List of rulers of Partitioned Poland

This list concerns the monarchs of Partitioned Poland, from 1795 and 19th and early 20th century claimants to the Polish throne. For the historical monarchs of Poland until 1795, see List of Polish monarchs.

Kings and Tsars of the Kingdom of Poland

RulerDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
Alexander I
(Aleksander I)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov9 June 1815 1 December 1825The Kingdom of Poland created at the Congress of Vienna and therefore dubbed "Congress Poland".
Nicholas I
(Mikołaj I)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov1 December 18252 March 1855deposed by the Polish Parliament (Sejm) on 25 January 1831 during November Uprising (1830–1831), autonomy abolished in 1832.
Alexander II
(Aleksander II)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov2 March 185513 March 1881The Kingdom of Poland annexed into the Russian Empire after January Uprising (1863–1864), and the name of the kingdom was changed to Vistula Land (1867–1915)
Alexander III
(Aleksander III)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov13 March 18811 November 1894
Nicholas II
(Mikołaj II)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov1 November 189415 March 1917during World War I "Vistula Land" was looted and abandoned by the retreating Russian army in 1915; abdicated in 1917

Kings and Queens of Galicia and Lodomeria (Galicja)

RulerDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
Maria Theresa
(Maria Teresa)
Habsburg22 September 177229 November 1780the area annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy in the First Partition of Poland (the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth); Empress Maria Theresa of Austria (who was also Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia, etc.) recalled the old Hungarian claims to the Regnum Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ, and Czech claims to the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Joseph II
(Józef II)
Habsburg-Lorraine29 November 178020 February 1790
Leopold II
(Leopold II)
Habsburg-Lorraine20 February 17901 March 1792
Francis II
(Franciszek II)
Habsburg-Lorraine1 March 17922 March 1835 the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he abdicated and the Empire was formally dissolved. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich)
Ferdinand I
(Ferdynand I)
Habsburg-Lorraine2 March 18352 December 1848after the unsuccessful Cracow Uprising of 1846, the Free City of Cracow was annexed by Austria on 16 November 1846 as the Grand Duchy of Cracow; the full official name of the province was extended to Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and the Grand Duchy of Cracow with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Francis Joseph I
(Franciszek Józef I)
Habsburg-Lorraine2 December 184821 November 1916after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, and the reorganization of the Empire as the Dual Monarchy, a broad autonomy was granted to Galicia and Lodomeria within Cisleithania, the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary
Charles I
(Karol I)
Habsburg-Lorraine21 November 191611 November 1918 renounced all participation in affairs of state but did not abdicate

Dukes of Warsaw (Warszawa)

RulerDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
Frederick Augustus I
(Fryderyk August)
Wettin9 July 180722 May 1815 grandson of Augustus III
King of Saxony 1805–1827
Duchy of Warsaw established by Napoleon I in 1807 as a protectorate of the French Empire, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and divided into the Kingdom of Poland, protectorate of the Russian Empire, and the Grand Duchy of Posen, protectorate of the Kingdom of Prussia

Dukes of Danzig (Gdańsk)

RulerDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
François Joseph Lefebvre
(Franciszek Józef Lefebvre)
Lefebvre9 September 18072 January 1814 Free City of Danzig, a semi-independent state established by Napoleon I in 1807, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and reincorporated into Prussia

Grand Dukes of Posen (Poznań)

RulerDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
Frederick William III
(Fryderyk Wilhelm III)
Hohenzollern9 June 18157 June 1840 The Grand Duchy of Posen created at the Congress of Vienna; represented by Duke-Governor Antoni Radziwiłł until 1831.
Frederick William IV
(Fryderyk Wilhelm IV)
Hohenzollern7 June 18402 January 1861autonomy abolished on June 28, 1848; the Grand Duchy was formally replaced by the Province of Posen in the Prussian constitution of 5 December 1848.
William I
(Wilhelm I)
Hohenzollern2 January 18619 March 1888The Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia, became a part of the German Empire (1871–1918)
Frederick III
(Fryderyk III)
Hohenzollern9 March 188815 June 1888
William II
(Wilhelm II)
Hohenzollern15 June 18889 November 1918abdicated in 1918


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