Fadrique de Toledo, 1st Marquis of Villanueva de Valdueza

Portrait of Fadrique de Toledo during the capture of Saint Kitts from the English.

Fadrique de Toledo (Naples, May 30, 1580 Madrid, December 11, 1634), was a Spanish noble and admiral. He was a Knight of the Order of Santiago, a Spanish Admiral, and Captain General of the Spanish Navy at the age of 37.


He was born in Naples as the son of Pedro de Toledo Osorio, 5th Marquis of Villafranca, then commander in chief of the Spanish Army in the Kingdom of Naples, and Doña Elvira de Mendoza.

He served in the Spanish fleet under command of his father and rose quickly through the ranks, as did his elder brother García de Toledo Osorio, 6th Marquis of Villafranca. In 1617, he became Capitán General de la Armada del Mar Océano or Armada de Barlovento.

He gained several victories against the Dutch, in 1621 near Gibraltar and in 1623 in the English Channel, blockading the Dutch coast. In the same year he defeated a Moorish incursion near Gibraltar.

In 1625 he was appointed General of Portugal (then in a personal union with Spain), and Capitán General of the Army of Brazil. He sailed towards Brazil at the head of a fleet consisting of 34 Spanish ships, 22 Portuguese ships and 12,566 men (three quarters were Spanish and the rest Portuguese). There he reconquered the strategically important city of Salvador da Bahia from the Dutch on April 30, 1625.

This victory would prove decisively important in the Dutch-Portuguese War to oust the Dutch from Brazil over the next two decades. In 1629 he commanded a Spanish expedition that expelled the English and French colonial settlers from the islands of Saint Kitts and Nevis.

For all of his victories he was awarded the title of Marques de Villanueva y Valdueza on January 17, 1634.

The recuperation of 1 May 1625 of the Brazilian Portuguese town of Salvador de Bahia by Spanish and Portuguese troops commanded by Captain General of the Fleet Fadrique II de Toledo Osorio y Mendoza, a painting by Fray Juan Bautista Maíno for King Philip IV of Spain, Philip III of Portugal. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. Don Fadrique II is the big "en bonpoint" nobleman presenting it to King Philip IV and Prime Minister Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares.

Marriage and children

Don Fadrique married in Madrid, on August 12, 1627 with his cousin Doña Elvira Ponce de León, daughter of Don Luis Ponce de León, VI Marqués de Zahara, and Doña Victoria Álvarez de Toledo.

They had three children :

Don Fadrique also had two illegitimate children:

External links

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