Epic Cycle

Trojan War

Achilles tending the wounded Patroclus
(Attic red-figure kylix, c. 500 BCE)

The war

Setting: Troy (modern Hisarlik, Turkey)
Period: Bronze Age
Traditional dating: c. 1194–1184 BCE
Modern dating: c. 1260–1180 BCE
Outcome: Greek victory, destruction of Troy
See also: Historicity of the Iliad

Literary sources

Iliad · Epic Cycle · Aeneid, Book 2 ·
Iphigenia in Aulis · Philoctetes ·
Ajax · The Trojan Women · Posthomerica
See also: Trojan War in popular culture


Judgement of Paris · Seduction of Helen · Trojan Horse · Sack of Troy · The Returns · Wanderings of Odysseus · Aeneas and the Founding of Rome

Greeks and allies

Agamemnon · Achilles · Helen · Menelaus · Nestor · Odysseus · Ajax · Diomedes · Patroclus · Thersites · Achaeans · Myrmidons
See also: Catalogue of Ships

Trojans and allies

Priam · Hecuba · Hector · Paris · Cassandra · Andromache · Aeneas · Memnon  · Troilus · Penthesilea and the Amazons · Sarpedon
See also: Trojan Battle Order

Participant gods

Caused the war: Eris · Zeus
On the Greek side: Athena · Hera · Hephaestus · Hermes · Poseidon · Thetis
On the Trojan side: Aphrodite · Apollo · Ares · Artemis · Leto · Scamander

Related topics

Homeric question · Archaeology of Troy · Mycenae · Mycenaean warfare

The Epic Cycle (Greek: Ἐπικός Κύκλος, Epikos Kyklos) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Cypria, the Aethiopis, the so-called Little Iliad, the Iliupersis, the Nostoi, and the Telegony. Scholars sometimes include the two Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, among the poems of the Epic Cycle, but the term is more often used to specify the non-Homeric poems as distinct from the Homeric ones.

Aside from the Iliad and the Odyssey, the cyclic epics only survive in fragments and summaries from Late Antiquity and the Byzantine period. The epics were composed in dactylic hexameter verse.


The epic cycle was the distillation in literary form of an oral tradition that had developed during the Greek Dark Age, which was based in part on localised hero cults. The traditional material from which the literary epics were drawn treats Mycenaean Bronze Age culture from the perspective of Iron Age and later Greece.

In modern scholarship the study of the historical and literary relationship between the Homeric epics and the rest of the Cycle is called Neoanalysis.

A longer Epic Cycle, as described by the 9th-century CE scholar and clergyman Photius in his Bibliotheca, also included the Titanomachy and the Theban Cycle, which in turn comprised the Oedipodea, the Thebaid, the Epigoni and the Alcmeonis; however, it is certain that none of the cyclic epics (other than Homer) survived to Photius' day, and it is likely that Photius was not referring to a canonical collection. Modern scholars do not normally include the Theban Cycle when referring to the Epic Cycle.

Evidence for the Epic Cycle

Herodotus knew of the Cypria and the Epigoni, when he wrote his History in mid 5th century BC. He rejected the Homeric authorship for the former, and questioned it for the latter.[1]

The Epic Cycle was not "mentioned as a whole" (including the Theban Cycle) until the 2nd century AD, but knowledge of a "Trojan cycle" is apparent from at least the 4th century BC as Aristoxenus mentions an alternative opening to the Illiad.[2]

Aristotle in his Poetics criticises the Cypria and Little Iliad for the piecemeal character of their plots:

But other poets compose a plot around one person, one time, and one plot with multiple parts; like the composer of the Cypria and the Little Iliad. As a result, only one tragedy is made out of the Iliad and the Odyssey, but from the Cypria many, and from the Little Iliad more than eight ...[3]

The Library attributed to Apollodorus and the 2nd century AD Latin Genealogia attributed to Hyginus also drew on them. Furthermore, there is also the Tabula iliaca inscriptions that cover the same myths.[4]

Most knowledge of the Cyclic epics comes from a broken summary of them which serves as part of the preface to the famous 10th century CE Iliad manuscript known as Venetus A. This preface is damaged, missing the Cypria, and has to be supplemented by other sources (the Cypria summary is preserved in several other manuscripts, each of which contains only the Cypria and none of the other epics). The summary is in turn an excerpt from a longer work, Chrestomathy written by a "Proclus". This is known from evidence provided by the later scholar Photius, mentioned above. Photius provides sufficient information about Proclus' Chrestomathy to demonstrate that the Venetus A excerpt is derived from the same work.[5] Little is known about Proclus, except that he is certainly not the philosopher Proclus Diadochus. Some have thought that it might be the same person as the lesser-known grammarian Eutychius Proclus, who lived in the 2nd century CE,[6] but it is quite possible that he is simply an otherwise unknown figure.

Reception and influence

The non-Homeric epics are usually regarded as later than the Iliad and Odyssey. There is no reliable evidence for this, however, and some Neoanalyst scholars operate on the premise that the Homeric epics were later than the Cyclic epics and drew on them extensively. Other Neoanalysts make the milder claim that the Homeric epics draw on legendary material which later crystallized into the Epic Cycle. This is an ongoing debate.

In antiquity the Homeric epics were considered to be the greatest works in the Cycle. For Hellenistic scholars the Cyclic poets, the authors to whom the other poems were commonly ascribed, were νεώτεροι (neōteroi "later poets"), and κυκλικός (kyklikos "cyclic") was synonymous with "formulaic": then, and in much modern scholarship, there has been an equation between poetry that is later and poetry that is inferior.

In more recent times it has been argued that the fantastic and magical content of the non-Homeric epics mark them as inferior;[7] on the other hand, parts of the Iliad and most of the Odyssey could sound just as fantastic if only brief summaries of them survived, with talking horses, a river chasing a man, and one-eyed man-eating monsters. It is certain that the poets of the Iliad and Odyssey knew the stories in the rest of the Cycle and drew upon them extensively, and it is likely that the Aethiopis in particular was of relatively high quality.

The tales told in the Cycle are recounted by other ancient sources, notably Virgil's Aeneid (book 2) which recounts the sack of Troy from a Trojan perspective; Ovid's Metamorphoses (books 13–14), which describes the Greeks' landing at Troy (from the Cypria) and the judgment of Achilles' arms (Little Iliad); Quintus of Smyrna's Posthomerica, which narrates the events after Hector's death up until the end of the war; and the death of Agamemnon and the vengeance taken by his son Orestes (the Nostoi) are the subject of later Greek tragedy, especially Aeschylus's Oresteian trilogy.


Title Length (books) Most common attribution Content
Cypria 11 Stasinus the events leading up to the Trojan War and the first nine years of the conflict, especially the Judgement of Paris
Iliad 24 Homer Achilles' rage against first king Agamemnon and then the Trojan prince Hector, ending with Achilles killing Hector in revenge for the death of Patroclus and Priam coming to Achilles to ransom Hector's body
Aethiopis 5 Arctinus the arrival of the Trojan allies, Penthesileia the Amazon and Memnon; their deaths at Achilles' hands in revenge for the death of Antilochus; Achilles' own death
Little Iliad 4 Lesches events after Achilles' death, including the building of the Trojan Horse and the Awarding of the Arms to Odysseus
Iliou persis ("Sack of Troy") 2 Arctinus the destruction of Troy by the Greeks
Nostoi ("returns") 5 Agias or Eumelus the return home of the Greek force and the events contingent upon their arrival, concluding with the returns of Agamemnon and Menelaus
Odyssey 24 Homer the end of Odysseus' voyage home and his vengeance on his wife Penelope's suitors, who have devoured his property in his absence
Telegony 2 Eugammon Odysseus' voyage to Thesprotia and return to Ithaca, and death at the hands of an illegitimate son Telegonus

Compilation of the Epic Cycle

How and when the eight epics of the Cycle came to be combined into a single collection and referred to as a "cycle" is a matter of ongoing debate. In the late 19th century, David Binning Monro argued that the scholastic use of the word κυκλικός did not refer to the Cycle as such, but meant "conventional", and that the Cycle was compiled in the Hellenistic period (perhaps as late as the 1st century BCE).[8] More recent scholars have preferred to push the date slightly earlier, but accept the general thrust of the argument.

The nature of the relationship between the Cyclic epics and Homer is also bound up in this question. As told by Proclus, the plots of the six non-Homeric epics look very much as though they are designed to integrate with Homer, with no overlaps with one another.

For example, a surviving quotation shows that the Little Iliad narrated how Neoptolemus took Andromache prisoner after the fall of Troy;[9] however, in Proclus, the Little Iliad stops before the sack of Troy begins. Some scholars have argued that the Cypria as originally planned dealt with more of the Trojan War than Proclus' summary suggests;[10] conversely, others argue that it was designed to lead up to the Iliad, and that Proclus' account reflects the Cypria as originally designed.[11]

It is probable that at least some editing or "stitching" was done to edit epics together. For the last line of the Iliad,

ὣς οἵ γ᾽ ἀμφίεπον τάφον Ἕκτορος ἱπποδάμοιο.
In this way they performed the funeral of Hector, tamer of horses.

an alternative reading is preserved which is designed to lead directly into the Aethiopis:

ὣς οἵ γ' ἀμφίεπον τάφον Ἕκτορος· ἦλθε δ' Ἀμαζών,
Ἄρηος θυγάτηρ μεγαλήτορος ἀνδροφόνοιο.
In this way they performed the funeral of Hector; then the Amazon Penthesileia came,
daughter of great-hearted man-slaughtering Ares. ...

There are contradictions between epics in the Cycle. For example, the Greek warrior who killed Hector's son Astyanax in the fall of Troy is Neoptolemus according to the Little Iliad; according to the Iliou persis, it is Odysseus.



Further reading

See also


  1. Martin Litchfield West "Epic Cycle" in Oxford Classical Dictionary 3rd. ed. Oxford; Oxford University Press 1999 p.707
  2. OCD3 p.531
  3. Aristotle Poetics 1459a–b.
  4. OCD3 p.531
  5. For further information see Monro 1883, and Severyns 1928, 1938a, 1938b, 1953, 1962, and 1963.
  6. See e.g. Monro 1883.
  7. J. Griffin 1977, "The Epic Cycle and the Uniqueness of Homer", Journal of Hellenic Studies 97: 39–53.
  8. D.B. Monro 1883.
  9. Little Iliad fr. 14 in West's edition.
  10. E.g. J. Marks 2002, "The Junction between the Kypria and the Iliad", Phoenix 56: 1–24; and Burgess 2001 argues that the Cypria originally narrated the entire war.
  11. E.g. J. Latacz 1996, Homer, His Art and His World tr. J. Holoka (Ann Arbor); R. Scaife 1995, "The Kypria and its early reception", Classical Antiquity 14: 164–97.
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