In the Philippines, varying naming customs are observed, whether it was family name first, given name last, a mixture of native conventions with those of neighbouring territories. The most common iteration amongst Filipinos is a blend of the older Spanish system and Anglo-American conventions, where there is a distinction between the "Christian name" from "surname". The construct of having several names in the middle name convention is common to all systems, but to have multiple "first" names and only one middle and last name is a result of the blending of American and Spanish naming customs. So in this case the Philippine naming custom is coincidentally identical to the Portuguese name customs.
For the most part, most Filipinos abide by the Spanish system of using both paternal and maternal surnames, the latter constituting the "middle name". An example would be Jose Cuyegkeng y Mangahas becoming Jose Mangahas Cuyegkeng, where the particle y is used only for legal purposes and is otherwise dropped. The middle name in its natural sense would have been the second name if the person had one, but is never counted as an individual's given name.
Filipinos tend to be people with middle names and surnames.
Filipinos may have one or more official given names (as registered in their birth certificates and baptismal certificates) and various types of temporary or permanent nicknames. Filipinos have a penchant for giving themselves or each other various sorts of nicknames and monikers. Some nicknames are carried for life while others are used only with certain groups so a person can have multiple nicknames at different ages or among different groups of people.
Abbreviations, combinations, and elisions
Long given names can be shortened in various ways. Emmanuel can become Eman, Manuel, Manolo, Manny, or Manoy. Consolación has been converted to Connie, Cons, Sol, or Chona.
Filipino women with two given names such as María Cristina or María Victoria may choose to abbreviate the very common María (in honour of the Virgin Mary as Ma. (with a full stop), thus rendering these given names as Ma. Cristina or Ma. Victoria. Filipino males with two given names such as José Mariano or José Gerardo could follow the same practice of abbreviating Josés as Jo., but this is not as consistent. Some Muslims would follow conventions found in neighbouring Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia, abbreviating "Muhammad" (and its variants, viz. "Mohammed", etc.) as "Muhd." or "Mohd."
Another common practice rarely seen in other cultures is to elide or combine multiple given names into one nickname. The aforementioned María Cristina and María Victoria may thus acquire the nicknames Maricris and Marivic. Thus the Filipino names Maricel, Maritoni, Marijo, Maritess, and Maricon come from Maria Celia (or Celeste), Marie Antoinette, María Josefa (or Josefina), María Teresa, and María Concepción (or Consolación). The popular male nicknames Joma, Jomar, and Jomari are derived from concatenating José Mariano. Jestoni was derived from Jesús Antonio. These types of nicknames have become so common that they have also been registered as a child's official given name by the parents (e.g., Maricris Llamador Gunigundo or Maricris Ll. Gunigundo). The child Sidperl got his name when his parents combined their given names Isidro and Perlita, while Lucifer was named for parents Lucy and Fernando.
Sometimes, this practice results in a completely new, unprecedented given name. Former Vice-President Jejomar Binay's given name is a combination of Jesus-Joseph-Mary. A former senator's first name was Heherson, derived from He-Her-Son (from "He, Her [Virgin Mary]'s Son", referring to Jesus Christ). The unique, patriotic female names Luzviminda and its variants Minvilu and Vizminda come from concatenating the names of the country's three main island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.
Some first names like Lodegrano or Lorimer may have been invented on the spot by the parents or derived from some partially remembered foreign term. Other coined first names have unusual spellings or spellings which are pronounced differently.
Honorifics and titles
Honorifics and titles are sometimes used in place of a person's actual name. Thus, the titles for family elders are often used by the younger persons and then adopted by the wider community: Apo and Lolo (grandfather) and Lola (grandmother) are used for senior elders; Tatay/Itay/Ama (father) or Tito/Tio/Tiong (uncle) and Nanay/Inay/Ina (mother) or Tita/Tia/Tiang for middle-aged elders; Manong or Kuya (elder brother) and Manang or Ate (elder sister) for anyone slightly older than the person speaking.
People in the community are often addressed by their military or police rank, professional titles or job descriptions, either with or without their names. Architect, Attorney, Engineer, Dok/Doctor, Direk/Director, Manager, Bisor (supervisor), Boss, Tsip/Chief, are used in the same way as Mister, Miss, Ms., or Mrs. especially when the addressee's name is not yet known by the speaker. This is often done as a sign of respect and to avoid giving offence. Even foreigners who work in the Philippines or are naturalized Filipino citizens, including foreign spouses of Filipinos, who hold some of these titles and descriptions are addressed in the same way as their Filipino counterparts, although it may sound awkward or unnatural to some of them or language purists who argue that the basic titles that precede surnames and either Sir or Ma'am/Madam are to be employed for simplicity. Also, Sir and Madam/Ma'am are not to be used precede a nickname.
Numerals and birth order patterns
People with the same name as their father are registered as Junior (abbreviated to Jr.) or numbered with Roman numerals (III, IV, V, etc.); their father adds Senior (Sr.) after his surname or suffix (i.e., Antonio O. Cuyegkeng Sr.. is the father of the son Antonio M. Cuyegkeng Jr. and grandchild Antonio R. Cuyegkeng III). Inevitably, the younger person tends to be nicknamed Junior or Jun permanently. One person's nickname became Third because his full name was Andres Mariano Roxas Cuyegkeng III (this is a fictional name for example purposes). Thus a family will necessarily bestow a variety of unofficial nicknames to distinguished the various people having with nearly identical official given names.
The names of children in some families may follow a certain pattern, such as beginning with a certain letter of the alphabet, e.g. Diego Arnel, Diamond Amelia, Danford Arman, Dolores Allison, such that all their initials will be the same, i.e., DAZL if the middle name is Zulueta and the surname is Lim. One group of siblings was named after countries (Arabia, Australia, Aruba, Albania) while another was named after car trademarks (Ford, Mercedes, Bentley, Maserati). Other names seemed to have been taken from popular brand names, food, fruits, and flowers: Ramcar, Cherry Pie, Apple, Peachy, Pepsi, Brandy. World Champion boxer Manny Pacquiao named his two daughters Queen Elizabeth and Princess while his wife is named Jinky. Former Philippine Senator Joker Arroyo (legal name) has a brother named Jack.
Many nicknames are bestowed by parents or other elders on children while they are still toddlers. Examples are the numerous Boy, Toto/Totoy (young boy), Girlie, Nene (young girl), Baby and similar types of pet names given to people who received them as kids and carried them into adult life and seniority. They've carried the nickname all their lives and see no incongruity in being called Boy or Baby even when in their sixth decade. Some are diminutives of the actual name, such as Pepito for Pepe, Juanito for Juan (or the English form Johnny for John), and Nenita for Nena. Thus, a person used to being called Joselito (Little Joseph) as a child may retain the nickname as an adult even if he could already be called José or Joseph.
Reversals, indigenised names and Anglicisation
The Filipino given name Dranreb was invented by reversing the spelling of the English name Bernard, while someone calling himself Nosrac bears the legal name Carson. Joseph Ejército Estrada, Thirteenth President of the Philippines, began as a movie actor and received his nickname Erap as an adult; it comes from Pare spelled backwards (from Spanish compadre, fellow godparent) but now means mate or buddy in Filipino.
An old custom is to replace or insert Filipino phonemes into a Spanish or English name: Mariano becomes Nano, Edwin becomes Aweng, Eduardo becomes Dwarding, Roberto becomes Berting, Ponciano becomes either Popoy, Onse, or Syano. Sometimes there is a tendency to convert a grand-sounding given name into something very ordinary, such as when John Paul becomes JayPee, Peter John becomes Peejong, Anthony becomes Tonyo, Ronald becomes Onad, María Elena becomes Ineng or Inyang, or Ambrosia becomes Brosya.
Complementary to this is the practise of Anglicising (with the implication of "modernising") a Spanish given name. Thus José Roberto becomes Joseph Robert (further shortened to Joebert). Eduardo becomes Edward and then Eddie or Eddieboy (sometimes further shortened to Daboy). Consolación becomes Connie; Corazón becomes Cora or Cory; Juan becomes John or Johnny; Teresita or Teresa becomes Terê, Tessa, or Tessie; and Gracia becomes Grace.
Monikers and progressional names
The variety of Filipino names, some of them with negative connotations in Anglicised form, often take foreigners by surprise. Most Filipinos don't notice any negative English connotations, however, unless somebody points it out.
Many Filipino celebrities and high-status personalities, such as actors and politicians, don't mind having such types of nicknames; in fact, their nicknames are often more well-known than their actual given names. Film and television celebrity German Moreno didn't mind using the nickname Kuya Germs (kuya = elder brother). National Artist of the Philippines for Fashion Design, José Pitoy Moreno, would never be recognized anywhere under his official given name, but so far, he is the only prominent Pitoy in the world.
The aforementioned Antonio C. Cuyegkeng II may receive an unofficial nickname such as Toning, Tonio, Onyo, Oning, Tony, or Anton that he could later change or keep for life.
Certain names like these have uncertain origin, or perhaps a purely native origin: Bang, Beng, Bing, Ding, Ging, Ting, Ming, Ping, Pepeng, Leng, Weng, Eng, Yengyeng, Bong, Dong, Pong, Tintin, Tingting, Tonton, Bingbing, Bingbong, Bongbong, Dingdong, Popong, Kiko, Kokoy, Kikay, Kitkit, Dada, Jaja, Jamjam, Jonjon, Jigjig, Jojo, Cheche, Chong, Choy, Doy, Loy, Ninoy, Noynoy, Nonong, Toying, Toyang, Yoyoy, Vicvic, Taktak, Bokbok, Micmac and many more.
H-insertion and letter substitution
Some Filipinos use creative spelling to further distinguish themselves, such as by adding the letter h or changing b to v to convert the commonplace Boy to the distinctive Vhoy. Thus creative spellings like Jhim, Bhess, or Jhun/Juhn. Filipinos with repetitive nicknames like Bingbing, Tintin, or Jamjam now also further shorten their nicknames by putting a numeral 2 after the first syllable, as if it had an exponent (Bingbing becomes Bing-squared): Bing2, Tin2, and Jam2.
Christians (as well as certain Muslims, Chinese Filipinos, and others) in the Philippines formerly followed naming patterns practiced throughout the Spanish-speaking world (the practice of having the father's surname followed by the mother's surname, the two being connected by the particle "y", which means "and", such as Francisco Casas y Concepcion). If the second surname starts with i, y, hi or hy, the particle becomes e, following Spanish rules of euphony, as in Eduardo Dato e Iradier. Sometimed this second rule is overlooked, owing to some Filipinos' ignorance of Spanish euphony.
However, this practice changed when the Philippines became a United States colony in the first half of the 20th century. The order was reversed to follow the conventional American form "Christian name-Middle name-Surname," which in this case is actually "Christian name-Mother's surname-Father's surname" (Francisco Concepcion Casas or simply Francisco C. Casas). The conjunction y was dropped, although it is still used in certain contexts today (most notably in criminal records).
Currently, the middle name is usually, though not always, the mother's maiden name (followed by the last name which is the father's surname). This is the opposite of what is done in Spanish-speaking countries and is similar to the way surnames are done in Portugal and Brazil. The blending of American and Spanish naming customs results in the way Filipinos write their names today.
Furthermore, application forms for various Philippine government documents define the first name as the "Christian name(s)," the middle name as the "mother's maiden surname" (this becomes the basis for the middle initial), and the surname as the "father's surname."
Bearing the mother's maiden surname as the middle name or middle initial is more important to a majority of Filipinos than to use one of the given names as a middle name or middle initial. Filipino culture usually allocates equal value to the lineage from both mother and father except in some prominent families who practice a strictly patriarchal system (usually of Spanish or Chinese heritage).
Exceptions apply in the case of children with single parents. Children born out of wedlock are registered under the mother's maiden name (if still unmarried), applying her middle name (maternal surname) for the child's last name, respectively. The unmarried father must resort to legal and administrative procedures if he desires to acknowledge the child as his own and for the child to be registered with his own surname (in which case the child will use the mother's surname as his/her middle name). Likewise, children raised by single fathers take the current surname (paternal surname) with no middle name, whether or not the mother's identity is known. These exceptions also apply to Filipino children who have non-Filipino descent.
Maiden and married names
When a woman marries, she may: use her maiden first name and surname and add her husband's surname; use her maiden first name and her husband's surname; or use her husband’s full name, but prefixing a word indicating that she is his wife, such as “Mrs.” She may also decline to adopt her husband's surname and continue to use her maiden name since there is no law in the Philippines which obligates a married woman to use the surname of her husband.
- When a woman whose full maiden name is Margarita Gomez Mangahas (where her given name is "Margarita", mother's maiden surname is "Gomez", and father's surname is "Mangahas"; this is normally shortened to "Margarita G. Mangahas" or "Margarita Mangahas") marries a man by the name of Antonio Ong Cuyegkeng, she may address herself and choose to be legally and/or nominally known either as Margarita Gomez Mangahas - Cuyegkeng (shortened to "Margarita G. Mangahas - Cuyegkeng" or "Margarita Mangahas - Cuyegkeng"), Margarita Mangahas Cuyegkeng (shortened to "Margarita M. Cuyegkeng" or "Margarita Cuyegkeng"), Mrs. Antonio Ong Cuyegkeng, or still as Margarita Gomez Mangahas. However, once she has opted to use the surname of her husband, she shall continue using the same until her marriage with her husband is validly terminated, such as through annulment, subject to certain conditions.
- All children from this marriage will automatically have "Mangahas" as their middle name and "Cuyegkeng" as their last name, but they may have any number of first/given names as the parents wish (usually one to three).
- Their child, "Alfonso Maria", will have a full name of Alfonso Maria Mangahas Cuyegkeng shortened to Alfonso Maria M. Cuyegkeng when using initials. "Alfonso Ma. M. Cuyegkeng" will be the preferred way of rendering the name. Depending on family or personal preference, the child may use either "Alfonso" or "Maria" as his primary given name.
- If for space constraints, the aforementioned Alfonso Maria Cuyegkeng cannot use this preferred way of writing his name, he would most likely choose to write his name as "Alfonso M. Cuyegkeng" or "Alfonso M.M. Cuyegkeng" (keeping the mother's maiden name) instead of just "Alfonso M. Cuyegkeng " (the generally American or Commonwealth custom).
Until the middle of the 20th century, it was common for married Filipino women to insert the particle "de" ("of") between her maiden surname and husband's surname (as in Margarita Mangahas de Cuyegkeng or Margarita M. de Cuyegkeng), another common Spanish naming custom. However, this practice is no longer common.
Married Filipino women who are professionals may choose to hyphenate their surnames (such as "Margarita Margarita - Cuyegkeng," instead of simply "Margarita Cuyegkeng" or "Margarita M. Cuyegkeng"), at least in professional use, and use it socially even if legal documents follow a different naming pattern. This practice allows others to identify them after their marriage and helps others keep track of their professional achievements; otherwise, her unmarried and married names would seem to refer to two different persons ("Margarita Gomez Mangahas" as compared to "Margarita Mangahas Cuyegkeng").
Before digitization of records, middle initials and sorting of surnames follow the first letter of the name after Hispanic de, dela, del, de los. For example, the name Jose de los Santos dela Cruz is shortened as Jose S. dela Cruz and surname sorted on the letter C. Today, the middle initial must be the letter D (Jose D. dela Cruz) and surname sorted in the letter D.
These are some non-Hispanic surnames unique to the native naming convention. Some surnames have a literal meaning in languages of the Philippines while others are derived from immigrants altering their names to conform to the colonial Spanish nomenclature.
Unlike their lowlander counterparts, Igorots living in the Cordillera Central in northern Luzon were not conquered by the Spaniards, thereby preserving their naming customs from foreign influence. Each group had their own naming customs, but generally, like Indonesian names, there is only one given name and no surname to speak of. The given name's meaning is usually connected to natural phenomena or objects, such as danum for water. It was only the Igorots who have had interacted with Spaniards and lowlanders for trade who were given a name that follows the binomial "first name"-"surname" system, such as Mateo Cariño and Mateo Carantes.
It was only at the turn of the 20th century and the advent of the American occupation of the Philippines that the naming customs of the Igorots slowly conformed with the national legal naming system used to today, aided by the evangelization efforts of American Protestant missionaries. Most older people, however, still keep the singular given name given to them by their parents while also using the so-called "Christian name" to conform to Philippine law. The singular given names of some individuals living in the early 20th century have since been adopted as a surname by their descendants.
Almost all Filipinos had Spanish or Spanish-sounding surnames imposed on them for taxation purposes, but a number of them have indigenous Filipino surnames. On 21 November 1849, Governor General Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa issued a decree stating that Filipinos should adopt Spanish surnames to make census counting easier. Some Filipinos retained their native pre-colonial names, especially those who were exempted from the Clavería decree such as the descendants of rulers of the Maharlika or noble class. These surnames include Lacadola, Urduja and Tupas who each descended from different Datus. They were allowed to keep the name to claim tax exemptions. Most younger Filipinos have English Christian names (e.g. Andrew, Candice, Francis, Mark, Paul etc.) but many also bear Spanish (e.g. Ana, Antonio, Enrique, Lucho, Maria, Miguel etc.) or indigenous Filipino first names (e.g. Ligaya, Liwayway, Makisig, Mayumi). Filipinos rarely use diacritics save for the tilde on the ñ, which is not universal because of the widespread use of American standard typewriters and keyboards, which sometimes include the ñ and do not include accented vowels. Computer keyboards both currently and previously use the U.S. standard layout, which includes neither ñ nor combining diacritics. Spanish names, however, are vocally stressed as they would be by Spanish-speakers.
The Spanish surname category provides the most common surnames in the Philippines.
Some Filipinos use Spanish names and names of saints as their surnames, but this is not a complete list of such names. Some are listed above (under Spanish surnames).
Filipinos bearing mostly non-indigenous, non-Hispanic surnames have over time altered these for the sake of convenience, to make them sound more Spanish and/or conform with Spanish naming conventions, or for no other reason. Some Filipinos bear Basque-originated surnames.
Many modern-day Chinese Filipinos have last names with one syllable like Lim, Tan, Cu, Khu and Sy. However, early Chinese Filipino families took on the complete name of their patriarch, thus their names had three syllables. These were adopted into the mainstream Filipino surnames and don't exist anywhere else in the world. Their names were transcribed using the Spanish orthography in effect during the 19th century.
Of particular interest is the convention of Chinese surnames ending in -co or -ko. That suffix is an honorific in the Chinese language retained in the surname. However, "co" by itself is also a valid surname. In general, if it is at the end it is an honorific. An example of this is Cuyegkeng. Their patriarch was Cu Yeg Keng, who was addressed respectfully as Cu Yeg keng (one given name dropped). Cu Yeg Keng eventually became Cuyegkeng to better adapt to the social norms dictated in the Spanish era.
Listed are surnames of Chinese people living in the Philippines, primarily in the old Chinatown of Binondo, Manila. Some multi-syllabic surnames, particularly with the -co and -ko honorific endings, were adapted in the Spanish Era and thus retain Spanish spellings, while more recent ones tend to comprise one syllable.
Some Filipinos bear Japanese surnames. They most likely indicate Japanese ancestry either from the many Japanese who settled during pre-colonial Philippines when it was separated among different nations (kingdoms, rajahnates, sultanates, tribes, etc.), colonial times, or more recently from World War II. During the Macapagal and Marcos administrations, only few Japanese Filipinos have entered military services and this was very limited. These people in military service during that time are descendants of World War II Japanese soldiers who were captured, pardoned and settled in the Philippines and married Filipino women. Today, some Japanese immigrants living in the Philippines are Nisei, Sansei, Yonsei, and/or Gosei; however, these generations are not categorized (unlike in U.S. and Brazil, and other countries where generations of Japanese immigrants are categorized).
These are the surnames of Filipinos of British and/or American parentage, as these surnames are both shared by the Americans and the British. But much of the Filipinos bearing these surnames were more descended from their American fathers or grandfathers. These surnames are also carried by fathers and grandfathers from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and among Anglophone Europeans of South Africa and other nations that belong to the Commonwealth of Nations.
A number of Filipino-Germans, Filipino-Austrians, Filipino-Swiss and Filipino descendants of German Americans bear these surnames. Some have German surnames because of the immigration of the Jewish communities from Europe during the Commonwealth era in the Philippines.
Filipinos also bear hispanicized translations of the names of regions, states and provinces of countries and small sovereign entities in Europe.
The use of Arabic names is prominent among the Filipino Muslims. The country has Islamic influence from what are now Arabs, Persians, Malays, Indonesians, and Indians, who have traded with ancestors of Filipinos, and introduced Islam to the southern parts of the archipelago beginning in the 13th century. Some names, including Fátima, Omar, and Soraya, bear direct influence from Arab sources and Spanish ones, given the latter's period under Moorish rule.
Other Asian and European or from Western Hemisphere
Filipinos who hold middle or family names from other non-English-speaking nations also follow the conventions mentioned in this article, despite the proper naming customs that are followed in those nations.
- Catálogo alfabético de apellidos, book of surnames distributed by decree to Filipinos
- Surnames by country § The Philippines
- Kate McGeown (27 March 2011). "Playful Filipino Names Hard to Get Used To". BBC News. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "Title XIII. - Use of Surnames, Book I, Civil Code of the Philippines". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. June 18, 1949. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Acosta, Persida (July 1, 2013). "No Philippine law obligates married woman to drop her maiden name". Manila Times. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "List of some surnames in the Philippines". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 19, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- Philippine Given Names A list of typically Philippine given names and hit-parades of the most popular names
- Catalog of Filipino Names by Hector Santos Filipino names still used even after the Clavería edict
- Popular names given to Filipino babies Traditional names given by parents today
- Playful Filipino names hard to get used to, Kate McGeown, BBC News, 27 March 2011.