Elementary function
In mathematics, an elementary function is a function of one variable which is the composition of a finite number of arithmetic operations (+ – × ÷), exponentials, logarithms, constants, and solutions of algebraic equations (a generalization of nth roots).
The elementary functions include the trigonometric and hyperbolic functions and their inverses, as they are expressible with complex exponentials and logarithms.
It follows directly from the definition that the set of elementary functions is closed under arithmetic operations and composition. It is also closed under differentiation. It is not closed under limits and infinite sums.
Importantly, the elementary functions are not closed under integration, as shown by Liouville's theorem, see Nonelementary integral. The Liouvillian functions are defined as the elementary functions and, recursively, the integrals of the Liouvillian functions.
Some elementary functions, such as roots, logarithms, or inverse trigonometric functions, are not entire functions and may be multivalued.
Elementary functions were introduced by Joseph Liouville in a series of papers from 1833 to 1841.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]} An algebraic treatment of elementary functions was started by Joseph Fels Ritt in the 1930s.^{[4]}
Examples
Examples of elementary functions include:
- Addition, e.g. (x+1)
- Multiplication, e.g. (2x)
- Polynomial functions
and
The last function is equal to the inverse cosine trigonometric function in the entire complex domain. Hence, is an elementary function.
Counterexamples
An example of a function that is not elementary is the error function
a fact that may not be immediately obvious, but can be proven using the Risch algorithm.
- See also the examples in Liouvillian_function#Examples and Nonelementary integral.
Differential algebra
The mathematical definition of an elementary function, or a function in elementary form, is considered in the context of differential algebra. A differential algebra is an algebra with the extra operation of derivation (algebraic version of differentiation). Using the derivation operation new equations can be written and their solutions used in extensions of the algebra. By starting with the field of rational functions, two special types of transcendental extensions (the logarithm and the exponential) can be added to the field building a tower containing elementary functions.
A differential field F is a field F_{0} (rational functions over the rationals Q for example) together with a derivation map u → ∂u. (Here ∂u is a new function. Sometimes the notation u′ is used.) The derivation captures the properties of differentiation, so that for any two elements of the base field, the derivation is linear
and satisfies the Leibniz product rule
An element h is a constant if ∂h = 0. If the base field is over the rationals, care must be taken when extending the field to add the needed transcendental constants.
A function u of a differential extension F[u] of a differential field F is an elementary function over F if the function u
- is algebraic over F, or
- is an exponential, that is, ∂u = u ∂a for a ∈ F, or
- is a logarithm, that is, ∂u = ∂a / a for a ∈ F.
(this is Liouville's theorem).
See also
Notes
References
- Liouville, Joseph (1833a). "Premier mémoire sur la détermination des intégrales dont la valeur est algébrique". Journal de l'École Polytechnique. tome XIV: 124–148.
- Liouville, Joseph (1833b). "Second mémoire sur la détermination des intégrales dont la valeur est algébrique". Journal de l'École Polytechnique. tome XIV: 149–193.
- Liouville, Joseph (1833c). "Note sur la détermination des intégrales dont la valeur est algébrique". Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik. 10: 347–359.
- Ritt, Joseph (1950). Differential Algebra. AMS.
- Rosenlicht, Maxwell (1972). "Integration in finite terms". American Mathematical Monthly. 79 (9): 963–972. doi:10.2307/2318066. JSTOR 2318066.
External links
- Elementary functions at Encyclopaedia of Mathematics
- Weisstein, Eric W. "Elementary function". MathWorld.