. Dujardin, Audrey. "Interview with Markus Toivonen and Petri Lindroos of Ensiferum". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  158. Jeff. "Interview with Aydan of Elvenking". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  159. Michelle, Alina. "Interview with A. Nemtheanga of Primordial". Archived from the original on February 24, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  160. Ritsios, Elias. "Interview with Roibéard Ó Bogail of Mael Mórdha". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  161. Lahtinen, Luxi. "Interview with Katla and Somnium of Finntroll". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  162. 1 2 George Call. "Interview with Stefan Weinerhall of Falconer". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  163. Eck, Markus. "Interview with Shamgar of Slechtvalk". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  164. Dicks, Britton. "Mirovozzrenie Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  165. Dicks, Britton. "Folkstorm Of Azure Nights Review". Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  166. Fastred, Reap. "Interview with Eisenslav of Kroda". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  167. Dicks, Britton. "Interview with Ciaran O'Hagan of Waylander". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  168. Michael. "Interview with Mitja Harvilahti of Moonsorrow". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  169. 1 2 Týr. "Is Týr a facist, nazi or racist band?". (Týr official website). Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  170. Van Berlo, Andrej. "Interview with Pēteris Kvetkovskis & Edgars Krūmiņš of Skyforger". Retrieved 2008-05-03.
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  176. Henderson, Alex. "Ur Jordens Djup Review". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  177. Matthijssens, Vera. "Interview with Korpiklaani". Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  178. Muxlow. "Interview with Heri Joensen of Týr". Retrieved 2008-03-20.

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