English Standard Version
|English Standard Version|
|Full name||English Standard Version|
|2001 (revisions in 2007, 2011 and 2016); Apocrypha 2009|
|Derived from||RSV—1971 Revision|
|Translation type||Formal Equivalence|
|Copyright||2001: Crossway Bibles, a ministry of the Good News Publishers of Wheaton, Illinois, U.S.; Apocrypha 2009 by Oxford University Press.|
The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible. It is a revision of the 1971 edition of the Revised Standard Version that employs an "essentially literal" translation philosophy.
Work on this translation was prompted, in the early 1990s, by what Lane T. Dennis stated was a need for a new literal translation by scholars and pastors. A translation committee was formed, and it sought and received permission from the National Council of Churches of Christ in the USA to use the 1971 edition of the RSV as the English textual basis for the ESV. About 6 percent was revised in the ESV.
The stated intent of the translators was to follow an "essentially literal" translation philosophy while taking into account differences of grammar, syntax, and idiom between current literary English and the original languages. The ESV uses some gender-neutral language.
In 2007, the ESV underwent a minor revision, and the publisher did not identify the updated text as a revised edition. The update changed about 500 words by focusing on grammar, consistency, and clarity. One notable change was from "wounded for our transgressions" to "pierced for our transgressions".
In August 2016, Crossway announced the "ESV Permanent Text Edition" with 52 word changes in 29 verses. The publishers announced their intention to leave the text alone for the foreseeable future after this update. However, this policy was abandoned as a "mistake" the following month, with Crossway announcing that they would still consider "minimal and infrequent" updates to reflect "textual discoveries or changes in English over time". Lane Dennis, Crossway's president and CEO, said: "We apologize for this and for any concern this has caused for readers of the ESV [...] Our desire, above all, is to do what is right before the Lord."
The publisher, citing that the ESV has been growing in popularity, authorized an edition of the ESV with the Biblical apocrypha included, which was developed by Oxford University Press and published in January 2009. The publisher's hope for this new edition which includes the Apocrypha is that it will be used widely in seminaries and divinity schools where these books are used as a part of academic study.
The ESV version of the Apocrypha is a revision of the Revised Standard Version 1977 Expanded Edition. The team translating the Apocrypha includes Bernard A. Taylor, David A. deSilva, and Dan McCartney, under the editorship of David Aiken. In the edition including these books, they are printed and arranged in the order of the RSV and NRSV Common Bibles. The Oxford translating team relied on the Göttingen Septuagint for all of the Apocrypha except 4 Maccabees (relying there on Rahlf's Septuagint) and 2 Esdras (the Ancient Greek of which has not survived), which used the German Bible Society's 1983 edition Vulgate.
The ESV has been used as the text of a number of study Bibles, including:
- The Lutheran Study Bible by Concordia Publishing House
- A series of ESV study bibles by Crossway Books: the ESV Global Study Bible, ESV Literary Study Bible, ESV Student Study Bible, and ESV Study Bible
- The MacArthur Study Bible by HarperCollins
- The Reformation Study Bible by Ligonier Ministries
- The Scofield Study Bible III (an update and revision of the classic dispensational premillennialist Scofield Reference Bible) by Oxford University Press
Mark L. Strauss, in a paper presented at the 2008 annual meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society, criticized the ESV for using dated language and stated it is unsuited for mainstream use. On the other hand, he has defended gender-inclusive language in translation and claims the ESV uses similar gender-inclusive language and speculated that criticism of the ESV by competing Bible translations is contrived for marketing purposes. ESV translator Wayne Grudem has responded that, while on occasion the ESV translates person or one where previous translations used man, it keeps gender-specific language and does not go as far as other translations; the ESV website makes a similar statement. ESV translator William D. Mounce has called these arguments against the ESV ad hominem.
Criticism has arisen in the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, which uses the ESV as its official translation, that its frequent translation of the Hebrew word mishpatim ("judgements" or "decrees") as "rules" is not only an impoverished translation of a very rich word, but also somewhat legalistic.
- Clontz & Clontz (2008, Preface) ranks the English Standard Version in sixth place in a comparison of twenty-one translations, at 83% correspondence to the Nestle-Aland 27th ed.
- Rose Publishing 2006
- Stec 2004, p. 421
- Decker, Rodney (2004), "The English Standard Version: A Review Article" (PDF), The Journal of Ministry & Theology, 8 (2): 5–31
- Crossway Staff 2006
- Strauss 2008
- Crossway Bibles 2011, p. VII
- Decker, Rodney (2004), "The English Standard Version: A Review Article" (PDF), The Journal of Ministry & Theology, 8 (2): 16–17
- Dennis 2011
- Butterfield, Glen (2013). Bible Unity. WestBowPress. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-4908-0549-8.
- "ESV Permanent Text Edition (2016): Word Changes". ESV.org.
- "Forums: ESV Permanent Text Edition, Free Update". AccordanceBible.com.
- "UPDATE: 2016 ESV Permanent Text Edition". UPDATE: 2016 ESV Permanent Text Edition. August 3, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
- Weber, Jeremy (September 28, 2016). "Theology: Crossway Reverses Decision to Make ESV Bible Text Permanent (Amid much public debate, publisher says strategy for a 'stable' Bible was a 'mistake')". Christianity Today (September 2016).
- Oxford University Press 2009, p. 1177
- Oxford University Press 2012
- Concordia Publishing House (October 31, 2009), The Lutheran Study Bible: English Standard Version, Concordia Publishing House, ISBN 978-0-7586-1760-6, retrieved December 7, 2012
- ESV Global Study Bible. Crossway. ISBN 978-1-4335-3567-3.
- ESV Study Bible, HarperCollins Publishers Limited, April 14, 2011, ISBN 978-0-00-743766-5, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Crossway Bibles (August 10, 2010), The Macarthur Study Bible: English Standard Version, Good News Publisher, ISBN 978-1-4335-0400-6, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Sproul, R C, ed. (July 1, 2008), Reformation Study Bible (ESV), P & R Publishing Company, ISBN 978-1-59638-136-0, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Oxford University Press (March 2, 2006), The Scofield Study Bible: English Standard Version, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-527877-4, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Concordia Publishing House (January 1, 2005), Lutheran Service Book, Concordia Publishing House, pp. Copyright Page, ISBN 978-0-7586-1218-2, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Mounce 2011
- Brueggemann, Walter (January 25, 2010), Genesis: Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching, Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-664-23437-9, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Clontz, T E; Clontz, J, eds. (December 2008), The Comprehensive New Testament: New Testament with Complete Textual Variation Mapping and Special Highlights of Parallels for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Josephus, Patristic Writings, Philo, Plato, Pseudepigrapha, and Talmud, Cornerstone Publications, ISBN 978-0-9778737-1-5, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Craigie, Peter (1983), Metzger, Bruce, ed., Psalms 1-50, Word Books, ISBN 978-0-8499-0218-5, retrieved December 7, 2012
- ESV Bible, Crossway, 2010, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Crossway Bibles (December 28, 2011), Holy Bible: English Standard Version, Good News Publisher, ISBN 978-1-4335-3087-6, retrieved December 7, 2012
- "Manuscripts Used in Translating the ESV", About the ESV Translation, Crossway, 2010a, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Crossway Staff (February 21, 2006), The Origin of the ESV, Crossway, archived from the original on June 24, 2011, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Dennis, Lane (April 2011), Word Changes in the ESV Bible Text -2011 (PDF), Crossway, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Grudem, Wayne (November 8, 2005), Translating Truth: The Case for Essentially Literal Bible Translation, Weaton: Crossway, ISBN 978-1-58134-755-5, retrieved December 7, 2012
- Harris, Robert (1957), Inspiration and Canonicity of the Bible, Grand Rapids: Zondervan Books, ISBN 0-310-25891-X
- Isbell, Charles (June 1977), "Does the Gospel of Matthew Proclaim Mary's Virginity?", Biblical Archaeology Society, 3 (2), retrieved December 7, 2012
- Johnson, S. Lewis (1953), "The Revised Standard New Testament", Bibliotheca Sacra, 110: 62–65
- Mounce, Bill (2011), ETS Day 2 by Bill Mounce, Zondervan, retrieved December 7, 2012
- The English Standard Version Bible: Containing the Old and New Testaments with Apocrypha, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, ISBN 0-19-528910-2
- English Standard Version Bible with Apocrypha, Oxford University Press, 2012, retrieved December 7, 2012
- The Holy Bible: Revised Standard Version (Catholic ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 1-58617-100-3
- Bible Translations Comparison Pamphlet, Rose Publishing, 2007, ISBN 1-59636-133-6
- Ryken, Leland (2002), The Word of God in English, Wheaton: Crossway, ISBN 1-58134-464-3
- Stec, D (July 2004), "Review: The Holy Bible: English Standard Version", Vestus Testamentum, Leiden: Brill, 54 (3): 421, ISSN 0042-4935, JSTOR 1518879
- Strauss, Mark (November 25, 2008), Why the English Standard Version (ESV) Should not become the Standard English Version (PDF), Presented at the annual Evangelical Theological Society meeting in Providence, Rhode Island, San Diego, retrieved November 19, 2014
- Unger, Merrill (1953), "The Revised Standard Old Testament", Bibliotheca Sacra, 110: 54–61
- The Gideon: Development and Growth of the English Standard Version, The Gideons International, June–July 2013, retrieved October 14, 2013