Fernando Pessoa

Fernando Pessoa

Pessoa in 1929
Born Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa
(1888-06-13)June 13, 1888
Lisbon, Portugal
Died November 30, 1935(1935-11-30) (aged 47)
Lisbon, Portugal
Occupation Poet, writer, and translator
Language Portuguese, English, French
Nationality Portuguese
Alma mater University of Lisbon
Period 1912–1935
Genre Poetry, essay, theatre, fiction
Notable works The Book of Disquiet, Message
Notable awards
  • Queen Victoria Prize (1903)
  • Antero de Quental Award (1934)

"Fernando Pessoa"

Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa (/pɛˈsə/;[1] European Portuguese: [fɨɾˈnɐ̃dw ɐ̃ˈtɔnju nuˈɣɐjɾɐ pɨˈsoɐ]; June 13, 1888 – November 30, 1935), was a Portuguese poet, writer, literary critic, translator, publisher and philosopher, described as one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest poets in the Portuguese language. He also wrote in and translated from English and French.

Pessoa was a prolific writer, and not only under his own name, for he dreamed up approximately seventy-five others. He did not call them pseudonyms because he felt that did not capture their true independent intellectual life and instead called them heteronyms. These imaginary figures sometimes held unpopular or extreme views.

Early years in Durban

Nothing had ever obliged him to do anything. He had spent his childhood alone. He never joined any group. He never pursued a course of study. He never belonged to a crowd. The circumstances of his life were marked by that strange but rather common phenomenon – perhaps, in fact, it’s true for all lives – of being tailored to the image and likeness of his instincts, which tended towards inertia and withdrawal.

Fernando Pessoa, from the preface of
The Book of Disquiet, tr. Richard Zenith.
Pessoa's birthplace: a large flat at São Carlos Square, just in front of Lisbon's opera.

On July 13, 1893, when Pessoa was five, his father, Joaquim de Seabra Pessoa, died of tuberculosis and next year, on January 2, his younger brother Jorge, aged one, also died.

Following the second marriage of his mother, Maria Magdalena Pinheiro Nogueira, with João Miguel dos Santos Rosa, on December 31, 1895, little Fernando sailed with his mother for South Africa in the beginning of 1896, to join his stepfather, a military officer appointed Portuguese consul in Durban, capital of the former British Colony of Natal.

The young Pessoa by himself
Last year in Lisbon before moving to Durban, 1894, aged 6.
There is only one event in the past which has both the definiteness and the importance required for rectification by direction; this is my father's death, which took place on 13th July, 1893. My mother's second marriage (which took place on 30th December, 1895) is another date which I can give with preciseness and it is important for me, not in itself, but in one of its results – the circumstance that, my stepfather becoming Portuguese Consul in Durban (Natal), I was educated there, this English education being a factor of supreme importance in my life, and, whatever my fate be, indubitably shaping it.

The dates of the voyages related to the above event are (as nearly as possible):

1st. voyage to Africa – left Lisbon beginning January 1896.

Return – left Durban in the afternoon of 1st. August 1901.

2nd. voyage to Africa – left Lisbon about 20th. September 1902.

Return – left Durban about 20th. August 1905.

Fernando Pessoa, letter to British Journal of Astrology, W. Foulsham & Co., 61, Fleet Street, London, E.C., February 8, 1918.[2]

The young Pessoa received his early education at St. Joseph Convent School, a Catholic grammar school run by Irish and French nuns. He moved to the Durban High School in April, 1899, becoming fluent in English and developing an appreciation for English literature. During the Matriculation Examination, held at the time by the University of the Cape of Good Hope (forerunner of the University of Cape Town), in November 1903, he was awarded the recently created Queen Victoria Memorial Prize for best paper in English. While preparing to enter university, he also attended the Durban Commercial High School during one year, in the evening shift.

Hillier did first usurp the realms of rhyme
To parody the bard of olden time:
Haggar then followed and, in shallow verse,
Proves that to every bad there is a worse.
Some nameless critic then in furious strain
Causes the reader cruel pain
While after metre pure he seems to thirst
But shows how every worse can have a worst.
C. R. Anon, The Natal Mercury, July 6, 1904.
Pessoa in Durban, 1898, aged 10.

Meanwhile, Pessoa started writing short stories in English, some under the name of David Merrick, many of which he left unfinished.[3] At the age of sixteen, The Natal Mercury[4] (July 6, 1904 edition) published his poem "Hillier did first usurp the realms of rhyme...", under the name of C. R. Anon (anonymous), along with a brief introductory text: "I read with great amusement...". In December, The Durban High School Magazine published his essay "Macaulay".[5] From February to June, 1905, in the section "The Man in the Moon", The Natal Mercury also published at least four sonnets by Fernando Pessoa: "Joseph Chamberlain", "To England I", "To England II" and "Liberty".[6] His poems often carried humorous versions of Anon as the author's name. Pessoa started using pen names quite young. The first one, still in his childhood, was Chevalier de Pas, supposedly a French noble. In addition to Charles Robert Anon and David Merrick, the young writer also signed up, among other pen names, as Horace James Faber, Alexander Search, and other meaningful names.

The young Pessoa described by a schoolfellow
Pessoa in 1901, aged 13.
I cannot tell you exactly how long I knew him, but the period during which I received most of my impressions of him was the whole of the year 1904 when we were at school together. How old he was at this time I don’t know, but judge him to have 15 or 16. [...]

He was pale and thin and appeared physically to be very imperfectly developed. He had a narrow and contracted chest and was inclined to stoop. He had a peculiar walk and some defect in his eyesight gave to his eyes also a peculiar appearance, the lids seemed to drop over the eyes. [...]

He was regarded as a brilliant clever boy as, in spite of the fact that he had not spoken English in his early years, he had learned it so rapidly and so well that he had a splendid style in that language. Although younger than his schoolfellows of the same class he appeared to have no difficulty in keeping up with and surpassing them in work. For one of his age, he thought much and deeply and in a letter to me once complained of "spiritual and material encumbrances of most especial adverseness". [...]

He took no part in athletic sports of any kind and I think his spare time was spent on reading. We generally considered that he worked far too much and that he would ruin his health by so doing.

Clifford E. Geerdts, letter to Dr. Faustino Antunes, April 10, 1907.[7]

Ten years after his arrival, he sailed for Lisbon via the Suez Canal on board the "Herzog", leaving Durban for good at the age of seventeen. This journey inspired the poems "Opiário" (dedicated to his friend, the poet and writer Mário de Sá-Carneiro) published in March, 1915, in Orpheu nr.1[8] and "Ode Marítima" (dedicated to the futurist painter Santa-Rita Pintor) published in June, 1915, in Orpheu nr.2[9] by his heteronym Álvaro de Campos.

Adult life in Lisbon

Once again I see you – Lisbon, the Tagus, and all –
Useless passerby of you and of me,
Stranger in this place as in every other,
Accidental in life as in the soul,
Phantom wandering the halls of memory,
To the squealing of rats and the squeaking of boards,
In the doomed castle where life must be lived...
Fernando Pessoa, from "Lisbon Revisited" (1926)
ed. and tr. by Edwin Honig and Susan M. Brown.
"Ibis Enterprise", the first firm established by Pessoa, in 1909.

While his family remained in South Africa, Pessoa returned to Lisbon in 1905 to study diplomacy. After a period of illness, and two years of poor results, a student strike against the dictatorship of Prime Minister João Franco put an end to his studies. Pessoa became a self student, a devoted reader who spent a lot of time at the library. In August, 1907, he started working as a practitioner at R.G. Dun & Company, an American mercantile information agency (currently D&B, Dun & Bradstreet). His grandmother died in September and left him a small inheritance, which he spent on setting up his own publishing house, the "Empreza Ibis". The venture was not successful and closed down in 1910, but the name ibis,[10] the sacred bird of Ancient Egypt and inventor of the alphabet in Greek mythology, would remain an important symbolic reference for him.

Pessoa's last home, from 1920 till his death, in 1935, currently the Fernando Pessoa Museum

Upon Pessoa's return to Lisbon, and his incomplete studies, he also complemented his British education with Portuguese culture, as an autodidact. Pre-revolutionary atmosphere surrounding the assassination of King Charles I and Crown Prince Luís Filipe, in 1908, and patriotic environment resulting from the successful republican revolution, in 1910, certainly exerted a relevant influence in the shaping of the writer. His stepuncle Henrique dos Santos Rosa, a retired military and poet, introduced the young Pessoa to Portuguese poetry, notably the romantics and symbolists of the 19th century.[11] In 1912, Fernando Pessoa entered the literary world with a critical essay, published in the cultural journal A Águia, which triggered one of the most important literary debates in the Portuguese intellectual world of the 20th century: the polemic regarding a super-Camões. In 1915 a group of artists and poets, including Fernando Pessoa, Mário de Sá-Carneiro and Almada Negreiros, created the literary magazine Orpheu,[12] which introduced modernist literature to Portugal. Only two issues were published (Jan–Feb–Mar and Apr–May–Jun, 1915), the third failed to appear due to funding difficulties. Lost for many years, this issue was finally recovered and published in 1984.[13] Among other writers and poets, Orpheu published Pessoa, orthonym, and the modernist heteronym, Álvaro de Campos.

Pessoa also founded the "Art Journal" Athena (1924–25),[14] in which he published verses of the heteronyms Alberto Caeiro and Ricardo Reis. Along with his profession, as free-lance commercial translator, Fernando Pessoa undertook intense activity as a writer, literary critic and political analyst, contributing to the journals and newspapers A Águia (1912–13), Teatro (1913), A Renascença (1914), O Jornal (1915), Orpheu (1915), Exílio (1916), Centauro (1916), Terra Nossa (1916), Portugal Futurista (1917), Acção (1919–20), Ressurreição (1920), Contemporânea (1922–26), Athena (1924–25), Diário de Lisboa (1924–35), Revista de Comércio e Contabilidade (1926), Sol (1926), O Imparcial (1927), Presença (1927–34), Notícias Ilustrado (1928–30), Girassol (1930), Revolução (1932), Descobrimento (1932), Fama (1932–33), Fradique (1934) and Sudoeste (1935).

Pessoa the flâneur

Walking on these streets, until the night falls, my life feels to me like the life they have. By day they’re full of meaningless activity; by night, they’re full of meaningless lack of it. By day I am nothing, and by night I am I. There is no difference between me and these streets, save they being streets and I a soul, which perhaps is irrelevant when we consider the essence of things.

Fernando Pessoa, from "A Factless Autobiography"
in The Book of Disquiet, tr. by Richard Zenith.
Pessoa, a flâneur in the streets of Lisbon.

After his return to Portugal, when he was seventeen, Pessoa barely left his beloved city of Lisbon, which inspired the poems "Lisbon Revisited" (1923 and 1926), by his heteronym Álvaro de Campos. From 1905 to 1920, when his family returned from Pretoria after the death of his stepfather, he lived in fifteen different places around the city,[15] moving from a rented room to another according to his financial troubles and the troubles of the young Portuguese Republic.

Pessoa had the flâneur's regard, namely through the eyes of Bernardo Soares, another of his heteronyms.[16] This character was supposedly an accountant, working to Vasques, the boss of an office located in Douradores Street. Bernardo Soares also supposedly lived in the same downtown street, a world that Pessoa knew quite well due to his long career as freelance correspondence translator. In fact, from 1907 until his death in 1935, Pessoa worked in twenty one firms located in Lisbon's downtown, sometimes in two or three of them simultaneously.[17] In The Book of Disquiet, Bernardo Soares describes some of those typical places and their "atmosphere".

Coffee house "A Brasileira", established in 1905, the year Pessoa returned to Lisbon.

A statue of Fernando Pessoa (below) can be seen outside A Brasileira, one of the preferred places of young writers and artists of orpheu's group during the 1910s. This coffeehouse, in the aristocratic district of Chiado, is quite close to Pessoa's birthplace: 4, São Carlos Square (in front of the Opera House, where stands another statue of the writer),[18] one of the most elegant neighborhoods of Lisbon.[19] Later on, Pessoa was a frequent customer at Martinho da Arcada, a centennial coffeehouse in Comercio Square, surrounded by ministries, almost an "office" for his private business and literary concerns, where he used to meet friends in the 1920s and 1930s.

In 1925, Pessoa wrote in English a guidebook to Lisbon but it remained unpublished until 1992.[20][21]

Literature and occultism

Pessoa's mediumship:
Automatic writing sample.
The night my body makes of me were torn
Away from being, and my unbodied shape
Would, like a ship doubling the final cape,
Come to that sight of port and shiver of coming
That God allows to those whose bliss of roaming
Is no more than the wish to find His peace
And mingle with it as a scent with the breeze.
Fernando Pessoa, "To One Singing", in The Mad Fiddler.

Pessoa translated a number of Portuguese books into English.[22] He also translated into Portuguese The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne,[23] the short stories "The Theory and the Hound", "The Roads We Take"[24] and "Georgia's Ruling" by O. Henry,[25] and the poems "The Raven",[26] "Annabel Lee" and "Ulalume"[27] by Edgar Allan Poe who, along with Walt Whitman, strongly influenced him. In addition, Pessoa translated into Portuguese a number of books by leading theosophists such as C. W. Leadbeater and Annie Besant.[28]

In 1912–14, while living with his aunt "Anica" and cousins,[29] Pessoa took part in "semi-spiritualist sessions" that were carried out at home, but he was considered a "delaying element" by the other members of the session. Pessoa's interest in spiritualism was truly awakened in the second half of 1915, while translating theosophist books. This was further deepened in the end of March 1916, when he suddenly started having experiences where he became a medium, which were revealed through automatic writing. On June 24, Pessoa wrote an impressive letter to his aunt, then living in Switzerland with her daughter and son in law, in which he describes this "mystery case" that surprised him.

Besides automatic writing, Pessoa stated also that he had "astral" or "etherial visions" and was able to see "magnetic auras" similar to radiographic images. He felt "more curiosity than fear", but was respectful towards this phenomenon and asked secrecy, because "there is no advantage, but a lot of disadvantages" in speaking about this. Mediumship exerted a strong influence in Pessoa writings, who felt "sometimes suddenly being owned by something else" or having a "very curious sensation" in the right arm, which was "lifted into the air" without his will. Looking in the mirror, Pessoa saw several times what appeared to be the heteronyms: his "face fading out" and being replaced by the one of "a bearded man", or another one, four men in total.[30]

Astral chart of the heteronym
Ricardo Reis by Fernando Pessoa.

Pessoa also developed a strong interest in astrology, becoming a competent astrologist. He elaborated more than 1,500 astrological charts, of well-known people like William Shakespeare, Lord Byron, Oscar Wilde, Chopin, Robespierre, Napoleon I, Benito Mussolini, Wilhelm II, Leopold II of Belgium, Victor Emmanuel III, Alfonso XIII, or the Kings Sebastian and Charles of Portugal, and Salazar. In 1915, Pessoa created the heteronym Raphael Baldaya, an astrologist, and planned to write under his name "System of Astrology" and "Introduction to the Study of Occultism". Pessoa established the pricing of his astrological services from 500 to 5,000 réis and made horoscopes of customers, friends and also himself and, astonishingly, of the heteronyms.

Born on June 13, Pessoa was native of Gemini and had Scorpio as rising sign. The characters of the main heteronyms were inspired by the four astral elements: air, fire, water and earth. It means that Pessoa and his heteronyms altogether comprised the full principles of ancient knowledge. Those heteronyms were designed according to their horoscopes, all include Mercury, the planet of literature. Astrology was part of his everyday life and Pessoa kept that interest until his death, which he was able to predict with a certain degree of accuracy.[31]

Pessoa's last writing: 29-11-1935
I know not what tomorrow will bring
He died next day, November 30, 1935.

As a mysticist, Pessoa was enthusiast of esotericism, occultism, hermetism, numerology and alchemy. Along with spiritualism and astrology, he also paid attention to neopaganism, theosophy, rosicrucianism and freemasonry, which strongly influenced his literary work. His interest in occultism led Pessoa to correspond with Aleister Crowley and later helped him to elaborate a fake suicide, when Crowley visited Portugal in 1930.[32] Pessoa translated Crowley's poem "Hymn To Pan"[33] into Portuguese, and the catalogue of Pessoa's library shows that he possessed Crowley's books Magick in Theory and Practice and Confessions. Pessoa also wrote on Crowley's doctrine of Thelema in several fragments, including Moral.[34]

Pessoa's appraisal for secret societies
I am also very interested in knowing whether a second edition is shortly to be expected of Athur Edward Waite’s The Secret Tradition in Freemasonery. I see that, in a note on page 14 of his Emblematic Freemasonery, published by you in 1925, he says, in respect of the earlier work: "A new and revised edition is in the forefront of my literary schemes." For all I know, you may already have issued such an edition; if so, I have missed the reference in The Times Literary Supplement.

Since I am writing on these subjects, I should like to put a question which perhaps you can reply to; but please do not do so if the reply involves any inconvenience. I believe The Occult Review was, or is, issued by yourselves; I have not seen any number for a long time. My question is in what issue of that publication – it was certainly a long while ago – an article was printed relating to the Roman Catholic Church as a Secret Society, or, alternatively, to a Secret Society within the Roman Catholic Church.

Fernando Pessoa, letter to Rider & C., Paternoster Row, London, E.C.4., October 20, 1933.[35]

Literary critic Martin Lüdke described Pessoa's philosophy as a kind of pandeism, especially as to those writings made under the pseudonym of Alberto Caeiro.[36]

Writing a lifetime

Pessoa in 1929, drinking a glass of wine in a tavern of Lisbon's downtown.

He looked about thirty, thin, rather above average height, exaggeratedly bent over when seated but less so when he stood up, dressed with a certain negligence, which was not entirely negligence. On his pale, uninteresting face an air of suffering did not stir interest, although it was difficult to define what kind of suffering that air — it seemed to suggest several kinds: privation, anguish, and a suffering born from the indifference of having suffered a great deal.

Fernando Pessoa, from the Introduction of
The Book of Disquiet, tr. by Alfred Mac Adam.

In his early years, Pessoa was influenced by major English classic poets as Shakespeare, Milton and Pope, or romantics like Shelley, Byron, Keats, Wordsworth, Coleridge and Tennyson.[37] After his return to Lisbon in 1905, Pessoa was influenced by French symbolists and decadentists Charles Baudelaire, Maurice Rollinat, Stéphane Mallarmé; mainly by Portuguese poets as Antero de Quental, Gomes Leal, Cesário Verde, António Nobre, Camilo Pessanha or Teixeira de Pascoaes. Later on, he was also influenced by modernists as W. B. Yeats, Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot, among many other writers.[3]

During World War I, Pessoa wrote to a number of British publishers, namely Constable & Co. Ltd., currently Constable & Robinson, in order to print his collection of English verse The Mad Fiddler (unpublished during his lifetime), but it was refused. However, in 1920, the prestigious literary journal Athenaeum included one of those poems.[38] Since the British publication failed, in 1918 Pessoa published in Lisbon two slim volumes of English verse: Antinous[39] and 35 Sonnets,[40] received by the British literary press without enthusiasm.[41] Along with some friends, he founded another publishing house, Olisipo, which published in 1921 a further two English poetry volumes: English Poems I–II and English Poems III by Fernando Pessoa. In his publishing house, Olisipo, Pessoa issued also some books by his friends: A Invenção do Dia Claro (The invention of the clear day) by José de Almada Negreiros, Canções (Songs) by António Botto, and Sodoma Divinizada (Divinized Sodome) by Raul Leal (Henoch).[42] Olisipo closed down in 1923, following the scandal known as "Literatura de Sodoma" (Literature of Sodome), which Pessoa started with his paper "António Botto e o Ideal Estético em Portugal" (António Botto and the aesthetical ideal in Portugal), published in the journal Contemporanea.[43]

Politically, Pessoa considered himself a "mystical nationalist" and, despite his monarchist sympathies, he didn't favour the restoration of the monarchy. Pessoa described himself as conservative within the British tradition. He was an outspoken elitist and aligned himself against communism, socialism, fascism and Catholicism.[44] He supported the military coups of 1917 and 1926, and wrote a pamphlet in 1928 supportive of the Military Dictatorship but after the establishment of the New State, in 1933, Pessoa become disenchanted with the regime and wrote critically of Salazar and fascism in general. In the beginning of 1935, Pessoa was banned by the Salazar regime, after he wrote in defense of Freemasonry.[45][46]

Pessoa's tomb in Lisbon, at the cloister of the Hieronymites Monastery since 1985.
Here lies who thought himself the best
Of poets in the world's extent;
In life he had not joy nor rest.
Alexander Search, 1907.

Pessoa died on November 30, 1935, aged 47, having published four books in English and one alone in Portuguese: Mensagem (Message). However, he left a lifetime of unpublished, unfinished or just sketchy work in a domed, wooden trunk (25,574[47] pages manuscript and typed that have been housed in the Portuguese National Library since 1988). The heavy burden of editing this huge work is still in progress. In 1985 (fifty years after his death), Pessoa's remains were moved to the Hieronymites Monastery, in Lisbon, where Vasco da Gama, Luís de Camões, and Alexandre Herculano are also buried.[48] Pessoa's portrait was on the 100-escudo banknote.


Pessoa's statue outside Lisbon's famous coffeehouse «A Brasileira».

Pessoa's earliest heteronym, at the age of six, was Chevalier de Pas. Other childhood heteronyms included Dr. Pancrácio and David Merrick, followed by Charles Robert Anon, an English young man that became Pessoa's alter ego. In 1905/7, when Pessoa was a student at the University of Lisbon, Alexander Search took the place of Anon. The main reason for this was that, although Search is English, he was born in Lisbon as his author. But Search represents a transition heteronym that Pessoa used while searching to adapt to the Portuguese cultural reality. After the republican revolution, in 1910, and consequent patriotic atmosphera, Pessoa created another alter ego, Álvaro de Campos, supposedly a Portuguese naval engineer, born in Tavira and graduated in Glasgow. Translator Richard Zenith notes that Pessoa eventually established at least seventy-two heteronyms.[49] According to Pessoa himself, there were three main heteronyms: Alberto Caeiro, Álvaro de Campos and Ricardo Reis. The heteronyms possess distinct biographies, temperaments, philosophies, appearances and writing styles.[50]

Fernando Pessoa on the heteronyms
How do I write in the name of these three? Caeiro, through sheer and unexpected inspiration, without knowing or even suspecting that I’m going to write in his name. Ricardo Reis, after an abstract meditation, which suddenly takes concrete shape in an ode. Campos, when I feel a sudden impulse to write and don’t know what. (My semi-heteronym Bernardo Soares, who in many ways resembles Álvaro de Campos, always appears when I'm sleepy or drowsy, so that my qualities of inhibition and rational thought are suspended; his prose is an endless reverie. He’s a semi-heteronym because his personality, although not my own, doesn’t differ from my own but is a mere mutilation of it. He’s me without my rationalism and emotions. His prose is the same as mine, except for certain formal restraint that reason imposes on my own writing, and his Portuguese is exactly the same – whereas Caeiro writes bad Portuguese, Campos writes it reasonably well but with mistakes such as "me myself" instead of "I myself", etc.., and Reis writes better than I, but with a purism I find excessive...).
Fernando Pessoa, letter to Adolfo Casais Monteiro, January 13, 1935, translated by Richard Zenith.[51]

List of known heteronyms

No. Name Type Notes
1 Fernando Antonio Nogueira Pessoa Himself Commercial correspondent in Lisbon
2 Fernando Pessoa Orthonym Poet and prose writer
3 Fernando Pessoa Autonym Poet and prose writer
4 Fernando Pessoa Heteronym Poet; a pupil of Alberto Caeiro
5 Alberto Caeiro Heteronym Poet; author of O guardador de Rebanhos, O Pastor Amoroso and Poemas inconjuntos; master of heteronyms Fernando Pessoa, Álvaro de Campos, Ricardo Reis and António Mora
6 Ricardo Reis Heteronym Poet and prose writer, author of Odes and texts on the work of Alberto Caeiro
7 Federico Reis Heteronym / Para-heteronym Essayist; brother of Ricardo Reis, upon whom he writes
8 Álvaro de Campos Heteronym Poet and prose writer; a pupil of Alberto Caeiro
9 António Mora Heteronym Philosopher and sociologist; theorist of Neopaganism; a pupil of Alberto Caeiro
10 Claude Pasteur Heteronym / Semi-heteronym French translator of Cadernos de reconstrução pagã conducted by António Mora
11 Bernardo Soares Heteronym / Semi-heteronym Poet and prose writer; author of The Book of Disquiet
12 Vicente Guedes Heteronym / Semi-heteronym Translator, poet; director of Ibis Press; author of a paper
13 Gervasio Guedes Heteronym / Para-heteronym Author of the text "A Coroação de Jorge Quinto"
14 Alexander Search Heteronym Poet and short story writer
15 Charles James Search Heteronym / Para-heteronym Translator and essayist; brother of Alexander Search
16 Jean-Méluret of Seoul Heteronym / Proto-heteronym French poet and essayist
17 Rafael Baldaya Heteronym Astrologer; author of Tratado da Negação and Princípios de Metaphysica Esotérica
18 Barão de Teive Heteronym Prose writer; author of Educação do Stoica and Daphnis e Chloe
19 Charles Robert Anon Heteronym / Semi-heteronym Poet, philosopher and story writer
20 A. A. Crosse Pseudonym / Proto-heteronym Author and puzzle-solver
21 Thomas Crosse Heteronym / Proto-heteronym English epic character/occultist, popularized in Portuguese culture
22 I. I. Crosse Heteronym / Para-heteronym
23 David Merrick Heteronym / Semi-heteronym Poet, storyteller and playwright
24 Lucas Merrick Heteronym / Para-heteronym Short story writer; perhaps brother David Merrick
25 Pêro Botelho Heteronym / Pseudonym Short story writer and author of letters
26 Abilio Quaresma Heteronym / Character / Meta-heteronym Character inspired by Pêro Botelho and author of short detective stories
27 Inspector Guedes Character / Meta-heteronym? Character inspired by Pêro Botelho and author of short detective stories
28 Uncle Pork Pseudonym / Character Character inspired by Pêro Botelho and author of short detective stories
29 Frederick Wyatt Alias / Heteronym English poet and prose writer
30 Rev. Walter Wyatt Character Possibly brother of Frederick Wyatt
31 Alfred Wyatt Character Another brother of Frederick Wyatt and resident of Paris
32 Maria José Heteronym / Proto-heteronym Wrote and signed "A Carta da Corcunda para o Serralheiro"
33 Chevalier de Pas Pseudonym / Proto-heteronym Author of poems and letters
34 Efbeedee Pasha Heteronym / Proto-heteronym Author of humoristic stories
35 Faustino Antunes / A. Moreira Heteronym / Pseudonym Psychologist and author of Ensaio sobre a Intuição
36 Carlos Otto Heteronym / Proto-heteronym Poet and author of Tratado de Lucta Livre
37 Michael Otto Pseudonym / Para-heteronym Probably brother of Carlos Otto who was entrusted with the translation into English of Tratado de Lucta Livre
38 Sebastian Knight Proto-heteronym / Alias
39 Horace James Faber Heteronym / Semi-heteronym English short story writer and essayist
40 Navas Heteronym / Para-heteronym Translated Horace James Faber in Portuguese
41 Pantaleão Heteronym / Proto-heteronym Poet and prose writer
42 Torquato Fonseca Mendes da Cunha Rey Heteronym / Meta-heteronym Deceased author of a text Pantaleão decided to publish
43 Joaquim Moura Costa Proto-heteronym / Semi-heteronym Satirical poet; Republican activist; member of O Phosphoro
44 Sher Henay Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Compiler and author of the preface of a sensationalist anthology in English
45 Anthony Gomes Semi-heteronym / Character Philosopher; author of "Historia Cómica do Affonso Çapateiro"
46 Professor Trochee Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Author of an essay with humorous advice for young poets
47 Willyam Links Esk Character Signed a letter written in English on April 13, 1905
48 António de Seabra Pseudonym / Proto-heteronym Literary critic
49 João Craveiro Pseudonym / Proto-heteronym Journalist; follower of Sidonio Pereira
50 Tagus Pseudonym Collaborator in Natal Mercury (Durban, South Africa)
51 Pipa Gomes Draft heteronym Collaborator in O Phosphoro
52 Ibis Character / Pseudonym Character from Pessoa's childhood accompanying him until the end of his life; also signed poems
53 Dr. Gaudencio Turnips Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym English-Portuguese journalist and humorist; director of O Palrador
54 Pip Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Poet and author of humorous anecdotes; predecessor of Dr. Pancrácio
55 Dr. Pancrácio Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Storyteller, poet and creator of charades
56 Luís António Congo Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Collaborator in O Palrador; columnist and presenter of Eduardo Lança
57 Eduardo Lança Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Luso-Brazilian poet
58 A. Francisco de Paula Angard Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Collaborator in O Palrador; author of "Textos scientificos"
59 Pedro da Silva Salles / Zé Pad Proto-heteronym / Alias Author and director of the section of anecdotes at O Palrador
60 José Rodrigues do Valle / Scicio Proto-heteronym / Alias Collaborator in O Palrador; author of charades; literary manager
61 Dr. Caloiro Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Collaborator in O Palrador; reporter and author of A pesca das pérolas
62 Adolph Moscow Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Collaborator in O Palrador; novelist and author of Os Rapazes de Barrowby
63 Marvell Kisch Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Author of a novel announced in O Palrador, called A Riqueza de um Doido
64 Gabriel Keene Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Author of a novel announced in O Palrador, called Em Dias de Perigo
65 Sableton-Kay Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Author of a novel announced in O Palrador, called A Lucta Aérea
66 Morris & Theodor Pseudonym Collaborator in O Palrador; author of charades
67 Diabo Azul Pseudonym Collaborator in O Palrador; author of charades
68 Parry Pseudonym Collaborator in O Palrador; author of charades
69 Gallião Pequeno Pseudonym Collaborator in O Palrador; author of charades
70 Urban Accursio Alias Collaborator in O Palrador; author of charades
71 Cecília Pseudonym Collaborator in O Palrador; author of charades
72 José Rasteiro Proto-heteronym / Pseudonym Collaborator in O Palrador; author of proverbs and riddles
73 Nympha Negra Pseudonym Collaborator in O Palrador; author of charades
74 Diniz da Silva Pseudonym / Proto-heteronym Author of the poem "Loucura"; collaborator in Europe
75 Herr Prosit Pseudonym Translator of El estudiante de Salamanca by José Espronceda
76 Henry More Proto-heteronym Author and prose writer
77 Wardour Character? Poet
78 J. M. Hyslop Character? Poet
79 Vadooisf ? Character? Poet
80 Nuno Reis Pseudonym Son of Ricardo Reis
81 João Caeiro Character? Son of Alberto Caeiro and Ana Taveira

Alberto Caeiro

Não tenho ambições nem desejos
Ser poeta não é uma ambição minha
É a minha maneira de estar sozinho.
I have no ambitions nor desires.
To be a poet is not my ambition,
It's simply my way of being alone.
Alberto Caeiro, "The Keeper of Herds"
(O Guardador de Rebanhos), tr. Richard Zenith.

Alberto Caeiro was Pessoa's first great heteronym; summarized by Pessoa, writing: He sees things with the eyes only, not with the mind. He does not let any thoughts arise when he looks at a flower... the only thing a stone tells him is that it has nothing at all to tell him... this way of looking at a stone may be described as the totally unpoetic way of looking at it. The stupendous fact about Caeiro is that out of this sentiment, or rather, absence of sentiment, he makes poetry.

What this means, and what makes Caeiro such an original poet is the way he apprehends existence. He does not question anything whatsoever; he calmly accepts the world as it is. The recurrent themes to be found in nearly all of Caeiro's poems are wide-eyed childlike wonder at the infinite variety of nature, as noted by a critic. He is free of metaphysical entanglements. Central to his world-view is the idea that in the world around us, all is surface: things are precisely what they seem, there is no hidden meaning anywhere.

He manages thus to free himself from the anxieties that batter his peers; for Caeiro, things simply exist and we have no right to credit them with more than that. Our unhappiness, he tells us, springs from our unwillingness to limit our horizons. As such, Caeiro attains happiness by not questioning, and by thus avoiding doubts and uncertainties. He apprehends reality solely through his eyes, through his senses. What he teaches us is that if we want to be happy we ought to do the same. Octavio Paz called him the innocent poet. Paz made a shrewd remark on the heteronyms: In each are particles of negation or unreality. Reis believes in form, Campos in sensation, Pessoa in symbols. Caeiro doesn't believe in anything. He exists.[52]

Poetry before Caeiro was essentially interpretative; what poets did was to offer an interpretation of their perceived surroundings; Caeiro does not do this. Instead, he attempts to communicate his senses, and his feelings, without any interpretation whatsoever.

Caeiro attempts to approach Nature from a qualitatively different mode of apprehension; that of simply perceiving (an approach akin to phenomenological approaches to philosophy). Poets before him would make use of intricate metaphors to describe what was before them; not so Caeiro: his self-appointed task is to bring these objects to the reader's attention, as directly and simply as possible. Caeiro sought a direct experience of the objects before him.

As such it is not surprising to find that Caeiro has been called an anti-intellectual, anti-Romantic, anti-subjectivist, anti-metaphysical...an anti-poet, by critics; Caeiro simply—is. He is in this sense very unlike his creator Fernando Pessoa: Pessoa was besieged by metaphysical uncertainties; these were, to a large extent, the cause of his unhappiness; not so Caeiro: his attitude is anti-metaphysical; he avoided uncertainties by adamantly clinging to a certainty: his belief that there is no meaning behind things. Things, for him, simply—are.

Caeiro represents a primal vision of reality, of things. He is the pagan incarnate. Indeed, Caeiro was not simply a pagan but paganism itself.[53]

The critic Jane M. Sheets sees the insurgence of Caeiro—who was Pessoa's first major heteronym—as essential in founding the later poetic personas: By means of this artless yet affirmative anti-poet, Caeiro, a short-lived but vital member of his coterie, Pessoa acquired the base of an experienced and universal poetic vision. After Caeiro's tenets had been established, the avowedly poetic voices of Campos, Reis and Pessoa himself spoke with greater assurance.[54]

Ricardo Reis

Desde que sinta a brisa fresca no meu cabelo
E ver o sol brilhar forte nas folhas
Não irei pedir por mais.
Que melhor coisa podia o destino dar-me?
Que a passagem sensual da vida em momentos
De ignorância como este?
As long as I feel the fresh breeze in my hair
And see the sun shining strong on the leaves,
I will not ask for more.
What better thing could destiny grant me?
Other than the sensual passing of life in moments
Of ignorance such as this one?
Ricardo Reis

In a letter to William Bentley,[55] Pessoa wrote that "a knowledge of the language would be indispensable, for instance, to appraise the 'Odes' of Ricardo Reis, whose Portuguese would draw upon him the blessing of António Vieira, as his stile and diction that of Horace (he has been called, admirably I believe, 'a Greek Horace who writes in Portuguese')".[56]

Reis sums up his philosophy of life in his own words, admonishing: 'See life from a distance. Never question it. There's nothing it can tell you.' Like Caeiro, whom he admires, Reis defers from questioning life. He is a modern pagan who urges one to seize the day and accept fate with tranquility. 'Wise is the one who does not seek', he says; and continues: 'the seeker will find in all things the abyss, and doubt in himself.' In this sense Reis shares essential affinities with Caeiro.

Believing in the Greek gods, yet living in a Christian Europe, Reis feels that his spiritual life is limited, and true happiness cannot be attained. This, added to his belief in Fate as a driving force for all that exists, as such disregarding freedom, leads to his epicureanist philosophy, which entails the avoidance of pain, defending that man should seek tranquility and calm above all else, avoiding emotional extremes.

Where Caeiro wrote freely and spontaneously, with joviality, of his basic, meaningless connection to the world, Reis writes in an austere, cerebral manner, with premeditated rhythm and structure and a particular attention to the correct use of the language, when approaching his subjects of, as characterized by Richard Zenith, 'the brevity of life, the vanity of wealth and struggle, the joy of simple pleasures, patience in time of trouble, and avoidance of extremes'.

In his detached, intellectual approach, he is closer to Fernando Pessoa's constant rationalization, as such representing the orthonym's wish for measure and sobriety and a world free of troubles and respite, in stark contrast to Caeiro's spirit and style. As such, where Caeiro's predominant attitude is that of joviality, his sadness being accepted as natural ('My sadness,' Caeiro says, 'is a comfort for it is natural and right.'), Reis is marked by melancholy, saddened by the impermanence of all things.

Ricardo Reis is the main character of José Saramago's 1986 novel The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis.

Álvaro de Campos

Main article: Álvaro de Campos
Não sou nada.
Nunca serei nada.
Não posso querer ser nada.
À parte isso, tenho em mim todos os sonhos do mundo.
I am nothing.
I will never be anything.
I cannot wish to be anything.
Bar that, I have in me all the dreams of the world.
Álvaro de Campos, "The Tobacco Shop"
(Tabacaria), tr. Miguel Peres dos Santos.

Álvaro de Campos manifests, in a way, as an hyperbolic version of Pessoa himself. Of the three heteronyms he is the one who feels most strongly, his motto being 'to feel everything in every way.' 'The best way to travel,' he wrote, 'is to feel.' As such, his poetry is the most emotionally intense and varied, constantly juggling two fundamental impulses: on the one hand a feverish desire to be and feel everything and everyone, declaring that 'in every corner of my soul stands an altar to a different god' (alluding to Walt Whitman's desire to 'contain multitudes'), on the other, a wish for a state of isolation and a sense of nothingness.

As a result, his mood and principles varied between violent, dynamic exultation, as he fervently wishes to experience the entirety of the universe in himself, in all manners possible (a particularly distinctive trait in this state being his futuristic leanings, including the expression of great enthusiasm as to the meaning of city life and its components) and a state of nostalgic melancholy, where life is viewed as, essentially, empty.

One of the poet's constant preoccupations, as part of his dichotomous character, is that of identity: he does not know who he is, or rather, fails at achieving an ideal identity. Wanting to be everything, and inevitably failing, he despairs. Unlike Caeiro, who asks nothing of life, he asks too much. In his poetic meditation 'Tobacco Shop' he asks:

How should I know what I'll be, I who don't know what I am?
Be what I think? But I think of being so many things!

Fernando Pessoa-himself

O poeta é um fingidor
Finge tão completamente
Que chega a fingir que é dor
A dor que deveras sente
The poet is a faker
Who's so good at his act
He even fakes the pain
Of pain he feels in fact.
Fernando Pessoa-himself, "Autopsychography"
(Autopsicografia), tr. Richard Zenith.

'Fernando Pessoa-himself' is not the 'real' Fernando Pessoa. Like Caeiro, Reis and Campos, Pessoa-'himself' embodies only aspects of the poet. Fernando Pessoa's personality is not stamped in any given voice; his personality is diffused through the heteronyms. For this reason 'Fernando Pessoa-himself' stands apart from the poet proper.

'Pessoa' shares many essential affinities with his peers, Caeiro and Campos in particular. Lines crop up in his poems that may as well be ascribed to Campos or Caeiro. It is useful to keep this in mind as we read this exposition.

The critic Leland Guyer sums up 'Pessoa': "the poetry of the orthonymic Fernando Pessoa normally possesses a measured, regular form and appreciation of the musicality of verse. It takes on intellectual issues, and it is marked by concern with dreams, the imagination and mystery."

Richard Zenith calls 'Pessoa' '[Pessoa's] most intellectual and analytic poetic persona.' Like Álvaro de Campos, Pessoa-himself was afflicted with an acute identity crisis. Pessoa-himself has been described as indecisive and doubt plagued, as restless. Like Campos he can be melancholic, weary, resigned. The strength of Pessoa-himself's poetry rests in his ability to suggest a sense of loss; of sorrow for what can never be.

A constant theme in Pessoa's poetry is Tédio, or Tedium. The dictionary defines this word simply as 'a condition of being tedious; tediousness or boredom.' This definition does not sufficiently encompass the peculiar brand of tedium experienced by Pessoa-himself. His is more than simple boredom: it is from a world of weariness and disgust with life; a sense of the finality of failure; of the impossibility of having anything to want.

Summaries of selected works


Mensagem, 1st. edition, 1934.

Mensagem[57] in Portuguese is a very unusual twentieth century book: it is a symbolist epic made up of 44 short poems organized in three parts or Cycles:[58]

The first, called "Brasão" (Coat-of-Arms), relates Portuguese historical protagonists to each of the fields and charges in the Portuguese coat of arms. The first two poems ("The castles" and "The escutcheons") draw inspiration from the material and spiritual natures of Portugal. Each of the remaining poems associates to each charge a historical personality. Ultimately they all lead to the Golden Age of Discovery.

The second Part, called "Mar Português" (Portuguese Sea), references the country's Age of Portuguese Exploration and to its seaborne Empire that ended with the death of King Sebastian at El-Ksar el Kebir (Alcácer-Quibir in Portuguese) in 1578. Pessoa brings the reader to the present as if he had woken up from a dream of the past, to fall in a dream of the future: he sees King Sebastian returning and still bent on accomplishing a Universal Empire.

The third Cycle, called "O Encoberto" ("The Hidden One"), is the most disturbing. It refers to Pessoa's vision of a future world of peace and the Fifth Empire (which, according to Pessoa, is spiritual and not material, because if it were material England would already have achieved it). After the Age of Force, (Vis), and Taedium (Otium) will come Science (understanding) through a reawakening of "The Hidden One", or "King Sebastian". The Hidden One represents the fulfillment of the destiny of mankind, designed by God since before Time, and the accomplishment of Portugal.

King Sebastian is very important, indeed he appears in all three parts of Mensagem. He represents the capacity of dreaming, and believing that it's possible to achieve dreams.

One of the most famous quotes from Mensagem is the first line from O Infante (belonging to the second Part), which is Deus quer, o homem sonha, a obra nasce (which translates roughly to "God wishes, man dreams, the work is born"). That means 'Only by God's will man does', a full comprehension of man's subjection to God's wealth. Another well-known quote from Mensagem is the first line from Ulysses, "O mito é o nada que é tudo" (a possible translation is "The myth is the nothing that is all"). This poem refers to Ulysses, king of Ithaca, as Lisbon's founder (recalling an ancient Greek myth).[59]

Literary essays

A Águia, journal of the Portuguese Renaissance, nr. 4, April 1912.

In 1912, Fernando Pessoa wrote a set of essays (later collected as The New Portuguese Poetry) for the cultural journal A Águia (The Eagle), founded in Oporto, in December 1910, and run by the republican association Renascença Portuguesa.[60] In the first years of the Portuguese Republic, this cultural association was started by republican intellectuals led by the writer and poet Teixeira de Pascoaes, philosopher Leonardo Coimbra and historian Jaime Cortesão, aiming for the renewal of Portuguese culture through the aesthetic movement called Saudosismo.[61] Pessoa contributed to the journal A Águia with a series of papers: 'The new Portuguese Poetry Sociologically Considered' (nr. 4), 'Relapsing...' (nr. 5) and 'The Psychological Aspect of the new Portuguese Poetry' (nrs. 9,11 and 12). These writings were strongly encomiastic to saudosist literature, namely the poetry of Teixeira de Pascoaes and Mário Beirão. The articles disclose Pessoa as a connoisseur of modern European literature and an expert of recent literary trends. On the other hand, he does not care much for a methodology of analysis or problems in the history of ideas. He states his confidence that Portugal would soon produce a great poet – a super-Camões – pledged to make an important contribution for European culture, and indeed, for humanity.[62]

Philosophical essays

The philosophical notes of young Fernando Pessoa, mostly written between 1905 and 1912, illustrate his debt to the history of Philosophy more through commentators than through a first-hand protracted reading of the Classics, ancient or modern. The issues he engages with pertain to every philosophical discipline and concern a large profusion of concepts, creating a vast semantic spectrum in texts whose length oscillates between half a dozen lines and half a dozen pages and whose density of analysis is extremely variable; simple paraphrasis, expression of assumptions and original speculation.

Pessoa sorted the philosophical systems thus:

A passage from his famous poem "Mar Português" from "Message", in the city of Lagos, Portugal.
  1. Relative Spiritualism and relative Materialism privilege "Spirit" or "Matter" as the main pole that organizes data around Experience.
  2. Absolute Spiritualist and Absolute Materialist "deny all objective reality to one of the elements of Experience".
  3. The materialistic Pantheism of Spinoza and the spiritualizing Pantheism of Malebranche, "admit that experience is a double manifestation of any thing that in its essence has no matter neither spirit".
  4. Considering both elements as an "illusory manifestation", of a transcendent and true and alone realities, there is Transcendentalism, inclined into matter with Schopenhauer, or into spirit, a position where Bergson could be emplaced.
  5. A terminal system "the limited and summit of metaphysics" would not radicalize – as poles of experience one of the singled categories – matter, relative, absolute, real, illusory, spirit. Instead, matching all categories, it takes contradiction as "the essence of the universe" and defends that "an affirmation is so more true insofar the more contradiction involves". The transcendent must be conceived beyond categories. There is one only and eternal example of it. It is that cathedral of thought -the philosophy of Hegel.

Such pantheist transcendentalism is used by Pessoa to define the project that "encompasses and exceeds all systems"; to characterize the new poetry of Saudosismo where the "typical contradiction of this system" occurs; to inquire of the particular social and political results of its adoption as the leading cultural paradigm; and, at last, he hints that metaphysics and religiosity strive "to find in everything a beyond".


See also


  1. "Pessoa", Collins English Dictionary.
  2. Pessoa, Fernando (1999). Correspondência 1905–1922, ed. Manuela Parreira da Silva. Lisboa: Assírio & Alvim, p. 258, ISBN 978-85-7164-916-3.
  3. 1 2 Zenith, Richard (2008), Fotobiografias Século XX: Fernando Pessoa, Lisboa: Círculo de Leitores.
  4. The Natal Mercury
  5. Monteiro, Maria da Encarnação (1961), Incidências Inglesas na Poesia de Fernando Pessoa, Coimbra: author ed.
  6. Jennings, H. D. (1984), Os Dois Exilios, Porto: Centro de Estudos Pessoanos
  7. Pessoa, Fernando (2003). Escritos Autobiográficos, Automáticos e de Reflexão Pessoal, ed. Richard Zenith. Lisboa: Assírio & Alvim, pp. 394–398.
  8. Orpheu nr.1
  9. Orpheu (2), Project Gutenberg.
  10. Ibe name "ibis" has a very long literary tradition: the elegiac poem Ibis by Ovid was inspired in the lost poem of the same title by Callimachus.
  11. Zenith, Richard (2008), Fernando Pessoa, Fotobiografias do Século XX (in Portuguese), Lisboa: Círculo de Leitores, p. 78.
  12. Ferro, António, ed. (Jan–Mar 1915), Orpheu (in Portuguese) (1–2), Lisboa: Orpheu, Lda..
  13. Saraiva, Arnaldo (ed.), Orpheu (in Portuguese) (3), Lisboa: Edições Ática.
  14. Ruy Vaz, Fernando Pessoa, ed. (Oct 1924 – Feb 1925), Athena (in Portuguese) (1–5), Lisboa: Imprensa Libanio da Silva.
  15. Zenith, Richard (2008), Fotobiografias do Século XX: Fernando Pessoa. Lisboa: Círculo de Leitores, pp. 194–195.
  16. Guerreiro, Ricardina (2004), De Luto por Existir: a melancolia de Bernardo Soares à luz de Walter Benjamin. Lisboa: Assírio & Alvim, p. 159.
  17. Sousa, João Rui de (2010), Fernando Pessoa Empregado de Escritório, 2nd ed. Lisboa: Assírio & Alvim.
  18. Teatro Nacional de São Carlos, Lisbon's Opera House.
  19. Dias, Marina Tavares (2002), Lisboa nos Passos de Pessoa: uma cidade revisitada através da vida e da obra do poeta [Lisbon in Pessoa's footsteps: a Lisbon tour through the life and poetry of Fernando Pessoa], Lisboa: Quimera.
  20. Pessoa, Fernando (2006) [1992], Lisboa: o que o turista deve ver (in Portuguese and English) (3rd ed.), Lisboa: Livros Horizonte
  21. Pessoa, Fernando (2008), Lisbon: what the tourist should see, Exeter, UK: Shearsman Books.
  22. Botto, António (2010), The Songs of António Botto translated by Fernando Pessoa. Edited and with an introduction By Josiah Blackmore. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 978-0-8166-7101-4.
  23. Published in a serial in the Portuguese Journal Ilustração, from January 1, 1926, without a reference to the translator, as usual.
  24. "Dois Contos de O. Henry": "A Theoria e o Cão" e "Os Caminhos que Tomamos", in Athena, nr. 3, December, 1924, pp. 89–102.
  25. "A Decisão de Georgia" in Athena, nr. 5, February, 1925, pp. 173–184.
  26. Athena, nr. 1, October, 1924, pp. 27–29.
  27. "Os Poemas Finaes de Edgar Poe" in Athena, nr. 4, January, 1925, pp 161–164.
  28. A Voz do Silêncio (The Voice of Silence) at the Portuguese National Library.
    Besant, Annie (1915), Os Ideaes da Theosophia, tr. Fernando Pessoa. Lisboa: Clássica Editora
    Leadbeater, C. W. (1915), Compêndio de Theosophia, tr. Fernando Pessoa. Lisboa: Clássica Editora.
    Leadbeater, C. W. (1916) Auxiliares Invisíveis, tr. Fernando Pessoa. Lisboa: Clássica Editora.
    Leadbeater, C. W. (1916), A Clarividência, tr. Fernando Pessoa. Lisboa: Clássica Editora.
    (1916), A Voz do Silêncio: e outros fragmentos selectos do Livro dos Preceitos Aureos, tr. ingleza e anot. por H. P. B., versão portuguesa de Fernando Pessoa. Lisboa: Clássica Editora.
    (1916), Luz Sobre o Caminho e o Karma, transcriptos por M. C., com notas, commentarios, traducção de Fernando Pessoa. Lisboa: Clássica Editora.
  29. Ana Luísa Pinheiro Nogueira, his mother's sister was also his godmother, a widow with two children, Maria and Mário. She traveled to Switzerland in November 1914, with her daughter and son-in-law, recently married.
  30. Pessoa, Fernando (1999), Correspondência 1905–1922, Lisbon: Assírio & Alvim, ISBN 978-85-7164-916-3.
  31. Cardoso, Paulo (2011), Fernando Pessoa, cartas astrológicas, Lisbon: Bertrand editora, ISBN 978-972-25-2261-8.
  32. The magical world of Fernando Pessoa, Nthposition.
  33. Presença nr. 33 (July–October, 1931).
  34. PASI, Marco (2002), "The Influence of Aleister Crowley on Fernando Pessoa's Esoteric Writings", The Magical Link, 9 (5): 4–11.
  35. Pessoa, Fernando. Escritos Correspondência 1923–1935, ed. Manuela Parreira da Silva. Lisboa: Assírio & Alvim, 1999, pp. 311–312.
  36. Martin Lüdke, "Ein moderner Hüter der Dinge; Die Entdeckung des großen Portugiesen geht weiter: Fernando Pessoa hat in der Poesie Alberto Caeiros seinen Meister gesehen", ("A modern guardian of things; The discovery of the great Portuguese continues: Fernando Pessoa saw its master in the poetry of Alberto Caeiros"), Frankfurter Rundschau, August 18, 2004. "Caeiro unterläuft die Unterscheidung zwischen dem Schein und dem, was etwa "Denkerge-danken" hinter ihm ausmachen wollen. Die Dinge, wie er sie sieht, sind als was sie scheinen. Sein Pan-Deismus basiert auf einer Ding-Metaphysik, die in der modernen Dichtung des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts noch Schule machen sollte." Translation: "Caeiro interposes the distinction between the light and what "philosopher thoughts" want to constitute behind him. The things, as he sees them, are as they seem. His pandeism is based on a metaphysical thing, which should still become a school of thought under the modern seal of the twentieth century."
  37. Zenith, Richard (2008), Fotobiografias do Século XX: Fernando Pessoa, Lisboa: Círculo de Leitores, pp. 40–41.
  38. Terlinden, Anne (1990), Fernando Pessoa, the bilingual Portuguese poet: A Critical Study of "The Mad Fidler", Bruxels: Facultés Universitaires Saint-Louis, ISBN 978-2-8028-0075-0.
  39. Antinous, at the Portuguese National Libraryf.
  40. 35 Sonnets at the Portuguese National Library.
  41. The Times Literary Supplement, September 19, 1918. Athenaeum, January, 1919.
  42. Pessoa translated into English the poetry book Songs by António Botto (The Songs of António Botto, translated by Fernando Pessoa and left unfinished the translation of The invention of the clear day by Almada Negreiros
  43. Contemporanea, May–July 1922, pp. 121–126.
  44. Serrão (int. and org.), Joel (1980), Fernando Pessoa, Ultimatum e Páginas de Sociologia Política, Lisboa: Ática.
  45. Darlene Joy Sadlier An introduction to Fernando Pessoa: modernism and the paradoxes of authorship, University Press of Florida, 1998, pp. 44–7.
  46. Maconaria.net
  47. Caption to photo 32, opposite page 115, in: Lisboa, E. and Taylor, L. C., eds; with an introduction by Paz, O. (1995), A Centenary Pessoa, Manchester: Carcanet Press Limited.
  48. Mosteiro dos Jerónimos Fernando Pessoa
  49. The Book of Disquiet, tr. Richard Zenith, Penguin classics, 2003.
  50. Letter to Adolfo Casais Monteiro, 13 January 1935.
  51. Pessoa, Fernando (2003), The Book of Disquiet, tr. Richard Zenith. London: Penguin classics, p. 474.
  52. PAZ, Octavio (1983), El Desconocido de Si Mismo: Fernando Pessoa in Los Signos en Rotacion y Otros Ensayos, Madrid: Alianza Editorial.
  53. Pessoa, Fernando, Notas Para Recordação do Meu Mestre Caeiro in Presença nr. 30, Jan.-Feb. 1930, Coimbra.
  54. Sheets, Jane M., Fernando Pessoa as Anti-Poet: Alberto Caeiro, in Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, Vol. XLVI, Nr. 1, January 1969, pp. 39–47.
  55. This letter, to the director of the journal Portugal, was written on 31st. October, 1924, to announce Pessoa's art journal Athena.
  56. Pessoa, Fernando (1999), Correspondência 1923–1935, ed. Manuela Parreira da Silva. Lisboa: Assírio & Alvim, p.53, ISBN 972-37-0531-1.
  57. Pessoa, Fernando (2016). Freitas, Eduardo, ed. A Mensagem: Editado por Eduardo Filipe Freitas. amazon.com (in Portuguese). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1-535-19909-4.
  58. Message, Tr. by Jonathan Griffin, Exeter: Shearsman Books, 2007.
  59. Mensagem 1st. edition, 1934, at the Portuguese National Library.
  60. Martins, Fernando Cabral (coord.) (2008). Dicionário de Fernando Pessoa e do Modernismo Português. Alfragide: Editorial Caminho.
  61. The Portuguese Republic was founded by the revolution of October 5, 1910, giving freedom of association and publishing.
  62. Pessoa, Fernando (1993). Textos de Crítica e de Intervenção. Lisboa: Edições Ática.

Further reading



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