Duke Eugen of Württemberg (1788–1857)

Duke Eugen of Württemberg

Eugen of Württemberg, painting by George Dawe (Military Gallery of the Winter Palace)
Born (1788-01-08)8 January 1788
Oels, Kingdom of Prussia
Died 8 January 1857(1857-01-08) (aged 69)
Bad Carlsruhe, Kingdom of Prussia
Spouse Princess Mathilde of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Princess Helene of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Issue Marie, Landgravine of Hesse-Philippsthal
Duke Eugen
Duke William Alexander
Duke William
Duchess Alexandrine
Duke Nicholas
Agnes, Princess Reuss Younger Line
Full name
German: Friedrich Eugen Carl Paul Ludwig
House House of Württemberg
Father Duke Eugen of Württemberg
Mother Princess Luise of Stolberg-Gedern

Duke Eugen of Württemberg (German: Herzog Friedrich Eugen Carl Paul Ludwig von Württemberg; 8 January 1788 16 September 1857) was a German prince and a General of Infantry in the Imperial Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

Early life and family

Duke Eugen was born at Oels, Lower Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia (now Oleśnica, Poland). He was the first child of Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern (1764–1834) and her husband Duke Eugen of Württemberg (1758–1822), who was brother of Empress Maria Feodorovna the consort of Paul I of Russia and son of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg and Margravine Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt. Louise was a daughter of Prince Christian Karl of Stolberg-Gedern and Countess Eleanore of Reuss-Lobenstein. Another of Eugen and Louise's children was the explorer Duke Paul Wilhelm of Württemberg.

From 1776 he lived in Russia. As a child, Eugen followed his aunt to the Tsar's court. After his cadet years in St. Petersburg, he began a brilliant career in the Imperial Russian Army. The murder of his uncle Paul I in 1802 interrupted the first military service. His further education took place in Silesia by Ludwig von Wolzogen.

Military career

After a few years his military career reactivated and by 1805 he was already major-general. He participated in the campaigns from 1806 to 1807 in East Prussia against France and 1810 in part of Turkey. He accompanied his father Eugen, who was commander of Prussian Reserve, in 1806. He joined staff of Russian General Bennigsen. In 1812, he was a division commander (4th div of II Corps) under Barclay de Tolly. During the French invasion of Russia he fought at the Battles of Borodino and Krasnoi. At the War of the Sixth Coalition he fought in five major battles. In the battle of Lutzen, Eugen's corps was heavily engaged and suffered many casualties recapturing villages from the French. In the battle of Bautzen, Eugen's men, acting as the Russian rearguard, slowed the French advance by defending positions on hills and behind a village. The slow advance of the French infuriated Napoleon himself, who took over the command of the advance guard personally-but he did no better. In the battle of Dresden, the heavily outnumbered Eugen held off the forces of the French general Vandamme for a day before retreating. In the battle of Kulm, Eugen suffered over 3,000 casualties in his victorious rematch with Vandamme. And in the battle of Leipzig, most of Eugen's artillery was destroyed by the French. Despite this, and despite the losses at Kulm only a few weeks before, Eugen's infantry made a heroic, tenacious stand. Two-thirds of his troops and all of his regimental commanders became casualties.[1]

In 1828, he commanded the Russian 7th Army Corps in the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829). He retired after the Treaty of Adrianople.[2]

He was interested in music. He was acquainted with Carl Maria von Weber, who was his father's music director of 1806-1807. He also composed several operas, and many songs, including "The Ghost Bride".

Marriage and issue

His first wife Mahthilde, with their son Eugen and daughter Marie. Portrait by Carl Rothe, c. 1820's.

On 21 January 1817, in Arolsen, he married Princess Mathilde of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1801–1825), daughter of George I, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont and Princess Augusta of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. They had three children:

On his first wife's death, Eugen married secondly in 1827 to Princess Helene of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1807–1880), daughter of Charles Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Countess Amalie of Solms-Baruth. They had four children


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External links

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